official_name = Pergamon (Πέργαμος)
other_name = (
native_name = Ancient Greek City
imagesize = 280px
image_caption = Reconstructed Temple of Trajan at PergamonLocation map
Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, coord|39|7|N|27|11|E|) was an ancient Greek city in modern-day
Turkey, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontoryon the north side of the river Caicus(modern day Bakırçay), that became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamonduring the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 281– 133 BC. Today, the modern city of Bergamais located nearby.
The Attalid kingdom was the
rump stateleft after the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace.
The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, father of
Philetaeruswho came to power in 281 BCfollowing the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I(241-197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II(197-158 BC), against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalidswere rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.
The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like
Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamumafter the Acropolisin Athens. When Attalus III (138-133 BC) died without an heir in 133 BChe bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.
The first Christian bishop of Pergamon, Antipas, was believed to have been martyred here in 92 AD.().
The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the
Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The base of this altar remains on the upper part of the Acropolis. It was this altar, believed dedicated to Zeus, that John of Patmosreferred to as "Satan's Throne" in his Book of Revelation().
Other notable structures still in existence on the upper part of the Acropolis include:
*The Hellenistic Theater with a seating capacity of 10,000. This had the steepest seating of any known theater in the ancient world. [http://www.whitman.edu/theatre/theatretour/pergamon/introduction/pergamon.intro2.htm accessed September 24, 2007]
*The Sanctuary of Trajan (also known as the Trajaneum)
*The Sanctuary of Athena
*The Royal palaces
*The Heroön - a shrine where the kings of Pergamon, particularly, Attalus I and Eumenes II, were worshipped. [http://www.turkishodyssey.com/places/aegean/aegean1.htm accessed September 24, 2007]
*The Temple of Dionysus
*The Upper Agora
*The Roman baths complex
Pergamon's library on the Acropolis (the ancient
Library of Pergamum) is the second best in the ancient Greek civilisation. [after that of Alexandria (see Royal Library of Alexandria)] When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called "pergaminus" or "pergamena" ( parchment) after the city. This was made of fine calfskin, a predecessor of vellum. The library at Pergamom was believed to contain 200,000 volumes, which Mark Antonylater gave to Cleopatraas a wedding present. The lower part of the Acropolis has the following structures:
*the Upper Gymnasium
*the Middle Gymnasium
*the Lower Gymnasium
*the Temple of
*the Sanctuary of
*the House of Attalus
*the Lower Agora and
*the Gate of
Three kilometers south of the Acropolis was the Sanctuary of
Asclepius(also known as the Asclepeion), the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bathe in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asclepius would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed. Notable extant structures in the Asclepeioninclude:
*the Roman theater
*the North Stoa
*the South Stoa
*the Temple of Asclepius
*a circular treatment center (sometimes known as the Temple of Telesphorus)
*a healing spring
*an underground passageway
*the Via Tecta (or the Sacred Way, which is a colonnaded street leading to the sanctuary) and
Pergamon's other notable structure is the
SerapisTemple ( Serapeum) which was later transformed into the Red Basilica complex (or Kızıl Avlu in Turkish), about one kilometer south of the Acropolis. It consists of a main building and two round towers. In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon inside the main building of the Red Basilica was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelationwas addressed ().
Epigonus( 3rd century BC) Greek sculptor
Aeulius Nicon( 2nd century BC) Greek architect and builder
Galen(ca. 129-200/216) Greek physician
List of Roman domes
*Hansen, Esther V. (1971). "The Attalids of Pergamon". Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press; London: Cornell University Press Ltd. ISBN 0-8014-0615-3.
*Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (2003) "The Attalids of Pergamon," in Andrew Erskine, ed., "A Companion to the Hellenistic World". Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 159–174. ISBN 1-4051-3278-7.
* [http://www.usd.edu/~clehmann/pir/asiamysi.htm Rosa Valderrama, "Pergamum"] : brief history
* [http://www.pbase.com/dosseman/bergama_turkey Photographic tour of old and new Pergamon, including the museum]
* [http://www.whitman.edu/theatre/theatretour/pergamon/introduction/pergamon.intro1.htm The Theatre at Pergamon. The Ancient Theatre Archive. Theatre specifications and virtual reality tour of theatre]
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PERGAMUM — PERGAMUM, ancient city (and kingdom) near the N.W. coast of Asia Minor (now Bergama, Turkey). Independent from the early third century B.C.E., Pergamum thrived primarily during the early Roman advances eastward in the first half of the second… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Pergamum — (ital.: Pergamo) ist ein Titularbistum der römisch katholischen Kirche. Es geht zurück auf einen untergegangenen Bischofssitz in der antiken Stadt Pergamon, die in der römischen Provinz Asia (heute westliche Türkei) lag. Der Bischofssitz war der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Pergamum — [pʉr′gə məm] 1. ancient Greek kingdom occupying most of W Asia Minor (fl. 2d cent. B.C. ): later a Roman province 2. ancient capital of this kingdom, the present site of Bergama, Turkey … English World dictionary
Pergamum — Pergamene /perr geuh meen /, Pergamic /peuhr gam ik/, adj. Pergamenian, adj., n. /perr geuh meuhm/, n. 1. an ancient Greek kingdom on the coast of Asia Minor: later a Roman province. 2. the ancient capital of this kingdom; now the site of Bergama … Universalium
Pergamum — or Pergamus or Pergamos geographical name 1. ancient Greek kingdom covering most of Asia Minor; at its height 263 133 B.C. 2. (or modern Bergama) city W Turkey NNE of Izmir capital of ancient Pergamum … New Collegiate Dictionary
Pergamum — noun An ancient Greek city, in western Anatolia, near modern Bergama Syn: Pergamon … Wiktionary
Pergamum — Pẹr|ga|mon, Pẹr|ga|mum: antike Stadt im Nordwesten Kleinasiens. * * * Pẹr|ga|mon, Pẹr|ga|mum: antike Stadt im Nordwesten Kleinasiens … Universal-Lexikon
Pergamum — One of the cities whose Church is addressed in Revelation (2:12); capital of the Roman province of Asia, and the site of ‘ Satan s throne’ (Rev. 2:13), which perhaps means that it was a centre of worship of the Roman emperor … Dictionary of the Bible
Pergamum — Per•ga•mum [[t]ˈpɜr gə məm[/t]] n. 1) anh geg an ancient Greek kingdom on the coast of Asia Minor: later a Roman province 2) anh geg the ancient capital of this kingdom: now the site of Bergama, in W Turkey … From formal English to slang