Orange oil is an essential oil produced by cells inside the rind of an orange fruit. In contrast to most essential oils, it is extracted as a by-product of orange juice production by centrifugation, producing a cold-pressed oil. It is composed of mostly (greater than 90%) d-limonene, and is therefore often used in place of pure d-limonene, which can be further extracted from the oil by distillation.
Limonene is what gives citrus fruit their familiar aroma, and is therefore used in perfume and household cleaners for its fragrance. It is also an effective, environmentally friendly, and relatively safe solvent, which makes it an active ingredient of choice in many applications, such as, but not limited to, adhesive and stain removers, cleaners of various sorts, and strippers.
The composition of orange oil varies for several reasons. Region and seasonal changes as well as the method used for extraction lead to these variations. Several hundred compounds have been identified with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Most of the substances are part of the terpene group with limonene being the dominant one. Long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon alcohols and aldehydes like octanol and octanal are second important group of substances.
Compound Italian Orange Oil Concentration [%] Valencia orange oil Concentration [%] Valencia orange oil Concentration [%] Valencia orange oil Concentration [%] Limonene 93.67 91.4 95.17 97.0 α-Pinene 0.65 1.4 0.42 – Sabinene and β-Pinene 1.00 0.4 0.24 – Myrcene 2.09 4.3 1.86 0.03 Octanal 0.41 – - – Linalool 0.31 0.8 0.25 0.3 δ-3-Carene 0.31 – – – Decanal 0.27 0.4 0.28 –
The limonene which is the main component of the oil is a mild irritant, as it dissolves protective skin oils.
Limonene and its oxidation products are skin irritants, and limonene-1,2-oxide (formed by aerial oxidation) is a known skin sensitizer. Most reported cases of irritation have involved long-term industrial exposure to the pure compound, e.g. during degreasing or the preparation of paints. However a study of patients presenting dermatitis showed that 3% were sensitized to limonene.
Limonene has been observed to cause cancer in male rats, by reacting with α2u-globulin, which is not produced by female rats. There is no evidence for carcinogenicity or genotoxicity in humans. The IARC classifies d-limonene under Class 3: not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
Limonene is also flammable.
Biological pest control
Orange oil can be used in biological pest control green pesticides, and can kill individual and colonies of ants and eradicate their "scent-pheromone trail" indicators to disrupt re-infestation. It is safe in areas such as kitchens.
- ^ Dominic W. S. Wong (1989). Mechanism and theory in food chemistry. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 0442207530. http://books.google.com/books?id=UHi9LpuuHBMC&lpg=PA253&dq=%22orange%20oil%22%20cold-pressed%20byproduct&pg=PA253#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- ^ K. Bauer, D. Garbe, and H. Surburg, "Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials", 4th Ed, Wiley VCH, 2001, ISBN 3-527-30364-2. 189.
- ^ A. Verzera, A. Trozzi, G. Dugo, G. Di Bella, A. Cotroneo (2004). "Biological lemon and sweet orange essential oil composition". Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19 (6): 544–548. doi:10.1002/ffj.1348.
- ^ J. Pino *, M. Sánchez, R. Sánchez, E. Roncal (2006). "Chemical composition of orange oil concentrates". Nahrung / Food 36 (6): 539–542. doi:10.1002/food.19920360604.
- ^ J. D. Vora , R. F. Matthews , P. G. Crandall , R. Cook (1983). "Preparation and Chemical Composition of Orange Oil Concentrates". Journal of Food Science 48 (4): 1197–1199. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb09190.x.
- ^ R. L. Colman, E. D. Lund, M. G. Moshonas (1969). "Composition of Orange Essence Oil". Journal of Food Science 34 (6): 610. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1969.tb12102.x.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ "Safety data (MSDS) for limonene". http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/LI/limonene.html.
- ^ "A Review of "Organic" and Other Alternative Methods for Fire Ant Control". http://fireant.tamu.edu/materials/factsheets_pubs/pdf/FAPFS012.2002rev.pdf.
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