Col legno

Col legno performed on a violin: battuto (0 sec.), tratto (9), with tremolo (20), with glissando (33), and battuto with movement of the bow across the fingerboard (48).

In music for bowed string instruments, col legno, or more precisely col legno battuto (Italian for "hit with the wood"), is an instruction to strike the string with the stick of the bow, rather than by drawing the hair of the bow across the strings. This results in a quiet but eerie percussive sound.

Col legno is used in the final movement of the Piano Concerto No. 2 by Frédéric Chopin, which predates the more famous use in the "Dream of Witches' Sabbath", in the final movement of Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique, in the score of the film Alien by Jerry Goldsmith[citation needed], as well as in "Mars, the Bringer of War" from Holst's The Planets, the first movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 2, and Mussorgsky's Night on Bald Mountain. An early example can be found in Tobias Hume's "Harke, Harke." The percussive sound of col legno battuto has a clear pitch element determined by the distance of the bow from the bridge at the point of contact. As a group of players will never strike the string in exactly the same place, the sound of a section of violins playing col legno battuto is dramatically different from the sound of a single violin doing so.

The wood of the bow can also be drawn across the string — a technique called col legno tratto ("drawn with the wood"). This is much less common, and the plain marking col legno is invariably interpreted to mean battuto rather than tratto. The sound produced by col legno tratto is very quiet, with an overlay of white noise, but the pitch of the stopped note can be clearly heard.

Some string players object to col legno playing as it can damage the bow; many players have a cheaper bow which they use for col legno passages, or for pieces which require extended passages of col legno.[1] Some players tap the strings with pencils instead of bows, producing a further percussive, lighter sound.

References

  1. ^ Blatter, A.: "Instrumentation and Orchestration", page 37. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 1997

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • col legno — col le|gno auch: col leg|no 〈[ lɛ̣njo] Mus.〉 musikalische Anweisung für Streicher, mit dem Holz des Bogens zu spielen [ital., „mit dem Holz“] * * * col le|g|no [kɔl lɛnjo ; ital., aus: col = mit dem u. legno = Holz < lat. lignum] (Musik): mit… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Col legno — (ital. „mit dem Holz“) ist eine Spielanweisung für Streichinstrumente, die als bizarrer Effekt bereits im 17. Jahrhundert aufkam. Erstmals forderte Tobias Hume die Technik in einem seiner Werke, auch in den „Capriccio Stravagante“ von Carlo… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Col legno — En una partitura musical la anotación col legno, o más explícitamente col legno battuto (en italiano: golpear con la madera ) indica para los instrumentos de cuerda frotada que debe golpearse o rozarse la cuerda con el dorso del arco en lugar de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • col legno — ит. [коль ле/ньо] (играть, ударять по струне) древком смычка см. также col, legno ◊ col legno gestrichen ит., нем. [коль ле/ньо гештри/хен] водить древком смычка по струнам …   Словарь иностранных музыкальных терминов

  • Col legno — Termes italiens en musique L Italie a joué un rôle primordial dans le développement de la musique en Europe dès la période de la Renaissance, et particulièrement pendant la période baroque, au cours de laquelle les musiciens italiens ont dominé… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • col legno — col lẹ|gno auch: col lẹg|no 〈[kɔl lɛ̣njo] Musik〉 musikalische Anweisung für Streicher, mit dem Holz des Bogens zu spielen [Etym.: ital., »mit dem Holz«] …   Lexikalische Deutsches Wörterbuch

  • col legno — col le|gno* [kɔl lɛnjo] <it. > mit dem Holz des Bogens [zu spielen] (Spielanweisung für Streicher; Mus.) …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • col legno — /koh layn yoh/; It. /kawl le nyaw/, Music. (a direction to play a stringed instrument with the back of the bow rather than the hairs) with the wood. [ < It] * * * …   Universalium

  • col legno — adverb A musical notation indicating that the strings are to be struck with the wood of the bow …   Wiktionary

  • Col legno — Musikalsk udtryk der betegner, at der skal spilles med bagsiden af buen …   Danske encyklopædi

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