- Politics of Peru
Politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic
republic, whereby the President of Peruis both head of stateand head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive poweris exercised by the government. Legislative poweris vested in both the governmentand the Congress. The Judiciaryis independent of the executive and the legislature.
The Republic of Peru is in a state of ongoing democratization. Led by President
Alan García, the executive branch is attempting to be transparent and accountable. Previously a rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers. The executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch, antiquated and rife with corruption.
Peruvians, whose expectations were raised during the 2000 and 2001 election campaigns, are frustrated at the slow pace of economic recovery and job creation. As discontent rises, the Toledo administration is in a race to strengthen the economy so that popular pressures do not force a shift to more radical measures.old fact So far, the Toledo government remains committed to neoliberal economic policies and structural reform in the hope of attracting sufficient international investment to generate growth and job creation.old fact
Other important political currents stem from the ongoing investigation of Fujimori-era corruption (notably the proceedings against Fujimori's former advisor,
Vladimiro Montesinos), and an increase in activities by the insurgent group Sendero Luminoso. The recent trial of Abimael Guzmánhas been suspended, due in part to Guzmán's use of it as a forum for broadcasting Sendero Luminoso propaganda.old fact
Regarding the latter, the Toledo government has been forced to consider putting resources back into the security forces which they had been hoping to use to fund social programs.old fact
Another relevant opposition leader is nationalist and former military commander
After the impeachment of Fujimori (at present in jail),
Alejandro Toledocould not run for the presidency again. The most recent presidential election was held on Sunday, April 9, 2006, and more than 16 million Peruvians were eligible to vote worldwide. No candidate received more than 50% of the vote, so a runoff election was held in June.
After a bitter and often vitriolic campaign, disgraced former President Alan Garcia won with 53.1% of the vote. Nationalist rival and former coup-plotter, Ollanta Humala, received 46.9%. Mr Garcia, whose first presidency in 1985-1990 was blighted by record-breaking hyperinflation, debt-default, wide-scale corruption and a Maoist insurgency, says that he's learned from his mistakes.
Under the current constitution, the President is the
head of stateand government; he or she is elected for a five-year term and may not immediately be re-elected. ["Constitución Política del Perú", Article N° 112.] All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote. The first and second vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties.
The President appoints the Council of Ministers "(Consejo de Ministros," or Cabinet) and
Prime Minister"(primer ministro)". All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister Jorge Del Castillohas occupied his position since 28 July 2006, replacing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.
The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress "(Congreso)" of 120 members. elected for a five-year term by
proportional representationIn addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, and approves the government budget. The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree.
Political parties and elections
The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member
Supreme Courtseated in Lima. The National Council of the Judiciary appoints judges to this court.
The Constitutional Court "(Tribunal Constitucional)" interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in departmental capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.
Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. In 1996 a
human rights ombudsman's office "(defensor del pueblo)" was created to address human rights issues.
Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law which was passed on
18 November 2002, is divided into 25 regions (regiones). These regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. There are a total of 180 provinces and 1747 districts in Peru. Lima Provinceis not part of any political region.
* La Libertad
* Lima Provincias
* Madre de Dios
* San Martín
Political pressure groups and leaders
Leftist guerrilla groups include
Shining Path Abimael Guzmán(imprisoned), Gabriel Macario (top leader at-large); Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movementor MRTA Victor Polay(imprisoned), Hugo Avellaneda Valdez(top leader at-large). Both Shining Path & MRTA are considered terrorist organizations.
International organization participation
Peru or Peruvian organizations participate in the following international organizations:
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC)
Andean Community of Nations(CAN)
Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO)
*Group of Fifteen (G-15)
*Group of Twenty-Four (G-24)
*Group of 77 (G-77)
Inter-American Development Bank(IADB)
International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA)
*International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (
International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO)
*International Criminal Court (ICC)
*International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions(ICFTU)
*International Red Cross
International Development Association(IDA)
International Fund for Agricultural Development(IFAD)
International Finance Corporation(IFC)
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies(IFRCS)
International Hydrographic Organization(IHO)
International Labour Organization(ILO)
International Maritime Organization(IMO)
International Organization for Migration(IOM)
International Organization for Standardization(ISO) (correspondent)
International Telecommunication Union(ITU)
Latin American Economic System(LAES)
Latin American Integration Association(LAIA)
United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo(MONUC)
Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean(OPANAL)
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(OPCW)
Permanent Court of Arbitration(PCA)
*Rio Group (RG)
Union of South American Nations(Unasul-Unasur)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development(UNCTAD)
*United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO)
United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea(UNMEE)
United Nations Mission in Liberia(UNMIL)
Universal Postal Union(UPU)
World Confederation of Labour(WCL)
World Customs Organization(WCO)
World Federation of Trade Unions(WFTU)
World Health Organization(WHO)
World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO)
World Meteorological Organization(WMO)
World Tourism Organization(WToO)
World Trade Organization(WTrO)
* [http://www.crlp.org/pdf/wowlac_pr00_peru.pdf Center for Reproductive Rights Report] (PDF format)
* [http://www.cfr.org/publication/10093/ Council on Foreign Relations: Peru's Elections]
* [http://www.citymayors.com/government/peru_government.html Local governments in Peru]
* [http://www.angus-reid.com/tracker/index.cfm/fuseaction/viewItem/itemID/9797 Peru's 2006 Elections]
* [http://www.universidadperu.com/elecciones-peru-2006-x-minuto.php Peru's 2006 Elections]
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