- Italian Jews
Italian Jews can be used in a broad sense to mean all Jews living in
Italyor in a narrower sense to mean the ancient community who use the Italian rite, as distinct from newer arrivals who use the Sephardi or Ashkenazi rite.
Italian Jews historically fell into four categories.
#Jews of the Italian rite (sometimes called "Italkim") who have resided in Italy since Roman times; see below.
#Sephardim, who may be divided into Levantine Sephardim and
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, i.e. Jews who arrived in Italy following the expulsions from Spain in 1492, Portugal in 1497 and the Kingdom of Naples in 1533. These in turn include both those expelled at the time and crypto-Jewish families who left Spain and Portugal in subsequent centuries and reverted to Judaism.
Ashkenazi Jews, living mainly in the northern part of the country.
#The Jews of
Asti, Fossano and Moncalvo ("Appam"). These represent the Jews expelled from France in the Middle Ages. Their liturgy is similar to that of the Ashkenazim, but contains some distinctive usages descended from the French Jews of the time of Rashi, particularly in the services for the High Holy Days.
Historically these communities remained separate: in a given city there was often an "Italian synagogue" and a "Spanish synagogue", and occasionally a "German synagogue" as well. In many cases these have since amalgamated, but a given synagogue may have services of more than one rite.
Italian Jews can be traced back as far as the second century BCE: tombstones and dedicatory inscriptions survive from this period. At that time they mostly lived in the far South of Italy, with a branch community in Rome, and were generally Greek-speaking. It is thought that some families (for example the Adolescenti) are descendants of Jews deported from Judaea by the emperor Titus in 70 CE. In early medieval times there were major communities in southern Italian cities such as
Bariand Otranto. Medieval Italian Jews also produced important halachic works such as Shibbole ha-Leket. Following the expulsion of the Jews from the Kingdom of Naples in 1533, the centre of gravity shifted to Rome and the north.
One of the most famous of Italy's Jews was
Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto( 1707- 1746) whose written religious and ethical works are still widely studied.
The Italian Jewish community as a whole has numbered no more than 50,000 since it was fully emancipated in
1870. During the Second Aliyah(between 1904 and 1914) many Italian Jews moved to Israel, and there is an Italian synagogue and cultural centre in Jerusalem. (There is also an Italian synagogue in Istanbul.)
Italian rite Jews
The native Italian Jews, as distinct from the Sephardim and the Ashkenazim, are sometimes referred to in the scholarly literature as "Italkim" (Hebrew for "Italians"; pl. of "italki", Middle Hebrew loanword from the Latin adjective "italicu(m)", meaning "Italic", "Latin", "Roman"; "italkit" is also used in Modern Hebrew as the language name "Italian"). They have traditionally spoken a variety of
Judeo-Italian languages, sometimes collectively referred to in academic literature as Italkian.
The customs and religious rites of the Italian-rite Jews are in some ways a bridge between the Ashkenazi and Sephardi traditions, showing similarities to both; they are closer still to the customs of the
Romaniotes(native Greek Jews). A sub-division is recognised between "minhag Bené Romi", practised in Rome, and "minhag Italiani", practised in northern cities such as Turin, though the two rites are generally close.
In matters of religious law, Italian-rite Jews generally follow the same rules as the Sephardim, in that they accept the authority of
Isaac Alfasiand the Shulchan Aruchas opposed to the Ashkenazi customs codified by Moses Isserles(the "Rema"). However their liturgy is different from that of both these groups. One reason for this is that Italy was the main centre of early Jewish printing, enabling Italian Jews to preserve their own traditions when most other communities had to opt for a standard "Sephardi" or "Ashkenazi" prayer-book.
It is often claimed that the Italian prayer-book contains the last remnants of the Judaean/Galilaean Jewish tradition, while both the Sephardi and, to a lesser extent, the Ashkenazi rites reflect the Babylonian tradition. This claim is quite likely historically, though it is difficult to verify textually as little liturgical material from Eretz Yisrael survives. Additionally, some Italian traditions reflect the Babylonian rite in a more archaic form, in much the same way as the prayer-book of the
Yemenite Jews. Examples of old Babylonian traditions retained by the Italians but by no other group (including the Yemenites) are the use of "keter yitenu lach" in the "kedushah" of all services and of "naḥamenu" in Birkat Hamazon(grace after meals) on Shabbat, both of which are found in the Siddurof Amram Gaon.
Pronunciation of Hebrew
The Italian pronunciation of Hebrew is similar to that of conservative
Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Distinguishing features are:
* "beth raphe" is pronounced [IPA|v] (unlike
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, who pronounce it as [IPA|b] );
* "he" is often silent, as in the family name "Coen";
* "vav" is normally [IPA|v] as in most Hebrew dialects, but can become [IPA|w] in diphthongs (as in the family name "Anau"). Thus, in construct masculine plurals with male singular possessive suffix יו-, the pronunciation is not [-IPA|av] but [-IPA|au] ;
zayin" is often pronounced [IPA|dz] like Italian voiced "z";
ayin" is pronounced [IPA|ŋ] (like English "ng" in "sing"). In some dialects, like the Roman, this sometimes becomes [IPA|nj] , like the Italian combination "gn";
* final "tav" is pronounced [IPA|d] ;
* speakers in communities south of the La Spezia-Rimini
isogloss, and Jewish communities transplanted north of this, pronounce "dagesh forte" as a true geminate sound, in keeping with the pronunciation of double letters in Italian. [Elia S. "La pronuncia dell'ebraico presso gli Ebrei di Italia." in Scritti in memoria di F. Luzzatto. Rassegna Mensile di Israel 28 (1962): 26-30.]
This pronunciation has in many cases been adopted by the Sephardi, Ashkenazi and "Appam" communities of Italy as well as by the Italian-rite communities.
There have been Ashkenazi Jews living in the North of Italy since at least as early as the late Middle Ages. In Venice, they were the oldest Jewish community in the city, antedating both the Sephardic and the Italian groups. Following the invention of printing Italy became a major publishing centre for Hebrew and Yiddish books for the use of German and other northern European Jews. A notable figure was
Elijah Levita, who was an expert Hebrew grammarian and Masoreteas well as the author of the Yiddish romantic epic Bovo-Bukh.
Another interesting community was that of
Asti, Fossanoand Moncalvo, which was descended from Jews expelled from France in 1394: only the Asti community survives today. Their rite, known as "Appam" (from the Hebrew initials for those three cities), is similar to the Ashkenazi, but has some peculiarities drawn from the old French rite, particularly on the High Holy Days. These variations are found on loose-leaf sheets which the community uses in conjunction with the normal Ashkenazi prayer-book; they are also printed by Goldschmidt. [Daniel Goldschmidt, "Mechkare Tefillah u-Fiyyut" (On Jewish Liturgy): Jerusalem 1978.] This rite is the only surviving descendant of the original French rite, as known to Rashi, used anywhere in the world: French Ashkenazim since 1394 have used the German-Ashkenazic rite.
In musical tradition and in pronunciation, Italian Ashkenazim differ considerably from the Ashkenazim of other countries, and show some assimilation to the other two communities. Exceptional are the north-eastern communities such as that of Gorizia, which date from Austro-Hungarian times and are much closer to the German and Austrian traditions.
From 1442, when the
Kingdom of Naplescame under Spanish rule, considerable numbers of Sephardi Jews came to live in Southern Italy. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, from Portugal in 1495 and from the Kingdom of Naples in 1533, many moved to central and northern Italy. One famous refugee was Don Isaac Abravanel.
Over the next few centuries they were joined by a steady stream of
conversos leaving Spain and Portugal. In Italy they ran the risk of prosecution for Judaizing, given that in law they were baptized Christians; for this reason they generally avoided the Papal States. The Popes did allow some Spanish-Jewish settlement at Ancona, as this was the main port for the Turkey trade, in which their links with the Ottoman Sephardim were useful. Other states found it advantageous to allow the conversos to settle and mix with the existing Jewish communities, and to turn a blind eye to their religious status; while in the next generation, the children of conversos could be brought up as fully Jewish with no legal problem, as they had never been baptized.
The main places of settlement were as follows.
Venice. The Venetian Republic often had strained relations with the Papacy; on the other hand they were alive to the commercial advantages offered by the presence of educated Spanish-speaking Jews, especially for the Turkey trade. Previously the Jews of Venice were tolerated under charters for a fixed term of years, periodically renewed. In the early 1500s these arrangements were made permanent, and a separate charter was granted to the "Ponentine" (western) community. The flip side was the confinement of the Jews to the newly-established Venetian Ghetto. Nevertheless for a long time the Venetian Republic was regarded as the "goldene medinah" for Jews, equivalent to the Netherlands in the seventeenth century or the United States in the 1900s.
# Sephardic immigration was also encouraged by the Este princes, in their possessions of
Reggio, Modenaand Ferrara. In 1598 Ferrara was repossessed by the Papal States, leading to some Jewish emigration from there.
# In 1593,
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, granted Portuguese Jews charters to live and trade in Pisaand Livorno.
On the whole the Spanish and Portuguese Jews remained separate from the native Italian Jews, though there was considerable mutual religious and intellectual influence between the groups.
The "Scola Spagnola" of
Venicewas originally regarded as the "mother synagogue" for the Spanish and Portuguese community world wide, as it was among the earliest to be established, and the first prayer book was published there: later communities, such as Amsterdam, followed its lead on ritual questions. With the decline in the importance of Venice in the eighteenth century, the leading role passed to Livorno (for Italy and the Mediterranean) and Amsterdam (for western countries). The Livorno synagogue was destroyed in the Second World War: a modern building was erected in 1958-62.
In addition to Spanish and Portuguese Jews strictly so called, Italy has been host to many
Sephardi Jewsfrom the eastern Mediterranean. Dalmatiaand many of the Greek islands, where there were large Jewish communities, were for several centuries part of the Venetian Republic, and there was a "Levantine" community in Venice. This remained separate from the "Ponentine" (i.e. Spanish and Portuguese) community and close to their eastern roots, as evidenced by their use in the seventeenth century of a hymn book classified by maqamin the Ottoman manner (see Pizmonim). (Today both synagogues are still in use, but the communities have amalgamated.) Later on the community of Livorno acted as a link between the Spanish and Portuguese and the eastern Sephardic Jews and as a clearing house of musical and other traditions between the groups. Many Italian Jews today have "Levantine" roots, for example in Corfu, and before the Second World War Italy regarded the existence of the eastern Sephardic communities as a chance to expand Italian influence in the Mediterranean.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many Italian Jews (mostly but not exclusively from the Spanish and Portuguese group) maintained a trading and residential presence in both Italy and countries in the Ottoman Empire: even those who settled permanently in the Ottoman Empire retained their Tuscan or other Italian nationality, so as to have the benefit of the Ottoman Capitulations. Thus in Tunisia there was a community of "Juifs Portugais", or "L'Grana" (Livornese), separate from, and regarding itself as superior to, the native Tunisian Jews ("Tuansa"). Smaller communities of the same kind existed in other countries, such as Syria, where they were known as "Señores Francos", though they generally were not numerous enough to establish their own synagogues, instead meeting for prayer in each other's houses. European countries often appointed Jews from these communities as their consular representatives in Ottoman cities.
*Sacerdoti, Annie, "A Guide to Jewish Italy" (2004) ISBN-10: 0847826538, ISBN-13: 978-0847826537
*Bonfil, Robert, "Rabbis and Jewish Communities in Renaissance Italy" (Littman Library of Jewish Civilization) (1989) ISBN-10: 0197100643, ISBN-13: 978-0197100646
*"The Jews of Italy: Memory And Identity", eds Dr Barbara Garvin & Prof. Bernard Cooperman, Studies and Texts in Jewish History and Culture VII, University Press of Maryland (Bethesda 2000), ISBN 1-883053-366
*"Italian Jewish Musical Traditions from the
Leo LeviCollection (1954-1961)" (Anthology of Music Traditions in Israel, 14, edited by Edwin Seroussi): contains examples of Italian liturgical music from the Italiani/Bené Romi, Sephardi and Ashkenazi traditions
* "Talile Zimra - Singing Dew": "The Florence-Leghorn Jewish Musical Tradition", Beth Hatefutsot, 2002
* Adler Israel, "Hosha’ana Rabbah in Casale Monferrato 1732: Dove in the Clefts of the Rock", Jewish Music Research Center, Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Jerusalem 1990 (Yuval Music series Volume: 2), book and CD
*Free download of tefillot, haftarot, parashot sung according the Italian rite on the site [http://www.archivio-torah.it/HTM/indiceaudio.htm www.torah.it]
History of the Jews in Italy
List of Italian Jews
* [http://www.jewishitaly.org/ List of all Jewish Italian synagogues]
* [http://www.ucei.it/ Union of Jewish Communities in Italy]
* [http://www.romacer.org/ Jewish Community of Rome]
* [http://www.mosaico-cem.it/ Jewish Community of Milan]
* [http://www.doge.it/ghetto/ Jewish Community of Venice]
* [http://www.racine.ra.it/curba/studenti/materialeStud/ebrei/ebrei_a_lugo.html Jews in Lugo]
* [http://dewey.library.upenn.edu/sceti/ljs/PageLevel/view.cfm?option=view&ManID=ljs379 Ferdinando I De Medici, Document Inviting Jewish Merchants to Settle in Livorno and Pisa, in Italian, Manuscript on Vellum, Florence, Italy, 10 June 1593 (fac-simile)]
* [http://www.morasha.it/sbr/index.html Siddùr Benè Romì] (in Italian)
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