This article is part of the series Italian cuisine
Roman cuisine refers to the food of the Italian city of Rome. Roman cuisine is based on seasonal ingredients coming most from Roman Campagna, and prepared in a simple way. Among these, the most important are vegetables (typical are peas, globe artichokes and fava beans), meat (milk lamb and goat) and cheeses (Pecorino romano and ricotta). Typical condiment in Roman cuisine is strutto, pork lard prepared and canned each winter. Used is also the fat of prosciutto, while olive oil is used only for raw vegetables and - partially - to fry. Days of the week are often assigned to food, such as gnocchi on Thursday, baccalà (salted cod) on Fridays, and trippa for Saturdays.
Rome's food has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical center during ancient age. Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. In the beginning, the differences between social classes were not very great, but disparities developed with the empire's growth. Later, during the Renaissance, Rome became well-known as a center of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time, worked for the popes. An example of this could be Bartolomeo Scappi, who was a chef, working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in 1570 when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published. In the book he lists approximately 1000 recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork.
Traditional Cucina Romana
The Testaccio rione, Rome's trade and slaughterhouse area, is the place where Rome's most original and traditional foods can be still found. The area was often known as the "belly" or "slaughterhouse" of Rome, and was lived in by butchers, or vaccinari. The most common or ancient Roman cuisine included the "fifth quarter". Popular foods include pig's trotters, brain, and the genitals of other animals, which were often carefully cooked and richly spiced with different savouries, spices and herbs. The old-fashioned coda alla vaccinara (oxtail cooked in the way of butchers) is still one of the city's most popular meals and is part of most of Rome's restaurants' menus. Lamb is also a very popular part of Roman cuisine, and is often roasted with spices and herbs. There is a considerable Jewish influence in Roman cuisine, since they were many in the city, and some of the traditional meals of the ghetto date back over 400 years. Such include the carciofi alla giudia (Jewish-style artichokes) and Jewish courgettes.
Pasta in Rome
Pasta is one important element of Roman cuisine. Famous pasta sauces include matriciana, carbonara, (a sauce made with pancetta or guanciale - pig's cheek -, cheese and egg), cacio e pepe and gricia. As a matter of fact, there is a pasta museum in Rome called the Museo Nazionale della Paste Alimentari (the National Museum of Pasta). Rome's most common pasta shape is spaghetti, but there are many other forms too, such as capelli d'angelo (angel's hairs).
Coffee is the most important drink in Rome, with strong black coffee (espresso), cappucino or milky/strong caffelatte. The city is also known as a centre of white wine, especially with the warm territory of Lazio. Frascati and Castelli Romani are the best ones in the city. The Trebbiano is also renowned and the Malvasia is famous for its exotic perfume.
Other elements of Roman food
- Bruschetta - a popular antipasto or appetizer in central Italy. Coming from the Romanesco word bread which is lightly burnt, typically rubbed with garlic and topped with oil and tomatoes.
- Supplì - fried rice croquettes which are stuffed with beef ragout and mozzarella.
- Bucatini alla Matriciana - pasta dish with a sauce made of tomato, guanciale, and grated Pecorino Romano.
- Spaghetti alla Carbonara - pasta dish with a sauce made with whipped eggs, and topped with Italian bacon, pepper and grated Pecorino Romano.
- Rigatoni con la Pajata - pasta dish with a sauce made with intestines of a milk-fed veal.
- Saltimbocca alla Romana - Roman-style veal with ham (prosciutto) and sage. Saltimbocca literally means jump in the mouth.
- Scaloppine alla romana - Veal sautéed with fresh baby artichokes
- Coda alla vaccinara - Oxtail stew, cooked with tomato sauce, celery, clove and bitter chocolate
- Trippa - Tripe with tomato sauce, is a roman tradition.
- Fiori di Zucca fritti - courgette flowers, prepared in a deep fried batter.
- Abbacchio alla cacciatora - lamb chops with vinegar, flour and rosemary
- Crostata di ricotta - Is a richly baked cheesecake, made with ricotta, and flavored with lemons (or oranges) and Marsala wine.
- Boni, Ada (1983)  (in Italian). La Cucina Romana. Roma: Newton Compton Editori.
- Carnacina, Luigi; Bonassisi, Vincenzo (1975) (in Italian). Roma in Cucina. Milano: Giunti Martello.
- Malizia, Giuliano (1995) (in Italian). La Cucina Ebraico-Romanesca. Roma: Newton Compton Editori.
- Rome. Eyewitness Travel. DK Publishing. 2006. ISBN 1405310901.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Ancient Roman cuisine — This article is part of the series … Wikipedia
Roman Republic — See also: Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century) Roman Republic Official name (as on coins): Roma after ca. 100 BC: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus ( The Senate and People of Rome ) … Wikipedia
Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies — North American colonies 1763–76 The cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies includes the foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of the British colonies in North America before the establishment of the United States in the 1770s and 1780s. It was… … Wikipedia
Roman Empire — For other senses of the term, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). Imperium Romanum redirects here. For the video game, see Imperium Romanum (video game). Roman Empire Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Senate and … Wikipedia
Cuisine of Rome — This page is a disambiguation page. Cuisine of Rome may refer to: Ancient Roman cuisine the food, drink and eating traditions of the ancient Romans. Roman Cuisine a description of food, traditional dishes and eating habits in the city of Rome… … Wikipedia
cuisine — [ kɥizin ] n. f. • fin XIIe; lat. cocina, de coquina, de coquere « cuire » 1 ♦ Pièce dans laquelle on prépare et fait cuire des aliments pour les repas. « Une petite cuisine d une merveilleuse propreté : toute peinte, ripolinée; le fourneau à gaz … Encyclopédie Universelle
cuisiné — cuisine [ kɥizin ] n. f. • fin XIIe; lat. cocina, de coquina, de coquere « cuire » 1 ♦ Pièce dans laquelle on prépare et fait cuire des aliments pour les repas. « Une petite cuisine d une merveilleuse propreté : toute peinte, ripolinée; le… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Cuisine Québécoise — classification de la catégorie Culture québécoise Architecture Architecte · Édifice · Monument Ci … Wikipédia en Français
Cuisine canadienne-française — Cuisine québécoise classification de la catégorie Culture québécoise Architecture Architecte · Édifice · Monument Ci … Wikipédia en Français
Cuisine du québec — Cuisine québécoise classification de la catégorie Culture québécoise Architecture Architecte · Édifice · Monument Ci … Wikipédia en Français