Vibrio


Vibrio

Taxobox
color = lightgrey
name = "Vibrio"



image_width = 240px
image_caption = Flagellar stain of "V. cholerae"
regnum = Bacteria
phylum = Proteobacteria
classis = Gamma Proteobacteria
ordo = Vibrionales
familia = Vibrionaceae
genus = "Vibrio"
genus_authority = Pacini 1854
type_species = "Vibrio cholerae"
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "V. aerogenes" "V. aestuarianus" "V. agarivorans" "V. albensis" "V. alginolyticus" "V. brasiliensis" "V. calviensis" "V. campbellii" "V. chagasii" "V. cholerae" "V. cincinnatiensis" "V. coralliilyticus" "V. crassostreae" "V. cyclitrophicus" "V. diabolicus" "V. diazotrophicus" "V. ezurae" "V. fischeri" "V. fluvialis" "V. fortis" "V. furnissii" "V. gallicus" "V. gazogenes" "V. gigantis" "V. halioticoli" "V. harveyi" "V. hepatarius" "V. hispanicus" "V. ichthyoenteri" "V. kanaloae" "V. lentus" "V. litoralis" "V. logei" "V. mediterranei" "V. metschnikovii" "V. mimicus" "V. mytili" "V. natriegens" "V. navarrensis" "V. neonatus" "V. neptunius" "V. nereis" "V. nigripulchritudo" "V. ordalii" "V. orientalis" "V. pacinii" "V. parahaemolyticus" "V. pectenicida" "V. penaeicida" "V. pomeroyi" "V. ponticus" "V. proteolyticus" "V. rotiferianus" "V. ruber" "V. rumoiensis" "V. salmonicida" "V. scophthalmi" "V. splendidus" "V. superstes" "V. tapetis" "V. tasmaniensis" "V. tubiashii" "V. vulnificus" "V. wodanis" "V. xuii"

"Vibrio" is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria possessing a curved rod shape.cite journal |title = Biodiversity of Vibrios |author=Thompson FL, Iida T, Swings J |journal=Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews |year=2004 |pages=403–431 |volume=68 |issue=3 |doi = 10.1128/MMBR.68.3.403-431.2004 |pmid = 15353563] cite book | author = Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) | title = Sherris Medical Microbiology | edition = 4th ed. | publisher = McGraw Hill | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 0-8385-8529-9 ] cite book | author = Faruque SM; Nair GB (editors). | title = Vibrio cholerae: Genomics and Molecular Biology | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2008 | url=http://www.horizonpress.com/vib | id = [http://www.horizonpress.com/vib ISBN 978-1-904455-33-2 ] ] Typically found in saltwater, "Vibrio" are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores.cite book | author = Madigan, Michael; Martinko, John (editors) | title = Brock Biology of Microorganisms | edition = 11th ed. | publisher = Prentice Hall | year = 2005 | id = ISBN 0-13-144329-1 ] All members of the genus are motile and have polar flagella with sheaths. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes (multi-locus sequence analysis).cite journal |title =Phylogeny and Molecular Identification of Vibrios on the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Analysis
author=Thompson FL, Gevers D, Thompson CC, Dawyndt P,Naser S, Hoste B, Munn CB, Swings J |journal=Applied and Environmental Microbiology |year=2005 |pages=5107–5115 |volume=71 |issue=9 |doi =10.1128/AEM.71.9.5107-5115.2005 |pmid =16151093
]

Pathogenic strains

Several species of "Vibrio" include clinically important human pathogens. Most disease causing strains are associated with gastroenteritis but can also infect open wounds and cause septicemia. It can be carried by numerous sea living animals, such as crabs or prawns, and has been known to cause fatal infections in humans during exposure. Pathogenic "Vibrio" include "V. cholerae" (the causative agent of cholera), "V. parahaemolyticus", and "V. vulnificus." "Vibrio cholerae" is generally transmitted via contaminated water.cite book | author = Faruque SM; Nair GB (editors). | title = Vibrio cholerae: Genomics and Molecular Biology | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2008 | url=http://www.horizonpress.com/vib | id = [http://www.horizonpress.com/vib ISBN 978-1-904455-33-2 ] ] Pathogenic "Vibrio" can cause food poisoning, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.

"Vibrio vulnificus" outbreaks commonly occur in warm climates and small, generally lethal, outbreaks occur regularly. An outbreak occurred in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina cite journal |journal=Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report |title=Infectious Disease and Dermatologic Conditions in Evacuees and Rescue Workers After Hurricane Katrina - Multiple States, August-September, 2005 |volume=54 |pages=1–4 |year=2005 |author=Jablecki J, Norton SA, Keller GR, DeGraw C, Ratard R, Straif-Bourgeois S, Holcombe JM, Quilter S, Byers P, McNeill M, Schlossberg D, Dohony DP, Neville J, Carlo J, Buhner D, Smith BR, Wallace C, Jernigan D, Sobel J, Reynolds M, Moore M, Kuehnert M, Mott J, Jamieson D, Burns-Grant G, Misselbeck T, Cruise PE, LoBue P, Holtz T, Haddad M, Clark TA, Cohen A, Sunenshine R, Jhung M, Vranken P, Lewis FMT, Carpenter LR] and several lethal cases occur most years in Florida.cite journal |journal=Food and Waterborne Illness Surveillance and Investigation |title=Annual Report, Florida |year=2005 |author=Bureau of Community Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health |pages=21]

"V. parahaemolyticus" is also associated with the "Kanagawa phenomenon", in which strains isolated from human hosts (clinical isolates) are hemolytic on blood agar plates, while those isolated from non-human sources are non-hemolytic.cite journal |author=Joseph S, Colwell R, Kaper J |title=Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related halophilic Vibrios |journal=Crit Rev Microbiol |volume=10 |issue=1 |pages=77–124 |year=1982 |pmid=6756788 |doi=10.3109/10408418209113506]

Many "Vibrio" are also zoonotic. They cause disease in fish and shellfish, and are common causes of mortality among domestic marine life.

Other strains

"Vibrio fischeri", "Photobacterium phosphoreum", and "V. harveyi" are notable for their ability to communicate. Both "V. fischeri" and "Ph. phosphoreum" are symbiotes of other marine organisms (typically jellyfish, fish, or squid), and produce light via bioluminescence through the mechanism of quorum sensing. "Vibrio harveyi" is a pathogen of several aquatic animals and notable as a cause of luminous vibriosis in shrimps (prawns)cite journal | author=Austin B & Zhang X-H |title="Vibrio harveyi": a significant pathogen of marine vertebrates and invertebrates |journal=Letters in Applied Microbiology |volume=43 |issue=2 |pages=119–214 |year=2006 |doi=10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01989.x] .

Flagella

The "typical", early-discovered vibrio such as "V. cholerae" have a single polar flagellum (monotrichous) with sheath. Some species such as "V. parahaemolyticus" and "V. alginolyticus" have both a single polar flagellum with sheath and thin flagella projecting in all directions (peritrichous), and the other species such as "V. fischeri" have tufts of polar flagella with sheath (lophotrichous). [cite book|author=George M. Garrity (editor)|title=Bergey's manual of Systematic Bacteriology|edition= 2nd ed. |series=Vol. 2 Part B|publisher=Springer|year=2005|pages=496-8|id= ISBN 0-387-24144-2]

ee also

* Vibrio cholerae
* Cholera
* Cholera toxin
* Flagella

References

External links

* [http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-9.html Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vibrio — Vibrio …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vibrio — cholerae Systematik Domäne: Bakterien Abteilung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Vibrio — alginolyticus Vibrio anguillarum Vibrio carchariae Vibrio cholerae Vibrio damsela Vibrio ordalli Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio salmonicida Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio es un género de bacterias, incluidas en el grupo gamma de las proteobacterias.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Vibrio —   [v ; zu lateinisch vibrare »schwingen«, »zittern«], Gattung kommaförmig gekrümmter, monotrich polar begeißelter, gramnegativer und fakultativ anaerober Bakterien; Vorkommen in Süß und Salzwasser. Vibrio cholerae, der Erreger der Cholera, bildet …   Universal-Lexikon

  • vibrio — Toda bacteria curvada y móvil, como las pertenecientes al género Vibrio. El cólera y algunas otras formas epidémicas de gastroenteritis están causadas por miembros de este género. Diccionario Mosby Medicina, Enfermería y Ciencias de la Salud,… …   Diccionario médico

  • vibrio — [vib′rē ō΄] n. pl. vibrios [ModL < L vibrare, to shake: see VIBRATE] any of a genus (Vibrio) of short, flagellate, Gram negative bacteria shaped like a comma or the letter S: one species ( V. comma) causes cholera …   English World dictionary

  • Vibrio — Vib ri*o, n.; pl. E. {Vibrios}, L. {Vibriones}. [NL., fr. L. vibrare to vibrate, to move by undulations.] (Biol.) A genus of motile bacteria characterized by short, slightly sinuous filaments and an undulatory motion; also, an individual of this… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Vibrio — См. Вибрионы (Источник: «Словарь терминов микробиологии») …   Словарь микробиологии

  • Vibrio — Vi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vibrio —   Vibrio …   Wikipedia Español


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