Passport


Passport
Different types of passports issued in Latvia
Front cover of a contemporary Japanese e-passport
Colombian Machine-Readable Passport

A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth.

A passport does not of itself entitle the passport holder entry into another country, nor to consular protection while abroad or any other privileges. It does, however, normally entitle the passport holder to return to the country that issued the passport. Rights to consular protection arise from international agreements, and the right to return arises from the laws of the issuing country. A passport does not represent the right or the place of residence of the passport holder in the country that issued the passport.

The front cover of a contemporary Armenian passport
An Indian Diplomatic Passport and an Official Passport. These passports serve supplementary functions to an ordinary Indian passport (pictured below). Note the difference in passport color and function as per passport type.
An Indian Private or ordinary passport; may be issued to any Indian citizen wishing to travel abroad.

Contents

History

First Japanese passport, issued in 1866.
Inside of the old Polish passport - 1931

One of the earliest known references to what served the major role of a passport is found in the Hebrew Bible. In Nehemiah 2:7-9, attributed to the time of the Persian Empire in about 450 BC, it is said that Nehemiah, an official serving King Artaxerxes I of Persia, asked leave to travel to Judea, and the king granted leave and gave him a letter "to the governors beyond the river" requesting safe passage for him as he travelled through their lands.

In the medieval Islamic Caliphate, a form of passport was used in the form of a bara'a, a receipt for taxes paid. Only citizens who paid their zakah (for Muslims) or jizya (for Dhimmis) taxes were permitted to travel to different regions of the Caliphate, thus the bara'a receipt was a "traveller's basic passport."[1]

It is considered unlikely that the term "passport" is derived from sea ports, but rather from a medieval document required to pass through the gate ("porte") of a city wall or to pass through a territory.[2][3] In medieval Europe, such documents were issued to travellers by local authorities, and generally contained a list of towns and cities into which a document holder was permitted to pass. On the whole, documents were not required for travel to sea ports, which were considered open trading points, but documents were required to travel inland from sea ports.

King Henry V of England is credited with having invented what some consider the first true passport, notwithstanding the earlier examples cited, as a means of helping his subjects prove who they were in foreign lands.[4]

The rapid expansion of rail travel in Europe from the mid-nineteenth century led to a breakdown of the European passport system of the early part of the nineteenth century. The speed of trains, as well as the numbers of passengers that crossed many borders, made enforcement of passport laws difficult. The general reaction was the relaxation of passport requirements.[5] In the later part of the nineteenth century and up to World War I, passports were not required, on the whole, for travel within Europe, and crossing a border was straightforward. Consequently, comparatively few people had passports. The Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire maintained passport requirements for international travel, in addition to an internal passport system to control travel within their borders.

Early passports included a description of the passport holder. Photographs began to be attached to passports in the early decades of the twentieth century, when photography became widespread.

During World War I, European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons (to keep out spies) and to control the emigration of citizens with useful skills, retaining potential manpower. These controls remained in place after the war, and became standard procedure, though not without controversy. British tourists of the 1920s complained, especially about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a "nasty dehumanisation".[6]

In 1920, the League of Nations held a conference on passports and through tickets. Passport guidelines and a general booklet design resulted from the conference,[7] which was followed up by conferences in 1926[8] and 1927.[citation needed]

The United Nations held a travel conference in 1963, but passport guidelines did not result from it. Passport standardisation came about in 1980, under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).

Types

Inside front cover and first page of an ordinary Azerbaijani passport

A rough standardization exists in types of passports throughout the world, although passport types, number of pages and definitions can vary by country.

Full passports

  • Ordinary passport (Tourist passport, Regular passport, Passport)
Issued to citizens and other nationals, and generally the most-issued type of passport. Sometimes it is possible to have children registered within the ordinary passport of the parent, rendering the passport functionally equal to a family passport.
  • Official passport (Service passport, also Special passport)
Issued to government employees for work-related travel, and to accompanying dependents.
  • Diplomatic passport
Issued to diplomats for work-related travel, and to accompanying dependents. Although most diplomats with diplomatic immunity carry diplomatic passports, having a diplomatic passport is not the equivalent of having diplomatic immunity. A grant of diplomatic status, a privilege of which is diplomatic immunity, has to come from the government of the country in relation to which diplomatic status is claimed. Also, having a diplomatic passport does not mean visa-free travel. A holder of a diplomatic passport usually has to obtain a diplomatic visa, even if a holder of an ordinary passport may enter a country visa-free or may obtain a visa on arrival.
In exceptional circumstances, a diplomatic passport is given to a foreign citizen with no passport of his own, such as an exiled VIP who lives, by invitation, in a foreign country.[citation needed]
  • Emergency passport (Temporary passport)
Issued to persons whose passports were lost or stolen, and who do not have time to obtain replacement passports. Sometimes laissez-passer are used for this purpose.
  • Collective passport
Issued to defined groups for travel together to particular destinations, such as a group of school children on a school trip to a specified country.
  • Family passport
Issued to family members—father, mother, son, daughter. There is one passport holder. The passport holder may travel alone or with one or more other family members. A family member who is not the passport holder cannot use the passport for travel unless accompanied by the passport holder.

Travel documents in passport-booklet form

Nansen passport for refugees (now defunct)
These are issued by national governments as emergency passports, or for travel on humanitarian grounds. Laissez-passer are also issued by international organisations (most notably, the U.N.) to their officers and employees for official travel.
A document issued under certain circumstances - such as statelessness - to non-citizen residents. An example of this is the "Nansen passport". Sometimes alien's passports are issued as internal passport to non-residents.
  • Refugee travel document
Document issued to a refugee by the state in which she or he normally resides allowing him or her to travel outside that state and to return there. Refugees are unlikely to be able to obtain passports from their state of nationality (from which they have sought asylum) and therefore need travel documents so that they might engage in international travel.
  • Two-way Permit
Passport-like travel document issued by the People's Republic of China to Chinese citizens from the Mainland in order to travel to Hong Kong or Macau only.
Passport-like travel document issued by the People's Republic of China to citizens of Taiwan who wish to travel to that country, including Hong Kong and Macau
  • Dalu Jumin Laiwang Taiwan Tongxingzheng (Permit for Mainland Residents to Travel To and From Taiwan)
Passport-like travel document issued to Chinese citizens from the Mainland in order to travel to Taiwan. Used in conjunction with an entry permit issued by the Taiwan government.
  • Special passport
Issued to Bangladeshis that is valid for travel to India only.[9]
Issued by some countries as an identity document to control migration within a country. Examples are the internal passport of Russia, or the hukou residence-registration system in mainland China, both dating back to imperial times.
  • Camouflage and Fantasy Passport
A Camouflage passport is a document that appears to be a regular passport but is actually in the name of a country that no longer exists, never existed, or the previous name a country that has changed its name. Companies that sell camouflage passports make the rather dubious claim that in the event of a hijacking they could be shown to terrorists to aid escape. There is no known instance of this happening. Because a camouflage passport is not issued in the name of a real country, it is not a counterfeit and is not illegal per se to have. However attempting to use it to actually enter a country would be illegal in most jurisdictions.
A fantasy passport is likewise a document not issued by a recognized government and invalid for legitimate travel. Fantasy passports are distinguished from camouflage passports in that they are issued by an actual, existent group, organization, or tribe. In some cases the goal of the fantasy passport is to make a political statement or to denote membership in the organization. In other cases they are issued more or less as a joke or for novelty souvenir purposes, such as those sold as "Conch Republic" passports.

International Civil Aviation Organization Standards

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) issues passport standards which are treated as recommendations to national governments.

  • Standard passport format
The standard passport format includes the name of the issuing country on a passport cover, a national symbol, a description of the document (e.g., passport, official passport, diplomatic passport), and -- if the passport is biometric -- the biometric passport symbol. Inside, there is a title page, also naming the country. This is followed by a data page, on which there is information about the bearer and the issuing authority, although passports of some European Union member states provide that information on the inside back cover. There are blank pages available for foreign countries to affix visas, and to stamp for entries and exit. Passports have numerical or alphanumerical designators ("serial number") assigned by the issuing authority.
  • Machine-readable passport standards
Standards for machine-readable passports have also been issued by the ICAO,[10] with an area set aside where most of the information written as text is also printed in a manner suitable for optical character recognition.
  • e-Passport standards
To conform with ICAO standards, a biometric passport has an embedded contactless smart card, which contains data about the passport holder, a photograph in digital format, and data about the passport itself. Many countries now issue biometric passports. The objectives for the biometric passports are to speed up clearance through immigration and the prevention of identity fraud. These reasons are disputed by privacy advocates.[11][12]

Passport message

A passport contains a message, usually near the front of a passport, requesting that the bearer of the passport be allowed to pass freely, and further requests that, in the event of need, the bearer be granted assistance. The message is sometimes made in the name of the government or the head of state, notionally by the foreign minister or another representative of the government, often on behalf of the head of state. The message may be written in more than one language, depending on the language policies of the issuing authority.

For example, the English passport message in a South Korean passport is

The Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Republic of Korea hereby requests all those whom it may concern to permit the bearer, to pass freely without delay or hindrance, in case of need, to afford him(her) every possible assistance and protection.

For example, the English passport message in a Philippine passport is

The Government of the Republic of the Philippines requests all concerned authorities to permit the bearer, a citizen of the Philippines, to pass safely and freely and in case of need to give him/her all lawful aid and protection.

Other passports, for example those of the United Kingdom[13] and the United States[14] bear similar messages. However, such a message is not always present, for instance in a Swiss passport.

Languages

EU-languages pages of a French passport
Front cover of a New Zealand passport

An international conference on passports and through tickets, held by the League of Nations in 1920, recommended that passports be issued in French, historically the language of diplomacy, and one other language.[15] Nowadays, the ICAO recommends that passports be issued in English and French, or in the national language of the issuing country and in either English or French. Many European countries used their national language and additionally the three most spoken languages in Europe, i.e. French, German, and English.

Some unusual language combinations are:

  • Passports issued by member states of the European Union bear all of the official languages of the EU. These are not printed in each location, however. Two or three languages are printed at the relevant point, followed by numbers which refer to the passport pages on which translations into all the remaining languages appear (illustration—right).
  • The United States passport and the Barbadian passport are tri-lingual: English, French and Spanish. United States passports were traditionally English and French, but began being printed with a Spanish message and labels during the Clinton administration, in recognition of Puerto Rico's Spanish-speaking status. Only the message and labels are in multiple languages, the cover and instructions pages are only printed in English.
  • In Belgium all three official languages (Dutch, French, German) appear on the cover, in addition to English on the main page. Which of the official languages appears first depends on the official residence of the holder.
  • The face page of the older, pre- EU- version of the Hungarian passport ("Útlevél" in Hungarian) is in Hungarian only. Inside, there is a second, Hungarian-English bilingual, page. The personal-information page offers Hungarian, English, and French explanations of the details. An additional page, which has explanations in English, French, Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Arabic, was later on also added.[citation needed]
  • The first page of a Libyan passport is in Arabic only. The last page (first page from western viewpoint) has an English equivalent of the information on the Arabic first page (western last page). Similar arrangements are found in passports of some other Arab countries.
  • Iraqi passports are in Arabic, Kurdish and English.
  • New Zealand passports are in English and Maori.
  • Pakistani passports are in Urdu, English, Arabic and French.
  • Swiss passports are in five languages: German, French, Italian, Romansh and English.
  • Macau SAR passports are in three languages: Chinese, Portuguese and English.

Common designs

An Argentine passport with the name of Mercosur at the top
A Trinidad and Tobago passport with the logo of Caricom at the top

The design and layout of passports of the member states of the European Union are a result of consensus and recommendation, rather than of directive.[16] Passports are issued by member states, not by the EU. The data page can be at the front or at the back of a passport, and there are small design differences to indicate which member state is the issuer. The covers of ordinary passports are burgundy-red, with "European Union" written in the national language or languages. Below that are the name of the country, a national symbol, the word or words in the national language or languages for "passport", and, at the bottom, the symbol for a biometric passport.

In Central America, the members of the CA-4 Treaty (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua) adopted a common-design passport, called the Central American passport. Although the design had been in use by Nicaragua and El Salvador since the mid-1990s, it became the norm for the CA-4 in January 2006. The main features are the navy-blue cover with the words "América Central" and a map of Central America, and with the territory of the issuing country highlighted in gold. This substitutes one map for four national symbols. At the bottom of the cover are the name of the issuing country and the passport type. As of 2006, the Nicaraguan passport, which is the model for the passports of the three other countries, is issued in Spanish, French, and English.

The member states of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) recently began issuing passports to a common design, featuring the CARICOM symbol along with the national symbol and name of the member state, rendered in an CARICOM official language (English, French, Dutch). The member states which use the common design are Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago.

The member states of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) had originally planned for a common OECS passport by January 1, 2003, but it was delayed. Plans to introduce a CARICOM common passport would have made the OECS passport redundant, since all full members of the OECS were also full members of CARICOM. Thus, by November, 2004, the OECS governments agreed to give CARICOM a deadline of May 2005, to introduce a CARICOM passport, failure of which would have resulted in moving ahead with the introduction of the OECS Passport. The CARICOM passport was introduced in January 2005, by Suriname, so the idea of an OECS passport was abandoned. Had the OECS passport been introduced, however, it would not have been issued to economic citizens within the OECS states.

The declaration adopted in Cusco, Peru, establishing the Union of South American Nations, signalled an intention to establish a common passport design, but this appears to be a long way away. Already, some member states of regional sub-groupings such as Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations issue passports that bear their official names and seals, along with the name of their regional grouping. Examples include Paraguay and Ecuador.

The members of the Andean Community of Nations began, in 2001, the process of adopting a common passport format. Specifications for the common passport format were outlined in an Andean Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in 2002.[17] The member states also agreed to phase in new Andean passports, bearing the official name of the regional body in Spanish (Comunidad Andina), by January, 2005. Previously-issued national passports will be valid until their expiry dates. The Andean passport is currently in use in Ecuador and Peru. Bolivia and Colombia were to start issuing Andean passports in early 2006. Andean passports are bordeaux (burgundy-red), with words in gold. Above the national seal of the issuing country is the name of the organization in Spanish, which is centred and is printed in a large font. Below the seal is the official name of the member country. At the bottom of the cover is the Spanish word "pasaporte" meaning "passport" and the English word as well. Venezuela left the Andean Community, so it is likely that the country will no longer issue Andean passports.

National status

Chinese passport from the Qing Dynasty, 24th Year of the Guangxu Reign - 1898

Passports contain a statement of the nationality of the holder. In most countries, one class of nationality exists for all its citizens, and only one type of ordinary passport exists for them. Several types of exceptions however exist:

Multiple classes of nationality in a single country

A country with complex nationality laws could issue various passports which are similar in appearance but are representative of differing national statuses. Due to the British colonial history and contemporary laws, the United Kingdom has a number of classes of United Kingdom nationality, and more than one relationship of persons to the United Kingdom. The several classes and relationships cause foreign governments to subject holders of different UK passports to different entry requirements.

One class of nationality in more countries

As an alternative to having more classes of nationality within one country, a single class can also exist across more than one country. For example, only a single class of nationality is available for the three constituent countries of Kingdom of Denmark (although Faroe nationals enjoy a special status), all four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and all the constituent states and territories of the Realm of New Zealand.

Special nationality class through investment

In certain instances a 'nationality' is available through investment. Some investors have been described in a Tongan passport as 'a Tongan protected person', a status which does not necessarily carry with it the right of abode in Tonga.[18] Many countries accept Tongan passports which reflect actual Tongan citizenship, but do not accept Tongan passports which reflect 'Tongan protected person' status.[citation needed]

More passports, one nationality

The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) authorizes by law its Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau) to issue passports to their permanent residents with Chinese nationality under the one country, two systems arrangement. Visa policies imposed by foreign authorities on Hong Kong and Macau permanent residents holding such passports are different from those holding ordinary passports of the People's Republic of China. It should be noted that all holders of these passports are considered Chinese citizens (i.e. possessing the same Chinese nationality status, and bearing the same code of issuing state: CHN) under the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, and it is possible to be a permanent resident of Hong Kong or Macau without being a Chinese national.

Passports without sovereign territory

Several entities without a sovereign territory issue passports as well, most notably Iroquois League[19][20] and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.[21]

National conditions on passport issuance

Pakistan requires a Muslim citizen who applies for a passport to subscribe to the following declaration:

  1. I am a Muslim and believe in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad the last of the Prophets.
  2. I do not recognize any one who claims to be a prophet in any sense of the word or any description whatsoever, after Prophet Muhammad or recognize such a claimant as a prophet or a religious reformer as Muslim.
  3. I consider Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani to be an impostor prophet and an infidel and also consider his followers whether belonging to the Lahori, Qadiani or Mirzai groups, to be non-Muslims.

The declaration was instituted by the Islamist military regime of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. The reason for the declaration is to prevent Ahmadis who are derogatorily called Qadianis from going to Mecca or Medina for Hajj or Umrah. In the biometric version of the Pakistani passport, there is no box for noting the religion of the passport holder. This seemingly made the religious subscription unnecessary. However, deletion of the box was reversed by the Pakistani government, in response to the religious parties. Passports have the religion box on page 3. Passports without the religion box have a rubber-stamp declaration of the passport holder's religion. However religion is not mentioned on the Pakistani CNIC (Computerised National Identity Card).[22]

In Finland, male citizens aged 18–30 years have to prove that they have completed, or are exempt from, the obligatory military service when applying for a Finnish passport. If they have not yet completed the service, the passport is issued only until the end of their 28th year in order to ensure that they will not flee the country and desert.[23]

Passports as government property

Most countries declare by law that passports are government property, and may be limited or revoked at any time, usually on specified grounds. A limitation or a revocation is generally subject to judicial review.

Passports and bail

In many countries, surrender of a passport is made a condition of granting bail.[24] While on bail a person may be barred from applying for a passport or collecting a passport already applied for.[citation needed]

One passport per person

Many countries issue only one passport to each national. When passport holders apply for a new passport (commonly, due to expiration of an old passport or lack of blank pages), they may be required to surrender the old passport for invalidation. In some circumstances an expired passport is not required to be surrendered or invalidated (for example, if it contains an unexpired visa).

Some countries allow, under specified circumstances, the holding of more than one passport by a citizen. One circumstance is a disqualifying stamp in a passport, such as a stamp which shows travel to Israel, and the citizen intends travel to a country which does not recognize Israel. Another circumstance is frequent international travel including to countries with protracted visa application process. Awaiting a visa for a particular country, a person with two passports may travel to other countries with the second passport. Some countries issue restricted passports valid only for travel to one or more neighbouring countries. A person may hold at the same time a restricted passport for frequent travels to neighbouring countries and an ordinary international passport for travels to other countries.[citation needed]

Family passports

At one time it was common for a parent's passport to include the names and photos of his or her children. These "family passports" allowed children to travel together with their parents without the need to issue individual passports to each child. Family passports were not valid for children to travel by themselves or with someone other than a parent. India, the United Kingdom and the United States once issued family passports, but no longer do so, whereas some countries, such as Russia[citation needed], still do. A Uruguayan passport still has two photo pages, on which there can be a listing of up to six children, each with their thumbprint and details.

In recent years concerns over international child abduction, including abduction by a parent, have led some countries to require both parents to sign a passport application. In the United States, a person aged 16 years or older can apply for a passport themselves. Applications by those aged 15 and under require the signatures of both parents or a statement, signed under penalty of perjury, as to why only one parent is physically capable of signing the application.

Limitations on passport use

Current Brazilian passport, adopted in December 2010, with its dark-blue cover and microchip
A Taiwan Compatriot Entry Permit, issued by the PRC for Taiwan residents travelling to mainland China

Most countries accept passports of other countries as valid for international travel and valid for entry. There are exceptions, such as when a country does not recognise the passport-issuing country as a sovereign state. Likewise, the passport-issuing country may also stamp restrictions on the passports of its citizens not to go to certain countries due to poor or non-existent foreign relations, or security or health risks.

Asia

Bangladesh

A Bangladeshi passport is valid for travel to all the nations in the world except Israel. Previously, the passport was invalid for travel to Rhodesia, Taiwan and South Africa as well.

Mainland China and Taiwan

Citizens of the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) use identity documents issued by People's Republic of China (PRC) public-security authorities to enter mainland China. Citizens of the PRC entering Taiwan must also use identity documents issued by ROC government and have their mainland documents surrendered. The identity documents is only valid for cross-strait travel between Taiwan and the PRC, and an endorsement must be obtained separately to enable travel.

Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau each maintains border controls at all points of entry, including at the border with mainland China. Permanent residents of the SARs can use their identity cards to travel between the SARs.

A 'Home Return Permit' is required for Chinese citizens domiciled in Hong Kong and Macau to enter and exit mainland China. The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport and the Macau Special Administrative Region passport can not be used for travel to mainland China. British National (Overseas) passports can also not be used by Chinese citizens who have the right of abode in Hong Kong as the PRC considers such citizens solely PRC citizens as it does not recognize dual nationality.

Mainland China residents visiting Hong Kong or Macau are required to hold a Exit-entry Permit for Travelling to and from Hong Kong and Macau (往来港澳通行证 or 双程证) issued by mainland authorities, along with an endorsement (签注), also issued by mainland authorities, on the Exit-entry Permit which needs to be applied each time (similar to a visa) when visiting the SARs.[25]

Non-permanent residents of Macau who are not eligible for a passport may travel to Hong Kong on the Visit Permit to Hong Kong (澳門居民往來香港特別行政區旅行證). The grey-cover Visit Permit to Hong Kong is, technically speaking, a restricted passport and is valid for 7 years. It allows holders to travel only to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on multiple occasions during its validity.

Israel

Legend:
  Israel
  Countries that reject passports from Israel
  Countries that reject passports from Israel and any other passports which contain Israeli stamps or visas

In Israel's first years, Israeli passports bore the stamp "not valid for Germany" (Hebrew: לא תקף בגרמניה), as in the aftermath of the Holocaust it was considered improper for Israelis to visit Germany on any but official state business (for which the government issued special passports to "authorized personnel"). Some Muslim and African countries do not permit entry to people using an Israeli passport. In addition, Iran,[26] Kuwait,[27] Lebanon,[28] Libya,[29] Saudi Arabia,[30] Sudan,[31] Syria[32] and Yemen[33] do not allow entry to people with evidence of travel to Israel, or whose passports have a used or an unused Israeli visa.

Pakistan

Initially on Pakistani passport there was a printed list of countries which can be visited. Currently the statement printed on Pakistani passports says "This passport is valid for all countries of the world except Israel" .

Philippines

Since 2004, the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs deemed that bearers of its passports cannot travel to Iraq due to the security threats in that country. As such, Philippine passports issued from that time are stamped "Not valid for travel to Iraq" (Tagalog: Hindi balido para sa paglalakbay sa Iraq) .[34]

South Korea

South Korea does not consider travel within the Korean peninsula (between South Korean and North Korean administrations) as international travel, as South Korea's constitution claims the entire Korean peninsula as its territory. South Koreans traveling to the Kaesong Industrial Region in North Korea pass through the Gyeongui Highway Transit Office at Dorasan, Munsan, where they present a plastic Visit Certificate (방문증명서) card issued by the South Korean Ministry of Unification, and an immigration-stamped Passage Certificate (개성공업지구 출입증) issued by the Kaesong Industrial District Management Committee (개성공업지구 관리위원회).[35] Until 2008, South Koreans traveling to tourist areas such as Kŭmgangsan (Diamond Mountain) in the North needed to carry a South Korean ID card for security reasons.

Europe

Austria

After the fall of the Habsburg monarchy in 1918 and the establishment of the Austrian Republic, members of the former Imperial Family were exiled and forbidden to enter Austrian territory. Nevertheless, they remained Austrian citizens entitled to bear an Austrian passport. Such passports were unique in bearing the stamp stating that "this passport is valid for all countries except for Austria". The Habsburgs' exile was eventually overturned by the European Court of Human Rights and these special types of passports along with it.

Cyprus

Cypriot passport cover (pre-EU) First page of a Turkish passport
Cypriot passport cover (pre-EU)
Cover of a biometric Turkish passport in line with EU

The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) issues passports, but only Turkey recognises its statehood. TRNC passports are not accepted for entry into the Republic of Cyprus via airports or sea ports, but are accepted at the designated green line crossing points. However, all Turkish Cypriots are entitled by law to the issue of a Republic of Cyprus EU passport, and since the opening of the border between the two states, Cypriot and EU citizens can travel freely between them.

The United Kingdom, United States of America, France, Australia, Pakistan and Syria currently officially accept TRNC passports with the relevant visas.

Spain and Gibraltar

Cover of a biometric Gibraltar passport

Spain does not accept United Kingdom passports issued in Gibraltar, on the ground that the Government of Gibraltar is not a competent authority for issuing UK passports. Consequently, some Gibraltarians were refused entry to Spain. The word "Gibraltar" now appears beneath the words "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" on passport covers.

North America

United States

U.S. Department of the Treasury regulations require that persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction be licensed in order to engage in any travel-related transactions pursuant to travel to, from, and within Cuba. Transactions related to tourist travel are not licensable. This restriction includes tourist travel to Cuba from or through a third country such as Mexico.[36]

Some passports are issued for military dependents to travel to and from a foreign destination with a restriction stamp stating that the passport is only valid for official travel purposes. Further, said passports are valid only for five years from date of issue as opposed to ten years for adults.

Oceania

Tonga

Some countries decline to accept Tongan Protected Person passports, though they accept Tongan citizen passports.[37][38][39] Tongan Protected Person passports are sold by the Government of Tonga to anyone who is not a Tongan national.[40] A holder of a Tongan Protected Person passport is forbidden to enter or settle in Tonga. Generally, those holders are refugees, stateless persons, and individuals who for political reasons do not have access to any other passport-issuing authority.

South America

Brazil

Only two countries do not maintain diplomatic relations with Brazil; therefore, Diplomatic, Official, and Work Passports are not accepted and visas are only granted to tourist or business visitors, under Brazilian “laissez-passer”. These countries are: Tonga, and Taiwan.[41]

International travel without passports

International travel is possible without passports in some circumstances. A document stating the citizenship, like a national identity card is usually needed anyway.

Africa

East African Community

Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania comprise the East African Community. Each country may issue, to an eligible citizen, an East African passport. Those passports are recognised by only the three countries, and are used for travel between or among those countries. The requirements for eligibility are less rigorous than are the requirements for national passports used for other international travel.

Economic Community of West African States

The member states of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) do not require passports for their citizens traveling within the community. National ID cards are sufficient. The member states are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.

Asia

India, Nepal, and Bhutan

Passports are not needed by citizens of India and Nepal to travel to each other's country, but some identification is required for border crossing. Only Indians do not require passports for travelling in Bhutan while Bhutanese can travel with their citizenship identity cards.

Syria and Lebanon

Lebanese citizens entering Syria do not require passports to enter Syria, if carrying Lebanese ID cards. Similarly, Syrian citizens do not require passports to enter Lebanon, if carrying Syrian ID cards.

Commonwealth of Independent States

In Russia and some former Soviet Union republics, participating countries may require an internal passport, which is the equivalent of a national ID card, rather than a passport.

Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf

Citizens of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf countries need only national ID cards (also referred to as civil ID cards) to cross the borders of council countries.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

The 20 countries of the APEC issue the APEC Business Travel Card, which allows visa-free entry into all participating countries.

Europe

The Belgian passport is labelled in the country's three official languages

Travel with National Identity Cards

A citizen of one of the 27 member states of the European Union or of Liechtenstein, Andorra, Monaco, Norway, San Marino, Iceland and Switzerland may travel within these countries using a standard compliant National Identity Card rather than a passport. Not all EU/EEA member states issue standard compliant National Identity Cards, notably Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Latvia, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Sweden issues National Identity Cards, but do not allow a Swedish citizen to travel outside the Schengen Area without a passport.[42]

Travel within the Schengen Area

The up-to-now 25 countries that apply the Schengen Agreement (a subset of the EEA) do not implement passport controls between each other, unless exceptional circumstances apply. It is however mandatory to carry a passport, compliant national identity card or alien's resident permit.

Scandinavia

The Nordic Passport Union meant that Nordic citizens (Denmark, including the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) need (on the paper) no identity document to visit these countries (not Greenland or Svalbard). This is an extension of the principle that Nordic citizens need no identity document in their own country. A means to prove their identity when requested is recommended (e.g. using a drivers license, which does not state the citizenship), also in the own country. Joining the Schengen Area in 1997 has not changed these rules.

United Kingdom and Ireland

Citizens of the UK and Ireland do not require a passport to travel between those two countries. Some identity document is needed for air travel, but not on the land border.

Post-Yugoslav states (Western Balkans)

  • Croatia does not require passports of citizens of the member states of European Union and Bosnia and Herzegovina who have national ID cards. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Hungary, Montenegro and Slovenia do not require Croatian citizens to have a passport, only Croatian ID cards.
  • Serbia does not require passports of citizens of European Union, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Montenegro, FRY Macedonia, Norway and Switzerland who have national ID cards.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina does not require Serbian citizens to have passports, only Serbian ID cards.
  • Citizens of Serbia and citizens of Montenegro may travel between the two countries with national ID cards.
  • Montenegro does not require passports of citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia who have national ID cards. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia (only for Herceg Novi, Kotor and Tivat) and Serbia do not require Montenegrin citizens to have a passport, only Montenegrin ID cards.
  • Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia does not require Serbian citizens and European Union citizens to have passports, only ID cards

Turkey

  • Turkey not require passports of European Union citizens who are in possession of valid national ID cards.[citation needed]

Turkey and Georgia

  • Citizens of Turkey and Georgia may travel up to three days in the other country with a valid national ID card.

North America

The United States Passport Card
A NEXUS Card

Caribbean

  • CARICOM countries issue a CARICOM passport to their citizens, and as of June 2009, eligible nationals in participating countries will be permitted to use the CARICOM travel card which provides for intra-community travel without a passport.

Central America

  • The CA-4 countries: Citizens of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua do not require passports to travel between or among any of the four countries. A national ID card (cédula) is sufficient for entry. In addition, the CA-4 agreement implemented the Central American Single Visa (Visa Única Centroamericana).

U.S., Canada and Mexico

There are several cards available to certain North American citizens/residents which allow passport free travel; generally only for land and sea border crossings:

  • The U.S. Passport card is an alternative to an ordinary U.S. passport booklet for land and sea travel within North America (Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Bermuda). Like the passport book, the passport card is issued only to U.S. citizens and nationals.
  • The NEXUS card allows border crossing between U.S. and Canada. The air NEXUS card can also be used for air travel as the only means of identification for US and Canadian citizens/nationals.
  • The SENTRI-card allows passport free entry into the U.S. from Mexico (but not vice versa).
  • U.S. nationals may further enter the U.S. using an enhanced driver license issued by the States of Vermont, Washington, Michigan and New York (which qualify as WHTI compliant); enhanced tribal cards; U.S. military ID cards plus military travel orders; U.S. merchant mariner ID cards, when traveling on maritime business; Native American tribal ID cards; Form I-872 American Indian card.[43][44]
  • Canadian nationals may enter the U.S. via land or sea using an "Enhanced" WHTI-compliant driver's license. They are currently issued by British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Ontario. If Canadians wish to enter the US via air, they must use a passport book.
  • For travel to the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon directly from Canada, Canadians and foreign nationals holding Canadian identification documents are exempted from passport and visa requirements for stays of maximum duration of 3 months within a period of 6 months. Accepted documents include a driver's licence, citizenship card, permanent resident card and others. U.S. nationals traveling through Canada are not exempt and must carry a passport.

In the U.S. the acceptable passport-substituting documents are placed within the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative.

Oceania

The Torres Strait separating Australia and Papua

Residents of nine coastal villages in Papua New Guinea are permitted to enter the 'Protected Zone' of the Torres Strait (part of Queensland, Australia) for traditional purposes. This exemption from passport control is part of a treaty between Australia and Papua New Guinea negotiated when PNG became independent of Australia in 1975.[45] Other traditional vessels attempting to cross into Australia or Australian waters (especially from Indonesia) are stopped by Australian Customs or the Royal Australian Navy due to fears about people and drug smuggling.

South America

Many Central American and South American nationals can travel within their respective regional economic zones, such as Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations, or on a bilateral basis (e.g., between Chile and Peru, between Brazil and Chile), without passports, presenting instead their national ID cards, or, for short stays, their voter-registration cards. In some cases this travel must be done overland rather than by air. There are plans to extend these rights to all of South America under a Union of South American Nations, and it already extends (since 2006[46]) to every South American country except Suriname.

Intra-sovereign territory travel that requires passports

For some countries, there are immigration checks and passport control for travel between their sovereign territories, yet some travels between such territories do not require passports.

Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau, both Chinese special administrative regions, have their own immigration control systems different from each other and mainland China. Travelling between mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, technically, is not considered international. Although people of Hong Kong, Macau and mainland China do not use passports to travel between the three places, other documents, such as the Mainland Travel Permit (for the people of Hong Kong and Macau), are used instead; foreigners are required to present their passports at the immigration control points. Holders of Hong Kong or Macau permanent resident ID cards (regardless of nationality), however, may use the ID card to enter and exit the SARs without the presentation of any passport.

Malaysia

Under a special arrangement agreed during the formation of Malaysia, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak can retain their respective immigration control systems. As a result, a passport is required for foreigners when traveling from Peninsular Malaysia to East Malaysia, as well as traveling between Sabah and Sarawak. Previously, Malaysian citizens from Peninsular Malaysia were required to present a Malaysian passport when travelling to East Malaysia from Peninsular Malaysia, but this is no longer required for social/business visits up to 3 months as long as they do not land in a third country. However, West Malaysians are required to produce a Malaysian identity card or, for children below 12 years, birth certificate, obtain a special immigration printout form (Document In Lieu of Internal Travel Document, IMM.114),[47] and keep the form until they leave East Malaysia. However, one may still present a Malaysian passport or a Restricted Travel Document and get an entry stamp on the passport to avoid the hassle of keeping an extra sheet of paper.

Others

Internal passport systems exist in both Russia and in China, and have historically been issued by some other countries.

Immigration stamps in passports

For immigration control, immigration officials of many countries stamp passports with entry and exit stamps. A stamp can serve different purposes. In the United Kingdom, an immigration stamp in a passport includes the formal leave to enter granted to a person subject to entry control. Otherwise, a stamp activates or acknowledges the continuing leave conferred in the passport bearer's entry clearance.

Under the Schengen system, a foreign passport is stamped with a date stamp which does not indicate any duration of stay. This stamp is taken to mean that the person is deemed to have permission to remain either for three months or for the period shown on his visa (whichever is shorter).

Member states of the European Union are not permitted to place a stamp in the passport of a person who is not subject to immigration control, such as a national of that country, a national of another EU member state or a non-EU national family member of an EU national who is seeking entry in conformity with EU Directive 2004/38/EC. Stamping is prohibited because a passport stamp is imposition of a control that the person is not subject to. This concept is not applicable in countries outside the EU, where a stamp in a passport may simply acknowledge the entry or exit of a person.

Countries usually have different styles of stamps for entries and exits, to make it easier to identify the movements of people. The shape of the stamp and the colour of the ink may also provide information about movements (whether departure or arrival). In Hong Kong, prior to and immediately after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty, entry and exit stamps were identical at all ports of entry, but colours differed. Airport stamps used black ink, land stamps used red ink, and sea stamps used purple ink. In Macau, under Portuguese administration, the same colour of ink was used for all stamps, but the stamps had slightly different borders to indicate entry/exit by air, land, or sea. In several countries the stamps or its colour are different if the person arrived in a car as opposed to bus/boat/train/air passenger. Countries can vary the shape of their stamps to indicate the length of stay, like Singapore where a perfectly rectangular stamp indicates a 14-day stay, rounded rectangular a 30-day stay, or hexagonal a 90-day stay.

Immigration stamps are a useful reminder of travels. Some travellers "collect" immigration stamps in passports, and will choose to enter or exit countries via different means (for example, land, sea or air) in order to have different stamps in their passports.

Visas often take the form of an inked stamp, although some countries use adhesive stickers that incorporate security features to discourage forgery.

See also

References

  1. ^ Frank, Daniel (1995). The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society, and Identity. Brill Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 9-0041-0404-6. 
  2. ^ George William Lemon (1783). English etymology; or, A derivative dictionary of the English language. p. 397. http://books.google.com/books?id=RHwCAAAAQAAJ.  said that passport may signify either a permission to pass through a portus or gate, but noted that an earlier work had contained information that a traveling warrant, a permission or license to pass through the whole dominions of any prince, was originally called a pass par teut.
  3. ^ James Donald (1867). Chambers's etymological dictionary of the English language. W. and R. Chambers. pp. 366. http://books.google.com/books?id=agA_AAAAcAAJ. "passport, pass´pōrt, n. orig. permission to pass out of port or through the gates; a written warrant granting permission to travel." 
  4. ^ Casciani, Dominic (2008-09-25). "Analysis: The first ID cards". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7634744.stm. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  5. ^ "History of Passports". Passport Canada. http://www.passport.gc.ca/pptc/hist.aspx?lang=eng. Retrieved April 18, 2008. 
  6. ^ Marrus, Michael, The Unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press (1985), p. 92.
  7. ^ League of Nations 'International' or 'Standard' passport design. IU. https://bl-libg-doghill.ads.iu.edu/league-web/book/p63.html .
  8. ^ "International Conferences – League of Nations Archives". Center for the Study of Global Change. 2002. http://www.indiana.edu/~league/conferencedata.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  9. ^ http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/index.php?Itemid=27&id=141&option=com_content&task=category
  10. ^ "Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTD)". ICAO. http://www.icao.int/mrtd/Home/index.cfm. Retrieved June 15, 2006. 
  11. ^ "The ID Chip You Don't Want in Your Passport". Bruce Schneier. 2006-09-16. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/15/AR2006091500923.html. Retrieved September 1, 2007. 
  12. ^ "Scan This Guy's E-Passport and Watch Your System Crash". Kim Zetter. http://www.wired.com/politics/security/news/2007/08/epassport. Retrieved September 1, 2007. 
  13. ^ Queen and Passport - royal.gov.uk.
  14. ^ See "Passport Message" in the United States passport article.
  15. ^ Baenninger, Martin (2009). In the eye of the wind: a travel memoir of prewar Japan. Footprints. Footprints. Cheltenham, England: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 12. ISBN 9780773534971. http://books.google.ie/books?id=HOtze2tfb_IC&pg=PA12&dq=conference+on+passports+and+through+tickets+1920+French+diplomacy&hl=en&ei=bhzFTtmdL8TKhAe79s3pDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&sqi=2&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=lingua%20franca&f=false. Retrieved 17-11-2011. 
  16. ^ Resolutions of 23 June 1981, 30 June 1982, 14 July 1986 and 10 July 1995 concerning the introduction of a passport of uniform pattern, OJEC, 19 September 1981, C 241, p. 1; 16 July 1982, C 179, p. 1; 14 July 1986, C 185, p. 1; 4 August 1995, C 200, p. 1.
  17. ^ Andean Community / Decision 525: Minimum specific technical characteristics of Andean Passport.
  18. ^ Crocombe, R. G. (2007). Asia in the Pacific Islands: replacing the West. University of South Pacific Press. pp. 165. ISBN 9789820203884. http://books.google.com/?id=iDg9oAkwsXAC&pg=PA165&dq=%22Tongan+protected+person+passports%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Tongan%20protected%20person%20passports%22. Retrieved 10/05/2010. 
  19. ^ http://ezra.cornell.edu/posting.php?timestamp=1065675600
  20. ^ Wallace, William N. (1990-06-12). "Putting Tradition to the Test". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/06/12/sports/putting-tradition-to-the-test.html. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  21. ^ http://www.bmlv.gv.at/truppendienst/ausgaben/artikel.php?id=433
  22. ^ "Application Form". New Passport. http://www.pakistanembassy.se/forms/htmls/formb.htm. Retrieved June 15, 2006. 
  23. ^ "Passports for persons liable for military service". Finnish Police. 2009. http://www.poliisi.fi/poliisi/home.nsf/Pages/27D36CBC704FEB01C22571CE0054A6C0. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
  24. ^ Devine, F. E (1991). Commercial bail bonding: a comparison of common law alternatives. ABC-CLIO. pp. 84, 91, 116, 178. ISBN 9780275937324. http://books.google.com/?id=TChu-tGy3ycC&pg=PA190&dq=bail+surrender+passport+%22bail+act%22&q=surrender%20%20passport%20. Retrieved 09/05/2010. 
  25. ^ "Arrangement for entry to Hong Kong from Mainland China". http://www.immd.gov.hk/ehtml/hkvisas_9.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-20 .
  26. ^ Travel Advice for Iran - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  27. ^ TRAVEL REPORT - Kuwait
  28. ^ Travel Advice for Lebanon - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and Lebanese Ministry of Tourism
  29. ^ Travel Advice for Libya - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  30. ^ Michael Freund, Canada defends Saudi policy of shunning tourists who visited Israel, 7 December 2008, Jerusalem Post
  31. ^ Travel Advice for Sudan - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  32. ^ Travel Advice for Syria - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and Syrian Ministry of Tourism
  33. ^ Travel Advice for Yemen - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  34. ^ Filipino passports to be marked to prevent travel to Iraq
  35. ^ http://news.hankooki.com/lpage/politics/200703/h2007032518264874760.htm
  36. ^ Cuba : Country Specific Information. U.S. Department of State. November 7, 2008. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1097.html .
  37. ^ EU Regulation
  38. ^ Unacceptable travel documents
  39. ^ GEN 1.3 ENTRY, TRANSIT AND DEPARTURE OF PASSENGERS AND CREW
  40. ^ In the Court of the King of Tonga
  41. ^ Brazil: Entry visa for foreigners
  42. ^ "Fakta om nationellt id-kort". Signguard. http://www.signguard.se/faq.aspx?faqno=9. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  43. ^ Willis, Hh; Latourrette, T (Apr 2008). "Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative". Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis (Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. State Department) 28 (2): 325–39. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01022.x. ISSN 0272-4332. PMID 18419652. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html. Retrieved 2008-05-20 .
  44. ^ For U.S. Citizens. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/travel/vacation/. Retrieved 2008-05-20 .
  45. ^ "Torres Strait Treaty and You - What is free movement for traditional activities?". Australian Government = Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/torres_strait/index.html. Retrieved 3 March 2010. 
  46. ^ http://edant.clarin.com/diario/2008/06/28/elmundo/i-01703744.htm
  47. ^ Document In Lieu of Internal Travel Document IMM.114, Immigration Department of Malaysia; retrieved 4 March 2009

Further reading

External links



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