Emirate of Bukhara


Emirate of Bukhara

Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Emirate of Bukhara
native_name = "Buxoro Amirligi"
common_name = Bukhara
continent = moved from Category:Asia to Central Asia
region = Central Asia
country = Uzbekistan & Tajikistan
status = Protectorate
status_text = Protectorate of the Russian Empire
empire = Russian Empire
government_type = Monarchy
title_leader = Emir
leader1 = Mir Masum Shah Murad
year_leader1 = 1785-1800
leader2 = Alim
year_leader2 = 1911-1920
capital = Bukhara
latd=39|latm=46|latNS=N|longd=64|longm=26|longEW=E
common_languages = Persian, Uzbek, Tajik, Bukhori
religion = Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism
year_start = 1785
year_end = 1920
date_end = October
event1 = Conquered by Russia
date_event1 = 1868
event2 = Russian protectorate
date_event2 = 1873
event_pre = Manghit control
date_pre = 1747
p1 = Khanate of Bukhara
s1 = Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
flag_s1 = Flag_of_the_Bukharan_People%27s_Soviet_Republic.svg


The Emirate of Bukhara ( _uz. "Buxoro Amirligi"; _tg. Аморати Бухоро) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana.

History

The Emirate of Bukhara was officially created in 1785, upon the assumption of rulership by the Manghit emir, Shah Murad. Over the course of the 18th century, the emirs had slowly gained effective control of the Khanate of Bukhara, from their position as "ataliq". By the 1740s, when the khanate was conquered by Nadir Shah of Persia, it was clear that the emirs held the real power. , "A History of Inner Asia" (2000), p. 179-80.]

In 1868 the emirate lost a war with Imperial Russia, which had colonial aspirations in the region. Russia annexed much of the emirate's territory, including Samarkand. [ibid, p. 198.] In 1873 the remainder became a Russian protectorate, [http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/romeo/russobukharan1868.htm] and was soon surrounded by the Governorate-General of Turkestan.

Reformists within the Emirate had found the conservative emir, Mohammed Alim Khan, unwilling to loosen his grip on power, and had turned to the Russian Bolshevik revolutionaries for military assistance. The Red Army launched an unsuccessful assault in March, 1920, and then a successful one in September of the same year. [ibid, pp. 221-222.] The Emirate of Bukhara was conquered by the Bolsheviks and replaced with the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic. Today the territory of the defunct emirate lies mostly in Uzbekistan, with parts in Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan.

Culture

Around the 16th Century, Europeans came to Central Asia and saw Jews living in the Emirate of Bukhara. These Jews were called Bukharian Jews.

Notes


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