Green sulfur bacteria

Green sulfur bacteria
Green sulfur bacteria in a Winogradsky column
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Chlorobi

Class Chlorobia[1][2]
  Order Chlorobiales
    Family Chlorobiaceae
      Ancalochloris Gorlenko and Lebedeva 1971
      Chlorobaculum Imhoff 2003
      Chlorobium Nadson 1906 emend. Imhoff 2003
      Chloroherpeton Gibson et al. 1985
      Clathrochloris
      Pelodictyon Lauterborn 1913
      Prosthecochloris Gorlenko 1970 emend. Imhoff 2003
Class Ignavibacteria[1][2]
  Order Ignavibacteriales
    Family Ignavibacteriaceae
      Ignavibacterium Iino et al. 2010

The green sulfur bacteria are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria. Most closely related to the distant Bacteroidetes, they are accordingly assigned their own phylum.[3]

Green sulfur bacteria are non-motile (except Chloroherpeton thalassium, which may glide)[3] and come in spheres, rods, and spirals.[citation needed] Photosynthesis is achieved using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c, d, or e, in addition to BChl a and chlorophyll a,[3] in chlorosomes attached to the membrane.[citation needed] They use sulfide ions, hydrogen or ferrous iron as an electron donor and the process is mediated by the type I reaction centre and Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. Elemental sulfur deposited outside the cell may be further oxidized. By contrast, the photosynthesis in plants uses water as electron donor and produces oxygen.[3]

Chlorobium tepidum has emerged as a model organism for the group, and although only ten genomes have been sequenced, these are quite comprehensive of the family's biodiversity. Their 2-3 Mb genomes encode 1750-2800 genes, 1400-1500 of which are common to all strains. The apparent absence of two-component histidine-kinases and response regulators suggest limited phenotypic plasticity. Their small dependence on organic molecule transporters and transcription factors also indicate that these organisms are adapted to a narrow range of energy-limited conditions, an ecology shared with the simpler cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus[3]

A species of green sulfur bacteria has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico at a depth of 2,500 meters beneath the surface of the Pacific Ocean. At this depth, the bacterium, designated GSB1, lives off the dim glow of the thermal vent since no sunlight can penetrate to that depth.[4]

Green sulfur bacteria appear in Lake Matano, Indonesia, at a depth of approximately 110–120 meters. The population may include the species, Chlorobium ferrooxidans.[5]

Contents

See also

Taxonomy

Chlorobi[6]

 |-- Ignavibacterium album Iino et al. 2010
 `--o Chlorobiaceae {Chlorobea/Chlorobia: Chlorobiales}
    |-- Ancalochloris perfilieviiGorlenko and Lebedeva 1971
    |-- Chloroherpeton thalassium Gibson et al. 1985
    |--o Prosthecochloris Gorlenko 1970 emend. Imhoff 2003
    |  |?- P. aphaeoasteroides♥ 
    |  |?- P. indica Anil 2005
    |  `--+-- P. vibrioformis (Pelsh 1936) Imhoff 2003
    |     `--+-- ‘Chlorobium’ bathyomarinum♠ Beatty et al. 2005
    |        `-- P. aestuarii Gorlenko 1970 emend. Imhoff 2003
    `--+--+-- Clathrochloris sulfurica♦
       |  `--o Chlorobaculum Imhoff 2003
       |     |?- C. macestaeKeppen et al. 2008
       |     |-- C. thiosulfatiphilum Imhoff 2003
       |     `--+--+-- C. tepidum (Wahlund et al. 1996) Imhoff 2003
       |        |  `-- C. limnaeum Imhoff 2003
       |        `--+-- C. chlorovibrioides(Gorlenko et al. 1974) Imhoff 2003
       |           `-- C. parvum Imhoff 2003
       `--+-- Pelodictyon phaeum Gorlenko 1972
          `--o Chlorobium Nadson 1906 emend. Imhoff 2003
             |?- C. gokarnaAnil 2005
             |--+-- C. luteolum (Schmidle 1901) emend. Imhoff 2003
             |  `-- C. phaeovibrioides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003
             `--+-- C. limicola Nadson 1906 emend. Imhoff 2003
                `--+-- C. chlorochromatiiVogl et al. 2006(epibiont of the phototrophic consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum")
                   `--+-- C. phaeobacteroides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003
                      `--+-- C. ferrooxidansHeising et al. 1998 emend. Imhoff 2003
                         `-- C. clathratiforme(Szafer 1911) emend. Imhoff 2003

Note
♦ Type strain lost
♥ No strains lodged at NCBI and or listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)
♠ Strain found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but has no standing with the Bacteriological Code (1990 and subsequent Revision) as detailed by List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) as a result of the following reasons:

• No pure culture isolated or available for Prokayotes.
• Not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection.
• Not approved and published by the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSB/IJSEM).


Notes, links and References

External links

References

  1. ^ a b J.P. Euzéby. "Chlorobi". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/classifphyla.html#Chlorobi. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  2. ^ a b See the NCBI webpage on Chlorobi Data extracted from the "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/taxonomyhome.html/index.cgi. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  3. ^ a b c d e D.A. Bryant & N.-U. Frigaard (November 2006). "Prokaryotic photosynthesis and hototrophy illuminated". Trends Microbiol. 14 (11): 488–96. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2006.09.001. PMID 16997562. 
  4. ^ Beatty JT, Overmann J, Lince MT, Manske AK, Lang AS, Blankenship RE, Van Dover CL, Martinson TA, Plumley FG. (2005). "An obligately photosynthetic bacterial anaerobe from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent". Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102 (26): 9306–10. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503674102. PMC 1166624. PMID 15967984. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1166624. 
  5. ^ Crowe, Sean; Jones, CarriAyne; Katsev, Sergei; et al., C; O'Neill, AH; Sturm, A; Canfield, DE; Haffner, GD et al. (2008). "Photoferrotrophs thrive in an Archean Ocean analogue". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (41): pp. 15938–43. 2008-10-14. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805313105. ISSN 0148-0227. PMC 2572968. PMID 18838679. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/41/15938.full. Retrieved 2009-06-30 
  6. ^ Mankse, A.M.; Teeling, H.; Garcia-Gil, L.J. & Overmann, J. "Biology and phylogeny of the family Chlorobiaceae based on analysis of different genomic regions" in: Mankse, A.M. (June 2007). "Ecological diversity and low light adaptation of green sulfur bacteria". Dissertation for the Faculty of Biology at the Ludwig Maximilians University Munchen. pp. 167. http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/7810/1/Manske_Ann_K.pdf. 

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