Politics of Peru

Politics of Peru

Politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Democratic reform

The Republic of Peru is in a state of ongoing democratization. Led by President Alan García, the executive branch is attempting to be transparent and accountable. Previously a rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers. The executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch, antiquated and rife with corruption.

Peruvians, whose expectations were raised during the 2000 and 2001 election campaigns, are frustrated at the slow pace of economic recovery and job creation. As discontent rises, the Toledo administration is in a race to strengthen the economy so that popular pressures do not force a shift to more radical measures.old fact So far, the Toledo government remains committed to neoliberal economic policies and structural reform in the hope of attracting sufficient international investment to generate growth and job creation.old fact

Other important political currents stem from the ongoing investigation of Fujimori-era corruption (notably the proceedings against Fujimori's former advisor, Vladimiro Montesinos), and an increase in activities by the insurgent group Sendero Luminoso. The recent trial of Abimael Guzmán has been suspended, due in part to Guzmán's use of it as a forum for broadcasting Sendero Luminoso propaganda.old fact

Regarding the latter, the Toledo government has been forced to consider putting resources back into the security forces which they had been hoping to use to fund social programs.old fact

Another relevant opposition leader is nationalist and former military commander Ollanta Humala.

After the impeachment of Fujimori (at present in jail), Alejandro Toledo could not run for the presidency again. The most recent presidential election was held on Sunday, April 9, 2006, and more than 16 million Peruvians were eligible to vote worldwide. No candidate received more than 50% of the vote, so a runoff election was held in June.

After a bitter and often vitriolic campaign, disgraced former President Alan Garcia won with 53.1% of the vote. Nationalist rival and former coup-plotter, Ollanta Humala, received 46.9%. Mr Garcia, whose first presidency in 1985-1990 was blighted by record-breaking hyperinflation, debt-default, wide-scale corruption and a Maoist insurgency, says that he's learned from his mistakes.

Executive branch

Alan García Pérez
28 July 2006
Prime Minister
Jorge Del Castillo
28 July 2006

Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for a five-year term and may not immediately be re-elected. ["Constitución Política del Perú", Article N° 112.] All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote. The first and second vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties.

The President appoints the Council of Ministers "(Consejo de Ministros," or Cabinet) and Prime Minister "(primer ministro)". All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister Jorge Del Castillo has occupied his position since 28 July 2006, replacing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.

Legislative branch

The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress "(Congreso)" of 120 members. elected for a five-year term by proportional representation In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, and approves the government budget. The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree.

Political parties and elections

Judicial branch

The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court seated in Lima. The National Council of the Judiciary appoints judges to this court.

The Constitutional Court "(Tribunal Constitucional)" interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in departmental capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.

Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. In 1996 a human rights ombudsman's office "(defensor del pueblo)" was created to address human rights issues.

Administrative divisions

Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law which was passed on 18 November 2002, is divided into 25 regions (regiones). These regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. There are a total of 180 provinces and 1747 districts in Peru.

Lima Province is not part of any political region.

* Amazonas
* Ancash
* Apurímac
* Arequipa
* Ayacucho
* Cajamarca
* Callao
* Cusco
* Huancavelica

* Huánuco
* Ica
* Junín
* La Libertad
* Lambayeque
* Lima Provincias
* Loreto
* Madre de Dios

* Moquegua
* Pasco
* Piura
* Puno
* San Martín
* Tacna
* Tumbes
* Ucayali

Political pressure groups and leaders

Leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path Abimael Guzmán (imprisoned), Gabriel Macario (top leader at-large); Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA Victor Polay (imprisoned), Hugo Avellaneda Valdez (top leader at-large). Both Shining Path & MRTA are considered terrorist organizations.

International organization participation

Peru or Peruvian organizations participate in the following international organizations:
*Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
*Andean Community of Nations (CAN)
*Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
*Group of Fifteen (G-15)
*Group of Twenty-Four (G-24)
*Group of 77 (G-77)
*Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
*International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
*International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
*International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
*International Criminal Court (ICC)
*International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
*International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
*International Red Cross
*International Development Association (IDA)
*International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
*International Finance Corporation (IFC)
*International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
*International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
*International Labour Organization (ILO)
*IMF, International Maritime Organization (IMO)
*International Organization for Migration (IOM)
*International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (correspondent)
*International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
*Latin American Economic System (LAES)
*Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
*United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
*Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
*Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
*Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
*Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
*Rio Group (RG)
*Union of South American Nations(Unasul-Unasur)
*United Nations
*United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
*United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
*United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
*United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
*United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
*Universal Postal Union (UPU)
*World Confederation of Labour (WCL)
*World Customs Organization (WCO)
*World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
*World Health Organization (WHO)
*World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
*World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
*World Tourism Organization (WToO)
*World Trade Organization (WTrO)

ee also


External links

* [http://www.crlp.org/pdf/wowlac_pr00_peru.pdf Center for Reproductive Rights Report] (PDF format)
* [http://www.cfr.org/publication/10093/ Council on Foreign Relations: Peru's Elections]
* [http://www.citymayors.com/government/peru_government.html Local governments in Peru]
* [http://www.angus-reid.com/tracker/index.cfm/fuseaction/viewItem/itemID/9797 Peru's 2006 Elections]
* [http://www.universidadperu.com/elecciones-peru-2006-x-minuto.php Peru's 2006 Elections]

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