Chadwick's sign

Chadwick's sign

Chadwick's sign is a bluish discoloration of the cervix, vagina, and labia caused by the hormone estrogen which results in venous congestion. It can be observed as early as 6-8 weeks after conception[1], and its presence is an early sign of pregnancy.

These color changes were discovered in approximately 1836 by French doctor Étienne Joseph Jacquemin (1796-1872),[2] and are named after James Read Chadwick, who drew attention to it in a paper read before the American Gynecological Society in 1886 and published in the following year, wherein he credited Jacquemin for their discovery.[2][3]

See also


  1. ^ Note: In some it can be seen earlier.
  2. ^ a b Gleichert, James E. (1971). "Étienne Joseph Jacquemin, Discoverer of 'Chadwick's Sign'". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 26 (1): 75–80. doi:10.1093/jhmas/XXVI.1.75. PMID 4925842. 
  3. ^ Chadwick, James Reed (1887). "The value of the bluish discoloration of the vaginal entrance as a sign of pregnancy". Transactions of the American Gynecological Society (11): 399–418. 

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