Worldwide, horses and other
equids usually live outside with access to shelter from the elements. In some cases, animals are kept in a barnor stable, or may have access to a shed or shelter. Horses require both shelter from windand precipitation, as well as room to exercise and run. They must have access to clean fresh waterat all times, and access to adequate foragesuch as grassor hay. In the winter, horses grow a heavy hair coat to keep warm and usually stay warm if well-fed and allowed access to shelter. But if kept artificially clipped for show, or if under stress from age, sickness or injury, a horse blanketmay need to be added to protect the horse from cold weather. In the summer, access to shade is well-advised.For horse owners who do not own their own land, fields and barns can be rented from a private land owner or space for an individual horse may be rented from a boarding farm. Unless an animal can be fully maintained on pasturewith a natural open water source, horses must be fed daily, preferably at least twice a day. If a horse cannot be fed by its owner every day, it is usually kept at a boarding stable, where the staff will care for the horse for a fee. As equines are herd animals, most have better mental behavior when in proximity to other equine company. However, this is not always possible, and it has been known for companionship bonds to develop between horses and cats, goats and other species. There are exceptions. Some horses, particularly stallions may need to live on their own as they may fight with other animals.Horses that are not on full-time turnout in a field or pasturenormally require some form of regular exercise, whether it is being ridden, longed or turned out for free time. However, if a horse is ill or injured it may need to be confined to a stable, kept in a box stall.
If a horse is kept in a
pasture, the amount of land needed for basic maintenance varies with climate, an animal needs more land for grazing in a dry climate than in a moist one. However, an average of between one and three acres of land per horse will provide adequate forage in much of the world, though feed may have to be supplemented in winter or during periods of drought. To lower the risk of laminitis, horses also may need to be removed from lush, rapidly changing grass for short periods in the spring and fall (autumn), when the grass is particularly high in non-structural carbohydrates such as fructans.If the terrain does not provide natural shelter in the form of heavy trees or other windbreaks, an artificial shelter must be provided; a horse's insulating hair coat works less efficiently when wet or when subjected to wind, horses that cannot get away from wind and precipitation put unnecessary energy into maintaining core body warmth and may become susceptible to illness.Evans "The Horse" 2nd ed. p. 758-761] Some horses are turned out in a natural setting during the winter or when retired from work. However, even in these cases, animals need to be checked frequently for evidence of injury, parasites, sickness or weight loss. Horses cannot live for more than a few days without water. Therefore even in a natural, semi- feralsetting, a check every day is recommended; a stream or irrigation source can dry up, ponds may become stagnant or develop toxic blue-green algae, a fencecan break and allow escape, poisonous plants can take root and grow; windstorms, precipitation, or even human vandalism can create unsafe conditions.
Fences and pens
Horses evolved to live on
prairiegrasslands and to cover long distances unfettered by artificial barriers. Therefore, when fenced in, accident potential must be considered. Horses will put their heads and legs through fences in an attempt to reach forage on the other side. They may run into fences if chased by another animal, or even when running at play if the fence (such as a wire fence) is not particularly visible. The smaller the area, the more visible and substantial a fence needs to be.For exercise alone, a pen, run, corral or "dry lot" without forage can be much smaller than a pasture, and this is a common way that many horses are managed; kept in a barn with a turnout run, or in a dry lot with a shelter, feeding hay, allowing either no pasture access, or grazing for only a few hours per day. Outdoor turnout pens range greatly in size, but convert|12|ft|m|0 by 20 to convert|30|ft|m|0 is a bare minimum for a horse that does not get ridden daily. To gallop for short stretches, a horse needs a "run" of at least 50 to convert|100|ft|m|-1. When kept in a dry lot, a barn or shelter is a must. If kept in a small pen, a horse needs to be worked regularly or turned out in a larger area for free exercise.Fences in pens must be sturdy. In close quarters, a horse may contact the fence frequently. Wire is very dangerous in any small pen. Pens are often made of metal pipe, or wood. Larger pens are sometimes enclosed in closely woven mesh, sometimes called "no climb" fencing. However, if a wire mesh is used in a small pen, the openings must be too small for a horse hoof to pass through.
Types of fencing
Over vast areas,
barbed wireis often seen in some parts of the world, but it is the most dangerous fencing material that can be used around horses, even in a large pasture. If a horse is caught in barbed wire, it can quickly become severely hurt, often leaving lasting scars or even permanent injuries. Horse management books and periodicals are nearly universal in stating that barbed wire should never be used to contain horses.Price "The Whole Horse Catalog" rev. ed. p. 56-58] However, this advice is widely ignored, particularly in the western United States.Various types of smooth wire fencing, particularly when supported by a strand of electric fence, can be used to enclose a large pasture of several acres, and is one of the least expensive fencing options. A wire fence should have at least four, preferably five strands to provide adequate security. However, even without sharp barbs, wire has the highest potential for horses to become tangled in the fence and injured. If used, it must be properly installed and kept tight through regular maintenance. Visibility is also an issue; a horse galloping in an unfamiliar pasture may not see a wire fence until it is too late to stop.Evans "The Horse" 2nd ed. p. 764-765] Woven mesh wire is safer but more expensive than strands of smooth wire. It is more difficult to install, and has some visibility issues, but horses are less likely to become tangled in it or be injured if they run into it. Adding a top rail of wood or synthetic material increases visibility of the fence and prevents it from being bent by horses reaching over it. A strand of electric fence may also keep horses from pushing on a mesh fence. Mesh fencing needs to be heavy-gauge wire, woven, not welded, and the squares of the mesh should be too small for a horse to put a foot through. "Field fence" or "no-climb" fence are safer designs than more widely woven "sheep fence." Chain link fenceis occasionally seen, but horses can bend chain link almost as easily as a thinner-gauge wire, so the additional expense is often not justified by any gain over good-quality woven wire. Electric fencecomes in many styles of wire, rope and webbing, and is particularly useful for internal division of pastures. It carries only a mild charge that causes a noticeable shock, but no permanent injury to animals or people. It is relatively inexpensive and is easy to install, but if electricity fails, it is easily broken. It is excellent both as a temporary fence and, in single strands, as a top or middle barrier to keep horses away from conventional fencing. There is some danger that horses can become tangled in an electric fence, though because the materials are finer, it usually breaks, stopping the current, though injuries are still possible. Because electricity can fail, it should not be the sole fencing used on property boundaries, particularly next to roads, though a strand on top may be used to keep a horse from leaning over a fence made of other materials. Nor should it be used alone in small pens where horses may accidentally bump into it on a regular basis. However, small single-horse enclosures are sometimes seen at endurance ridingcompetition, where temporary fencing must be set up in remote areas. In residential areas, warning signs should be posted on any boundary fences with electrified sections to keep people from touching the fence and accidentally being shocked.Wood is the "classic" form of horse fencing, either painted planks or natural round rails. It is one of the safest materials for containing horses. Wood or a synthetic material with similar properties is the best option for small paddocks, pens and corrals. It can be used to fence pastures and has some ability to give or break if a horse collides with it. However, wood is expensive, high maintenance and not completely without safety concerns; boards can splinter, nails can stick out and cause lacerations. Wood-like synthetics are even more expensive, but are often safer and lower maintenance.Cable of various sorts is sometimes used for horse fencing, and, especially if combined with a top rail or pipe or wood, can be reasonably safe. However, if cable is not kept tight, like wire, horses can be tangled in it. However, it not only cannot break but unlike wire, it also cannot easily be cut by humans. Its advantage over wire is that it poses less of a risk of entanglement. It is often less expensive than wood or pipe, has some give if a horse runs into it, and requires relatively little maintenance.Evans "The Horse" 2nd ed. p. 767] Metal pipe is often used for fences instead of wood and if properly installed, can be fairly safe in the right circumstances. Pipe is often the most expensive fencing option, but is low maintenance and is very strong. Pipe will generally not give or break if it is run into or if the horse puts a foot through it, which can itself be a potential injury risk; horse owners debate the relative merits and dangers of pipe versus wood for horse fencing. Usually pipe is most suitable for very small areas such as pens where a horse may often bump or test the fence, but will not be at risk of colliding with the fence at full speed.Solid wall masonryfences, typically either brickor fieldstone, are a type of horse fencing with an ancient tradition. Advantages of stone fences are high visibility, durability, strength and safety. Horses cannot get caught or tangled in them, put legs through, and if a horse runs into one, the impact is spread over much of the body, rather than concentrated on a single spot. They will last for decades with only minor repairs. The major disadvantage is the cost: the materials are expensive, fences require skilled labor for proper construction, and take longer to build.
Barns and stables
Horses are sometimes kept indoors in buildings called either
barns or stables. The terms are often used interchangeably; a barn is the more general term for a rural building that houses livestock, the term stable is more often used in urban areas and can be used as a noun to refer to the building that houses horses or the collection of horses themselves, or as a verb to describe the act of keeping horses in a stable. These buildings are usually unheated and well-ventilated; horses may develop respiratory problems when kept in damp or stuffy conditions. Most horse barns have a number of box stalls inside, that allow many horses to be safely stabled together in separate quarters. There are also separate areas or even rooms for feed, equipment and tack storage and, in some large stables, there may be additional facilities such as a veterinary treatment area or a washing area in the building. Barns may be designed to hold one horse in the backyard of a family home, or be a commercial operation capable of holding dozens of animals.The standard dimensions for a box stall (called a "box" in the UK, and a "stall" in the USA) vary from 10' by 12' to 14' by 14', depending on local cultural traditions, the breed of horse, gender, and any special needs. Mares with foalsoften are kept in double stalls.Hill "Horsekeeping on a Small Acreage" p. 107-108] Stallions, kept alone with less access to turnout, are also often given larger quarters. Ponies sometimes are kept in smaller box stalls, and warmbloods or draft horses may need larger ones. Horses kept in stables need daily exercise and may develop stable vicesif they are not given work or turnout. Box stalls usually contain a layer of absorbent bedding such as strawor wood shavings and need to be cleaned daily; a horse generates approximately 15 pounds of manure and several gallons of urineeach day. There are health risks to the horse if forced to stand all day in its own waste.However, stables are built as much for the convenience of humans as horses; most healthy horses are equally, if not more, comfortable in a field or paddock with a simple three-sided shed that protects them from the elements.In some parts of the world, horses that are worked daily are kept in tie stalls, usually about 5 to convert|6|ft|m|0 wide and 8 to convert|10|ft|m|0 long. As the name implies, a horse is tied, usually to a ring in front of a hay manger, and cannot turn around in a tie stall. But if the stall is wide enough, it can lay down. Tie stalls were used extensively prior to the 20th century, and barns with tie stalls are still seen in some regions, particularly in poorer countries, at older fairgrounds and agricultural exposition facilities, but are not used as often in modern barns.
A horse or pony needs approximately 1.5% to 2.5% of its body weight in food per day. This may include forages such as
grassor hay, and concentrates such as grainor commercially prepared pelleted feeds. Like people, some horses are " easy keepers" and prone to obesity, while others are " hard keepers" and need a great deal of food just to maintain a slim build. The average riding horse weighs roughly 1000 pounds, but the weight of a horse can be more closely estimated using a weight tape, which can be purchased from a feed store or tack shop.
Best practice is to feed horses two or three times daily, unless they are on full time pasture. Fresh, clean
watershould be provided free choice at all times, unless there is a specific reason to limit water intake for a short period of time.A horse that is not ridden daily or subjected to other stressors can maintain adequate nutrition on pasture or hay alone, with adequate water (10-12 gallons per day minimum) and free access to a saltblock or loose salt. However, horses and ponies in regular work often need a ration of both forage and concentrates.
Horses that are fed improperly may develop colic or
laminitis, particularly if fed spoiled feed, subjected to excessive feed, or a too-abrupt change of feed. Young horses who are improperly fed may develop growth disorders due to an imbalance of nutrients.
Horses groomed regularly have healthier and more attractive coats. Many horse management handbooks recommend grooming a horse daily, though for the average modern horse owner, this is not always possible. However, a horse should always be groomed before being ridden to avoid chafing and rubbing of dirt and other material, which can cause sores on the animal and also grind dirt into
horse tack. Grooming also allows the horse handler to check for injuries and is a good way to gain the trust of the animal. Hill "Horse Handling & Grooming" p. 60-67]
Proper basic grooming of a horse is a multi-step process involving several simple tools:
#Curry: Usually a round tool with short teeth made of plastic or stiff rubber, used to loosen dirt, hair, and other detritus, plus stimulate the skin to produce natural oils.
#Dandy brush: A stiff-bristled, "dandy" brush is used to remove the dirt, hair and other material stirred up by the curry. The best quality dandy brushes are made of stiff natural bristles such as rice stems, plastic-bristled dandy brushes are more common.
#Body brush: A soft-bristled "body" brush removes finer particles and dust. Some natural body brushes are made of boar bristles, like human hairbrushes, others are made of soft synthetic fibers.
#Grooming rag or towel: A terrycloth towel or other type of cloth. Sometimes called a "stable rubber."
#Mane brush or comb: Horses with short, pulled manes have their manes combed with a wide-toothed plastic or metal comb. Horse tails and long manes are brushed with either a dandy brush or a suitable human hairbrush.
#Hoof pick: All four feet of the horse need to be cleaned out. See "Hoof care and shoeing," "below."
#In special weather conditions, a metal shedding blade with short, dull teeth is used to remove loose winter hair. Metal grooming tools used on
sheepand show cattlemay also be too harsh to use on a horse.
#In the summer, fly spray is often applied to the horse after grooming.
# Sweat or Water Scraper: A metal or plastic tool to remove excess liquid from a horse's coat.
#Sometimes, though not always, horses are clipped with scissors or, preferably, electric clippers. The most common areas are a short "bridle path" just behind the ears, where a few inches of mane is removed to help the bridle lay more neatly; and the fetlocks, where extra hair can collect undesired amounts of mud and dirt. For
horse showand exhibition purposes, additional clipping may be done.
Beyond the basic equipment, there are literally thousands of grooming tools on the market, from multiple designs on the basic brushes, available in many colors, to specialized tools for braiding manes, polishing hooves and clipping loose hair. There are also grooming products for horses ranging from moisturizing hair dressings to glitter gel and hoof polish.
Horses can be bathed by being wet down with a garden hose, but they do not require bathing and many horses live their entire lives without a bath. Either horse or human shampoo may be safely used on a horse, if thoroughly rinsed out, and cream rinses or hair conditioners, similar to those used by humans, are often used on show horses. Too-frequent shampooing can strip the hair coat of natural oils and cause it to dry out. A well-groomed, clean horse can be kept clean by wearing a
horse blanketor horse sheet.Hill "Horse Handling & Grooming" p. 74-95]
horse showclass that considers quality of grooming for as much as 40% of the total score is called showmanship.
Hoof care and shoeing
The hooves of a horse or pony are cleaned by being picked out with a hoof pick to remove any stones, mud and dirt and to check that the shoes (if worn) are in good condition. Keeping feet clean and dry wherever possible helps prevent both lameness as well as hoof diseases such as thrush (a hoof fungus). The feet should be cleaned every time the horse is ridden, and if the horse is not ridden, it is still best practice to check and clean feet frequently. Daily cleaning is recommended in many management books, but in practical terms, a weekly hoof check of healthy horses at rest is often sufficient during good weather.
Use of hoof oils, dressings, or other topical treatments varies by region, climate, and the needs of the individual horse. Many horses have healthy feet their entire lives without need for any type of hoof dressing. While some horses may have circumstances where a topical hoof treatment is of benefit, improper use of dressings can also create hoof problems, or make a situation worse instead of better. Thus, there is no universal set of guidelines suitable for all horses in all parts of the world. Farriers and veterinarians in a horse owner's local area can provide advice on the use and misuse of topical hoof dressings, offering suggestions tailored for the needs of the individual horse.
Horses and ponies require routine hoof care by a professional
farrierevery 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the animal, the work it performs and, in some areas, weather conditions. Hooves usually grow faster in the spring and fall than in summer or winter. They also appear to grow faster in warm, moist weather than in cold or dry weather. In damp climates, the hooves tend to spread out more and wear down less than in dry climates, though more lush, growing forage may also be a factor. Thus, a horse kept in a climate such as that of Irelandmay need to have its feet trimmed more frequently than a horse kept in a drier climate such as Arizona, in the southwestern United States.
All domesticated horses need regular hoof trims, regardless of use. Horses in the wild do not need hoof trims because they travel as much as convert|50|mi|km|-1 a day in dry or semi-arid grassland in search of forage, a process that wears their feet naturally. Domestic horses in light use are not subjected to such severe living conditions and hence their feet grow faster than they can be worn down. Without regular trimming, their feet can get too long, eventually splitting, chipping and cracking, which can lead to lameness.
On the other hand, horses subjected to hard work may need
horseshoes for additional protection. Some advocates of the barefoot horse movement maintain that proper management may reduce or eliminate the need for shoes, but certain activities, such as horse racingand police horsework, create unnatural levels of stress and will wear down hooves faster than they would in nature. Thus, some types of working horses almost always require some form of hoof protection.
The cost of farrier work varies widely, depending on the part of the world, the type of horse to be trimmed or shod, and any special issues with the horse's foot that may require more complex care. The cost of a trim is roughly half to one-third that of the cost of a set of shoes, and professional farriers are typically paid at a level commeasurate with other skilled labourers in an area, such as plumbers or electricians, though farriers charge by the horse rather than by the hour.
United Kingdom, It is illegal for anyone else other than a registered farrier to shoe or trim a horse's feet. The farrier should have any one of the following qualifications, the FWCF being the most highly skilled:
* DipWCF (Diploma of the Worshipful Company of Farriers)
* AWCF (Associateship of the Worshipful Company of Farriers)
* FWCF (Fellowship of the Worshipful Company of Farriers)
USA, there are no legal restrictions on who may do farrier work. However, trained and qualified farriers usually belong to professional organizations such as: the AFA ( [http://www.americanfarriers.org/ American Farrier's Association] ), which certifies farriers as Intern, Journeyman, and Certified Farrier.
Leg care and bandaging
The legs of a horse require routine observation for lacerations or swelling. Everyday care involves brushing the legs with a brush to remove dirt and mud. A currycomb is generally not used below the knees. It is common even for pleasure horses to have excess hair trimmed from the fetlock to prevent excess accumulation of mud and moisture. When working, many riders wrap the horse's legs with protective boots or bandages to prevent injury. After a ride, it is common for a rider or groom to hose off the legs of a horse to remove dirt and to ease any minor inflammation to the tendons and ligaments. Liniment may also be applied as a preventative measure to minimize stiffness and ease any minor strain. If the horse has been overworked, injured, or is to be hauled, a standing bandage or shipping boot may be placed on the horse's legs for protection, to hold a wound dressing, or to provide support.
Wrapping legs requires care and skill. A too loose bandage will fall off, potentially tangling in the horse's feet and causing panic or injury. A too tight bandage can itself cause injury to tendons and ligaments and even circulation problems. Commercial boots for riding or shipping are usually easy to apply if purchased in the correct size, as they attach with a hook and loop fastening, or, less often, with adjustable buckles. Leg bandages require more attention. A bandage is usually applied over a protective padding of roll cotton or a premade quilted pad. The bandage is started on the outside of the leg, in the middle of the cannon bone, then wrapped down to either the fetlock or the hoof, depending on the purpose for which is is used, then back up to just under the knee, then back to the center of the cannon just above the starting point, ending on the outside of the leg. Most of the time, a left leg is wrapped in a counter-clockwise direction, and a right leg wrapped in a clockwise direction, starting on the outside, moving front to back. Legs may be bandaged with either disposable stretchable wrap that sticks to itself, or with washable fleece or cotton wraps that are reusable and fasten at the ends with a hook and loop closure. Bandages may also be taped with medical tape to help them stay on.Price "The Whole Horse Catalog" Rev. ed. p. 197-199] [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=44 American Association of Equine Practitioners Leg Bandages - Bandaging Your Horse's Legs] accessed on October 29, 2007]
There are many disorders that affect horses, including colic,
laminitis, and internal parasites. Horses also can develop various infectious diseases that can be prevented by routine vaccination. It is sensible to register a horse or pony with a local equine veterinarian, in case of emergency. The veterinary practice will keep a record of the owner's details and where the horse or pony is kept, and any medical details. It is considered best practice for a horse to have an annual checkup, usually in the spring. Some practitioners recommend biannual checkups, in the spring and fall.
Vaccinations and travel requirements
Horses and ponies need annual vaccinations to protect against any number of sicknesses, though the precise vaccines required varies depending on the part of the world where the horse lives and the uses to which the animal is put. In most nations, equine
influenzaand tetanusshots are commonly given, and in many places, various forms of Equine Encephalitisare a concern, including West Nile Virus. Many additional vaccines may be needed, depending on local conditions. [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=166 American Association of Equine Practitioners Immunizations: Protect Your Horse Against Infectious Diseases] accessed on October 29, 2007]
As a general rule, a horse or pony that has never had a particular vaccination will be given an initial vaccination and then a booster a few weeks later, then normally once a year after that. Animals kept in a public boarding facility, those shipped for breeding and those frequently on the show circuit often require more vaccinations than horses that are not exposed to outside animals and who do not travel.
Some type of veterinary certificate or proof of vaccination is often required for horses to travel or compete, especially when crossing state, provincial, or international boundaries.
In the USA, a certificate stating that the horse has a negative "Coggins" test must be in the vehicle carrying the horse when crossing state lines. This certificate, authorized by a veterinarian, certifies that the horse has been tested with a recent period of time and does not have an incurable disease called
equine infectious anemia(EIA). [http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/eiaumr.pdf Equine Infectious Anemia Uniform Methods and Rules Part II Section E Testing Requirements] accessed on October 29, 2007]
A well-stocked equine (and human) first-aid kit should be kept in a place where it is easily accessed. Any used or out-of-date items should be replaced as soon as possible. However, other than for minor injuries, a veterinarian should be consulted before treating a sick or injured animal.
The basic items any equine first-aid kit should include are: [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=193 American Association of Equine Practitioners Emergency Care Tips] accessed on October 29, 2007]
*Tools & Diagnostic Equipment
Petroleum jelly(to use as lubrication for thermometer)
Stethoscope(for listening to heartbeat, respiration and, in the case of suspected colic, gut sounds) Pulse and respiration can be determined without a stethoscope. Gut sounds can be heard by putting one's ear to the horse's side, but doing so increases the risk of being kicked by the horse.
scissors, reserved for first aid kit only
**Wire cutters (for freeing a tangled horse) or equivalent such as a fencing tool or
lineman's pliers, though these objects are often kept in a well-organized barn, an extra set in a first-aid kit is helpful for major emergencies
**Flashlight and extra batteries. (for nighttime emergencies or to add a light source in a shadowed area)
**Clean bucket, reserved for first-aid kit only, for washing out wounds
**Clean sponge, reserved for first-aid kit only
**Gauze (for cleaning wounds)
**Cotton balls or sheet cotton for absorbing liquids, particularly good for dipping into liquid products and then squeezing or dabbing the liquid onto a wound (Cotton used to clean a wound may leave fibers in the injury, gauze is a better product if the wound must be touched)
hypodermic syringe(without needle), for cleaning wounds. (Using the syringe to wash out a wound is preferable to cleaning it with cotton or gauze.) An old syringe, cleaned, works fine for this.
Saline solution, which is used to clean wounds. Contact lenssolution may be used for this purpose.
**Latex/medical gloves, unused
**Clean towels and rags
**Disposable rags or paper towels
*Bandages and other forms of protection
**Absorbent padding, such as roll cotton or a set of cotton leg wraps (keep a clean set sealed in a plastic bag)
Gauzeto be used as wound dressing underneath bandages
**Sterile wound dressing, such as telfa pads; large sizes of those intended for humans work well.
**Leg Bandages - stable bandages or rolls of self-adhering vet wrap
**Adhesive tape for keeping bandages in place
**Poultice boot, for hoof injuries. (A
hoof bootcan be used for this purpose, though a medical boot is usually easier to put on and take off)
*Over the counter medications
** Wound ointment for minor scrapes.
Antiseptic/ Disinfectant, such as Betadine, diluted iodinesolution, or hydrogen peroxide
Epsom salts for drawing out infection & treating pain
Poulticedressing. Disposable diapers (nappies) or sanitary napkins may also be cut and used as a poultice as they draw moisture out of wounds. Kaolin clay may also be used as a poultice.
*Veterinary medications - in most locations, these are prescription medications and can only be obtained through a licensed Veterinarian. And should generally not be administered without prior consultation with a veterinarian, either over the telephone or by specific advance instruction.
Phenylbutazone("Bute") paste for pain relief
Flunixin Meglumine("Banamine", "Finadyne") granules or paste for colic treatment
Acepromazine("Ace") or similar tranquilizer pill, paste, or pre-filled injector
Epinephrine( adrenaline) auto-injectors for emergency treatment of a horse that goes into anaphylactic shock when stung by a bee, wasp or other insect
Veterinarian's and farrier's telephone and emergency numbers.
**A paper and pencil, for recording symptoms, pulse, respiration and veterinary instructions.
**A Veterinary Emergency Handbook, giving basic instructions, in the event that a veterinarian cannot be reached immediately.
**Suitable box/container for all of the above, to keep materials and equipment clean and tidy.
All horses and ponies have a
parasiteburden, and therefore treatment is periodically needed throughout the horse or pony's life. Some steps to reduce parasite infection include regularly removing droppings from the horse's stall, shed or field; breaking up droppings in fields by harrowing or disking; minimizing crowding in fields; periodically leaving a field empty for several weeks; or placing animals other than horses on the field for a period of time. If botflies are active, fly spray may repel insects, but needs frequent reapplication to remain effective. A small pumice stone or dull knife may be carefully used to scrape off any bot eggs that are stuck on the horse. (Bot eggs are yellow and roughly the size of a grain of sand, they are clearly visible on dark hair, harder to spot on white hair.) However, worms cannot be completely eliminated. Therefore, most modern horse owners commonly give anthelminticdrugs (wormers) to their horses to reduce these parasites.
Methods of Worming
There are 2 common methods of
worming. "Purge wormers" that kill parasites with a single strong dose, are given periodically, usually every 8–12 weeks, depending on local conditions and veterinary recommendations. "Continuous wormers," also known as "daily" wormers, are given in the horse's feed each day, in small doses, and kill worms as they infect the horse. Neither of these methods is perfect; purge wormers are effective for rapidly killing all parasites, but are gone from the horses' body in a few days, and then the horse may start to be re-infected. Continuous wormers are a mild low dose and may be easier on the horse, but may not be effective in quickly killing worms in a heavily-infected horse, and may contribute to drug resistance. Neither type will kill all types of worms, so horses normally require a purge worming with a different drug on a rotating basis, at least 2 or 3 times per year. [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=125 American Association of Equine Practitioners Internal Parasites: Strategies for Effective Parasite Control] accessed on October 29, 2007]
Many horse owners also rotate between the different chemical classes of wormers to combat the tendency of parasites to develop resistance to a given class of drugs. (If a treatment doesn't kill at least 95% of a worm species, that species is classed as 'resistant' to the drug.) Another way of combating drug resistance is to worm less frequently, by having manure samples tested for the presence of parasite eggs and then worming only when the count gets high enough, and with a wormer specific for the type of worm eggs found. However, this method is not entirely reliable, as the parasite load varies somewhat with the seasons, and some parasites (such as bots) may not show up in a fecal egg count at all.
Wormers come in several forms, including pastes, gels, powders, and granules or pellets. Powders and granules normally come in single-dose packaging, and the wormer is normally mixed in with the horse's feed. Pastes and gels normally come in a plastic syringe which is inserted in the side of the horse's mouth and used to squirt the wormer onto the back of the horse's tongue.
Risks of worming
Modern anthelmintics are quite effective against worms. However, if a horse is heavily infested with parasites, wormers must be given carefully. A horses' body may be overwhelmed by the toxins released by a heavy load of dead worms after worming with a powerful drug. There have been documented cases of horses, particularly if also undernourished, ill, or otherwise weakened, to become sick or even die. Thus, a
veterinarianmay recommend worming with a mild class of drugs, such as Panacur, or a low-dose daily wormer for the first month or so, and then follow with periodic purge wormer treatments.
Types of parasites found in equines
Ascarids, also known as "roundworms"
Pinworms, sometimes known as "seatworms"
Strongyles - large and small, sometimes known as "Redworm."
*Bots - a fly
larvae- bot eggs are laid on a horse's coat, and when accidentally ingested through the horse licking its coat, the larvae hatch in the tongue, migrate down the esophagus and mature in the stomach.
Ringworm" in horses is not actually a worm but a contagious fungalskin disease and is normally treated using an anti-fungal wash.
There are several different brands of wormer, using different types of active chemical - which in turn kill different types of parasites. It is sometimes necessary to use a specific wormer at a certain time of year, depending on the life cycle of the parasites involved. Many horse owners "rotate" wormers during the year, using different brands or formulations with different active chemicals, to combat drug-resistant parasites.
Active chemicals found in different wormers
Piperazineand Thiabendazoleare no longer commonly used as equine wormers; they have been replaced by the above drugs.
A horse's teeth grow continuously throughout its life and can develop uneven wear patterns. Most common are sharp edges on the sides of the molars which may cause problems when eating or being ridden. For this reason a horse or pony needs to have its teeth checked by a veterinarian or qualified equine dentist at least once a year. If there are problems, any points, unevenness or rough areas can be ground down with a rasp until they are smooth. This process is known as "floating".
Basic floating can be accomplished by the practitioner pulling the end of horse's tongue out the side of the mouth, having an assistant hold the tongue while the teeth are rasped. The horse will not bite its own tongue, and will often tolerate the floating process if held closely and kept in a confined area where it cannot move. When complex dental work is required or if a horse strenuously objects to the procedure, sedation is used.
Alternative medicine in horses
Folk remedies and assorted "natural" treatments are sometimes used to care for horses. These treatments are controversial. Some remedies are supported by scientific studies that suggest that they are effective, others have no scientific basis and in fact may actually be harmful. The most common treatments are called
nutraceuticals, assorted supplements that support the natural systems of the horse and which may have some scientific basis for effacacy, even if not fully supported or yet to be approved as either a drug or a feed supplement. The most popular of these are joint supplements such as glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM.
Examples of folk remedies that are not effective include the feeding of
chewing tobaccoor diatomaceous earthto horses as a wormer. Neither of these has been proven to work in any empirical study. Other natural remedies, whether useful or not, may show up in drug testing, particularly any herbs derived from the Capsicumor valerianfamilies.
Sometimes natural remedies are all that is available in certain remote areas. Examples include horses in certain tropical nations who have sprained tendons or ligaments are treated with rachette (Nopalea cochenillifera, castor bean leaves (Ricinus communis), aloes (Aloe vera) or leaves of wonder of world (Kalanchoe pinnata). Natural remedies are also used to treat exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) with lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis). Other plants used in combination with conventional
medicationsincluded licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, aerial parts of mullein (Verbascum thapsus) or mallow (Althea sp.), and comfrey (Symphytum officinalis) root. [Lans C, Turner N, Brauer G, Lourenco G, Georges K. 2006. "Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada." "J Ethnobiol Ethnomed." 2006 Aug 7;2:31.]
References and further reading
* [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=193 American Association of Equine Practitioners Emergency Care Tips] accessed on October 29, 2007
* [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=166 American Association of Equine Practitioners Immunizations: Protect Your Horse Against Infectious Diseases] accessed on October 29, 2007
* [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=125 American Association of Equine Practitioners Internal Parasites: Strategies for Effective Parasite Control] accessed on October 29, 2007
* [http://www.aaep.org/health_articles_view.php?id=44 American Association of Equine Practitioners Leg Bandages - Bandaging Your Horse's Legs] accessed on October 29, 2007
*Auty, I. (ed, 1998) "The BHS Complete Manual of Stable Management". Buckingham: Kenilworth Press.
* [http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/eiaumr.pdf Equine Infectious Anemia Uniform Methods and Rules Part II Section E Testing Requirements] accessed on October 29, 2007
*Evans, J. Warren et al. (1990) "The Horse" Second Edition New York: Freeman ISBN 0-7167-1811-1
*Evans, Walter. (2000) "Horses: A Guide To Selection, Care And Enjoyment." Owl Books; 3rd edition. ISBN-10: 0805072519, ISBN-13: 978-0805072518
*Harris, Susan E. (1991) "Grooming To Win: How to Groom, Trim, Braid and Prepare Your Horse for Show" Howell Book House; 2 Sub edition. ISBN-10: 0876058926, ISBN-13: 978-0876058923
*Hill, Cherry (1997) "Horse Handling & Grooming" North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing ISBN 0-88266-956-7
*Hill, Cherry. (1995) "Horsekeeping on a Small Acreage: Designing and Managing Your Equine Facilities" Storey Publishing, LLC; 2nd edition. ISBN-10: 158017535X, ISBN-13: 978-1580175357
*O'Beirne-Ranelagh, Elizabeth (2005), "Managing Grass for Horses: The Responsible Owner's Guide" London, J. A. Allen, ISBN-13: 978-0851318561
*Price, Steven D. (ed.) (1998) "The Whole Horse Catalog" rev. ed. New York: Fireside ISBN 0-684-83995-4
*Vogel, C. (1998) "Complete Horsecare Manual." London: Dorling Kindersley.
*http://www.horseperspective.com Advice on horse care
*http://www.americanhorsecare.com American horse care - articles on horse care.
*http://www.horsekeeping.com/horse-training-care-info.htm Horse Information Roundup - free horse care and management articles
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