Anabolism


Anabolism

Anabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units. [cite web |url=http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/bioinorg/AB.html#20 |title=Glossary of Terms Used in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Anabolism |accessdate=2007-10-30 |last=de Bolster |first=M.W.G. |date=1997 |publisher=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry] These reactions require energy. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular, organ or organism level is as 'anabolic' or as 'catabolic', which is the opposite. Anabolism is powered by catabolism, where large molecules are broken down into smaller parts and then used up in respiration. Many anabolic processes are powered by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). [Nicholls D.G. and Ferguson S.J. (2002) "Bioenergetics" Academic press 3rd edition ISBN 0-125-18121-3]

Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs and tissues. These processes produce growth and differentiation of cells and increase in body size, a process that involves synthesis of complex molecules. Examples of anabolic processes include the growth and mineralization of bone and increases in muscle mass.

Endocrinologists have traditionally classified hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of metabolism they stimulate. The classic anabolic hormones are the anabolic steroids, which stimulate protein synthesis and muscle growth. The balance between anabolism and catabolism is also regulated by circadian rhythms, with processes such as glucose metabolism fluctuating to match an animal's normal periods of activity throughout the day. [cite journal |author=Ramsey KM, Marcheva B, Kohsaka A, Bass J |title=The clockwork of metabolism |journal=Annu. Rev. Nutr. |volume=27 |issue= |pages=219–40 |year=2007 |pmid=17430084 |doi=10.1146/annurev.nutr.27.061406.093546]

Classic anabolic hormones

*Growth hormone
*IGF1 and other insulin-like growth factors
*Insulin
*Testosterone
*Estradiol

Newer hormones associated with the balance of the catabolic and anabolic states include
*Orexin and Hypocretin (a hormone pair)
*Melatonin

ee also

* Metabolism
* Anabolic steroid
* Catabolism

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • anabolism — ANABOLÍSM s.n. Fază a metabolismului în care materiile nutritive introduse în organism sunt transformate în substanţe proprii acestuia; asimilaţie. – Din fr. anabolisme. Trimis de ana zecheru, 03.02.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  ANABOLÍSM s. v.… …   Dicționar Român

  • Anabolism — A*nab o*lism, n. (Physiol.) The constructive metabolism of the body, as distinguished from {catabolism}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • anabolism — (n.) 1886; see ANABOLIC (Cf. anabolic) + ISM (Cf. ism) …   Etymology dictionary

  • anabolism — ► NOUN Biochemistry ▪ the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy. The opposite of CATABOLISM(Cf. ↑catabolism). DERIVATIVES anabolic adjective. ORIGIN from Greek anabol ascent …   English terms dictionary

  • anabolism — [ə nab′ə liz΄əm] n. [< Gr anabolē, a rising up < ana , up + bolē, a stroke < ballein, to throw (see BALL2) + ISM] the process in a plant or animal by which food is changed into living tissue; constructive metabolism: opposed to… …   English World dictionary

  • anabolism — Metabolism Me*tab o*lism, n. (Physiol.) 1. The act or process, by which living tissues or cells take up and convert into their own proper substance the nutritive material brought to them by the blood, or by which they transform their cell… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • anabolism — noun The constructive metabolism of the body, as distinguished from catabolism. We used to think bodybuilding was all about anabolism by way of turning on testosterone and growth hormone secretion. See Also: anabolic …   Wiktionary

  • anabolism — asimiliacija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Fermentų katalizuojama organinių medžiagų sintezė gyvuosiuose organizmuose. atitikmenys: angl. anabolism; assimilation rus. анаболизм; ассимиляция ryšiai: sinonimas – anabolizmas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • anabolism — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary ana + metabolism Date: 1886 the constructive part of metabolism concerned especially with macromolecular synthesis compare catabolism • anabolic adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • anabolism — (ah nab o lizm ) The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules with the input of energy …   Dictionary of microbiology


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