Disorder of written expression

Disorder of written expression
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F81.1
ICD-9 315.2

Disorder of written expression is a childhood condition characterized by poor writing skills. To some extent, 3 - 10% of school-age children are affected by this disorder. This disorder appears by itself or in conjunction with other learning or developmental disabilities.


  • Avoids written work.
  • Poor spelling
  • Errors in grammar
  • Errors in punctuation
  • Poor handwriting
  • Composition is poor relative to oral expression skills; uses simple vocabulary to avoid spelling difficulty.
  • This is not solely a childhood disability. It continues on into adulthood.


  • Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS)
  • Test of Adolescent and Adult Language–3 (TOAL-3)
  • Test of Early Written Language
  • Test of Written Expression (TOWE)
  • Test of Written Language–3 (TOWL-3)
  • Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery–Revised, Tests of Achievement
  • Weschler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)

Other disabilities often linked with the disorder of written expression