image_caption=Baltoro glacier in the central Karakorum with 8000ers
Gasherbrum I& II.
country=Pakistan| country1=China | country2=India
region1=Ladakh | region2=Baltistan
border=Himalaya| border1=Pamir Mountains| border2=Hindu Raj
geology= | period= | orogeny=
map_caption=Highest Karakoram peaks as seen from
International Space Station
Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between
Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh, and Baltistan. It is one of the Greater Rangesof Asia, often considered together with the Himalaya, but not technically part of that range.
The Karakoram is home to more than sixty peaks above 7,000m (22,960 ft), including
K2, the second highest peak of the world (8,611 m, 28,251 ft). K2 is just 237 m smaller than the 8,848 m tall Mount Everest. The range is about 500 km (300 mi) in length, and is the most heavily glaciated part of the world outside of the polar regions. The Siachen Glacierat 70 km and the Biafo Glacierat 63 km rank as the world's second and third longest glaciers outside the polar regions. Tajikistan's Fedchenko Glacier is 77 km long. Baltoro and Batura Glaciers in the Karakoram are 57 km long, as is Bruggen or Pio XI Glacier in southern Chile. Measurements are from recent imagery, generally supplemented with Russian 1:200,000 scale topographic mapping as well as Jerzy Wala,"Orographical Sketch
The Karakoram is bounded on the northeast by the edge of the
Tibetan Plateau, and on the north by the Wakhan Corridorand the Pamir Mountains. Just to the west of the northwest end of the Karakoram lies the Hindu Rajrange, beyond which is the Hindu Kushrange. The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed by the Gilgit, Indus, and Shyok Rivers, which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalayarange proper.
Due to its altitude and ruggedness, the Karakoram is much less inhabited than parts of the Himalayas further east. European explorers first visited early in the 19th century, followed by British surveyors starting in 1856.
Muztagh Passwas crossed in 1887 by the expedition of Colonel Francis Younghusbandand the valleys above the Hunza Riverwere explored by George Cockerillin 1892. Explorations in the 1910s and 1920s established most of the geography of the region. Marcel Ichacmade a film entitled "Karakoram", chronicling a French expedition to the range in 1936. The film won the Silver Lion at the Venice film festivalof 1937.
A portion of the Karakoram, disputed between India and China, has been re-created as a
scale modelby the Chinese government. [http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/showthreaded.php/Cat/0/Number/510687/page/vc/vc/1 Google Earth Community: China - Huangyangtan - Scale model of landscape? ] ] http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/07/19/huangyangtan_mystery/] [http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=2266192&page=1 ABC News: Google Geek Unearths Military Secret ] ]
The Karakoram and the
Himalayasare important to Earth scientists for several reasons. They are one of the world's most geologically active areas, at the boundary between two colliding continents. Therefore, they are important in the study of plate tectonics. Mountain glaciers may serve as an indicator of climate change, advancing and receding with long-term changes in temperature and precipitation. These extensive ranges may have even caused climate change when they were formed over 40 million years ago. The large amounts of rock exposed to the atmosphereare weathered (broken down) by carbon dioxide. This process removes the greenhouse gasfrom the atmosphere, and could have caused the global climateto cool, triggering an ongoing series of ice ages.
Most of the highest of Karakoram peaks are in the
Northern Areasof Pakistan. Notable peaks are:
K2(Qogir Feng) (8,611 m)
Gasherbrum I(8,068 m)
Broad Peak(Phalchen Kangri) (8,047 m)
Gasherbrum II(8,035 m)
Gasherbrum III(7,952 m)
Gasherbrum IV(7,925 m)
Distaghil Sar(7,885 m)
Kunyang Chhish(7,852 m)
Masherbrum I(7,821 m)
Batura I(7,795 m)
Batura II(7,762 m)
Kanjut Sar(7,760 m)
Saltoro Kangri(7,742 m)
Batura III(7,729 m)
Saser Kangri(7,672 m)
Haramosh Peak(7,397 m)
Baintha Brakk(7,285 m)
Muztagh Tower(7,273 m)
The majority of the highest peaks are either in the Baltistan or Ladakh regions. Baltistan has more than 100 mountain peaks exceeding 6,100 metres (20,000 ft) height from sea level.
The naming and division of the various subranges of the Karakoram is not universally agreed upon. However, the following is a list of the most important subranges, following Jerzy Wala. [Jerzy Wala, "Orographical Sketch Map of the Karakoram", Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990.] The ranges are listed roughly west to east.
South Ghujerab Mountains
Northern Areasof Pakistan
Khunjerab Pass(the highest paved international border crossing at 4,693m)
Geography of China
Mountain ranges of Pakistan
List of mountains in Pakistan
List of mountain rangesof the world
List of highest mountains(a list of mountains above 7,200m)
* Curzon, George Nathaniel. 1896. "The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus". Royal Geographical Society, London. Reprint: Elibron Classics Series, Adamant Media Corporation. 2005. ISBN 1-4021-5983-8 (pbk); ISBN 1-4021-3090-2 (hbk).
* Mortenson, Greg and Relin, David Oliver. 2008. "
Three Cups of Tea". Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0141034263 (pbk); Viking Books ISBN 978-0670034826 (hbk); Tantor Media ISBN 978-1400152513 (MP3 CD).
* [http://blankonthemap.free.fr/default.htm Blankonthemap] The Northern Kashmir Website
* [http://www.himalaya-info.org/ Comprehensive Information about the mountains of Himalaya and Karakoram with links to good images]
* [http://www.travel-culture.com/pakistan/ Pakistan Travel Information]
* [http://travel.web.pk/destinations/mountains_valleys/karakorum_highway.asp Travel Web: The Karakoram Highway]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1491179.stm Pakistan's Northern Areas dilemma]
* [http://www.karakorams.com/ Karakorams]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Karakoram — ou Karakorum chaîne de montagnes de l Asie, à l O. du plateau du Tibet (8 620 m au K2) … Encyclopédie Universelle
Karakoram — [kä΄rä kôr′əm, kar΄əkôr′əm] mountain range in SC Asia between Xinjiang, China, and N Kashmir, India, extending c. 300 mi (483 km) to the Pamirs: NW extension of the Himalayas: highest peak, GODWIN AUSTEN … English World dictionary
Karakoram — 35° 53′ 00″ N 76° 31′ 00″ E / 35.8833, 76.5167 … Wikipédia en Français
Karakoram — Antigua capital del Imperio mongol. Sus ruinas se encuentran a orillas del curso superior del río Orjon Gol, en el centro norte de Mongolia. Ha estado habitada desde 750; Gengis Kan la hizo su capital en 1220. En 1235, su hijo y sucesor Ogodai… … Enciclopedia Universal
Karakoram — noun a mountain range located in Gilgit, Ladakh Baltistan. The Karakoram range is home to more than sixty peaks above 7,000m (22,960 ft), most of which are in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, including K2, the second highest peak of the world… … Wiktionary
Karakoram — noun a mountain range in northern Kashmir; an extension of the Hindu Kush; contains the 2nd highest peak • Syn: ↑Karakoram Range, ↑Karakorum Range, ↑Mustagh, ↑Mustagh Range • Instance Hypernyms: ↑range, ↑mountain range, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Karakoram — /kahr euh kawr euhm, kohr , kar /, n. 1. Also called Mustagh. a mountain range in NW India, in N Kashmir. Highest peak, K2, 28,250 ft. (8611 m). 2. a pass traversing this range, on the route from NE Kashmir to Sinkiang province in China. 18,300… … Universalium
Karakoram — Ka•ra•ko•ram [[t]ˌkɑr əˈkɔr əm, ˈkoʊr , ˌkær [/t]] n. 1) geg a mountain range in NW India, in N Kashmir. Highest peak, K2, 28,250 ft. (8611 m) 2) geg a pass traversing this range, on the route from NE Kashmir in India to Xinjiang Uygur in China.… … From formal English to slang
Karakoram — /kærəˈkɔrəm/ (say karuh kawruhm) noun 1. a mountain range in north western India, in northern Kashmir. Highest peak, K2, 8610 m. 2. a pass traversing this range, on the route from India to Xinjiang Uygur region, China. 5583 m … Australian English dictionary
Karakoram, 1936-1986 — Karakoram Ne pas confondre le massif montagneux avec la ville de Karakorum en Mongolie, ancienne capitale de l Empire mongol. Karakoram … Wikipédia en Français