Eskimo-Aleut languages

Infobox Language family
region=American Arctic, east Siberia

map_caption=Eskimo-Aleut languages spoken in United States, Canada and Greenland

Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. Also called Eskaleut (Eskaleutian, Eskaleutic), Eskimoan or Macro-Eskimo, [Fleming 1987: 189.] it consists of the Eskimo languages (including the "Inuit languages" in the north of Alaska, Canada and Greenland, and the "Yupik/Yup'ik languages" in western and southwestern Alaska and in Siberia), and the single Aleut language of the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands.

"Eskimo" is an exonym, although within Alaska, the term is used by both indigenous and non-indigenous Alaskans. The most widely accepted academic etymology for the term posits an original meaning of "to net snowshoes."Goddard, Ives (1984). "Synonymy." In "Arctic", ed. David Damas. Vol. 5 of "Handbook of North American Indians", ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 5-7. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Cited in Campbell 1997] Kaplan, Lawrence. (2002). [ "Inuit or Eskimo: Which names to use?"] . Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.] Within Canada, the term is considered derogatory, and "Inuit" is preferred. The terms "Yup'ik", "Yupik", and "Inupiaq" are also used in Alaska to refer to these respective groups.

The Eskimo language family is divided into the Inuit and Yup'ik groups. The proper place of Sirenik within the Eskimo-Aleut language family is debated. Some linguists list it as a branch of Yupik [ [ "Ethnologue report for Yupik Sirenk."] Retrieved 2008-08-25.] , while others list it as a distinct branch of the language family [ [ "Alaska Native Languages - An Overview"] . Retrieved 2008-08-25.] .

Eskimo-Aleut:Aleut ::Western-Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60-80 speakers)::Eastern dialects: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers):Eskimo::Yupik:::Central Alaskan Yup'ik (10,000 speakers):::Alutiiq or Pacific Gulf Yup'ik (400 speakers):::Central Siberian Yupik or Yuit (Chaplinon and St Lawrence Island, 1400 speakers)::::Naukanski (70 speakers)::::Chaplinski::Sirenik (extinct)::Inuit or Inupik (98,000 speakers):::Inupiaq or Inupiat (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers) :::Inuvialuktun (western Canada, 765 speakers):::Inuktitut (eastern Canada; together with Inuktun and Inuinnaqtun, 40,000 speakers):::Kalaallisut (Greenland, 54,000 speakers)

According to Joseph Greenberg's highly controversial classification of the languages of Native North America, Eskimo-Aleut is one of the three main groups of Native languages spoken in the Americas, and represents a distinct wave of migration from Asia to the Americas. The other two are Na-Dené (which includes Athabaskan and a small number of related tongues) and Amerind (Greenberg's most controversial classification, which includes every language native to the Americas that is not Eskimo-Aleut or Na-Dené).



* Bernet, John W. "An Anthology of Aleut, Eskimo, and Indian Literature of Alaska in English Translation". Fairbanks, Alaska: [s.n.] , 1974.
* Conference on Eskimo Linguistics, and Eric P. Hamp. "Papers on Eskimo and Aleut Linguistics". Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 1976.
* Dumond, Don E. "On Eskaleutian Linguistics, Archaeology, and Prehistory". [S.l: s.n, 1965.
* Fleming, Harold C. "Towards a definitive classification of the world's languages". "Diachronica" IV:1/2.159-223, 1987.
* Fortescue, Michael D. "Some Problems Concerning the Correlation and Reconstruction of Eskimo and Aleut Mood Markers". København: Institut for Eskimologi, Københavns Universitet, 1984. ISBN 8787874105
* Fortescue, Michael D., Steven A. Jacobson, and Lawrence D. Kaplan. "Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: With Aleut Cognates". Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1994. ISBN 1555000517
* Marsh, Gordon H. "The Linguistic Divisions of the Eskimo-Aleut Stock". 1956.
* Swift, Mary D. "Time in Child Inuktitut: A Developmental Study of an Eskimo-Aleut Language". Studies on language acquisition, 24. Berlin: M. de Gruyter, 2004. ISBN 3110181207

ee also

*Inuit language
*Yupik language
*Siberian Yupik language
*Aleut language
*Uralo-Siberian languages

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  • Eskimo-Aleut languages — Family of languages spoken in Greenland, Canada, Alaska, U.S., and eastern Siberia by the Eskimo and Aleut peoples. Aleut, distantly related to the Eskimo languages, consists of eastern and western dialects; today both are spoken by fewer than… …   Universalium

  • Eskimo-Aleut languages, Table — ▪ Table language fluent population* speakers* Eskimo Inuit Greenlandic Inuit (Kalaallisut) 46,000 46,400 Eastern Canadian Inuit (Inuktitut) 12,400 14,000 Western Canadian Inuit (Inuktitun) 4,000 7,300 North Alaskan Inuit (Inupiaq) 3,000 15,500… …   Universalium

  • Eskimo-Aleut — [es′kə mō΄al′ē o͞ot΄, es′kə mō΄al′yo͞ot΄, es′kə mō΄ə lo͞ot′] n., adj. (designating or of) a family of languages including Aleut and the Eskimo languages …   English World dictionary

  • Eskimo-Aleut — noun the family of languages that includes Eskimo and Aleut • Syn: ↑Eskimo Aleut language • Hypernyms: ↑natural language, ↑tongue • Hyponyms: ↑Eskimo, ↑Esquimau, ↑Aleut …   Useful english dictionary

  • Eskimo-Aleut language — noun the family of languages that includes Eskimo and Aleut • Syn: ↑Eskimo Aleut • Hypernyms: ↑natural language, ↑tongue • Hyponyms: ↑Eskimo, ↑Esquimau, ↑Aleut …   Useful english dictionary

  • Eskimo-Aleut — /es keuh moh euh looht , al ee ooht /, n. 1. a stock of languages, consisting of Eskimo and Aleut. adj. 2. of or belonging to Eskimo Aleut. * * * …   Universalium

  • Eskimo-Aleut — noun the family of languages comprising Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut. adjective relating to Eskimo Aleut …   English new terms dictionary

  • Eskimo-Aleut — noun Date: 1921 a language family including Eskimo and Aleut languages …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Eskimo-Aleut — /ˌɛskəmoʊ əˈlut/ (say .eskuhmoh uh looht) noun a family of languages including Aleut and the languages of the Inuit …   Australian English dictionary

  • Languages of Canada — Languages of Canada[1] Official language(s) English (58%) and French (22%) Indigenous language(s) Abenaki, A …   Wikipedia

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