Orimulsion

Orimulsion is a registered trademark name for a bitumen-based fuel that was developed for industrial use by Intevep, the Research and Development Affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA), following earlier collaboration on oil emulsions with British Petroleum.

Contents

Source of the bitumen

Like coal and oil, bitumen occurs naturally and is obtained from the world's largest deposit in the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela. Reserves are estimated at more than 1.2 trillion million barrels (190 trillion m3) of bitumen, an amount greater than 50% of the world's estimated oil reserves.[citation needed]

Preparation

Raw bitumen has an extremely high viscosity and specific gravity between 8 to 10 API gravity, at ambient temperatures and is unsuitable for direct use in conventional power stations. Orimulsion is made by mixing the bitumen with about 30% fresh water and a small amount of surfactant. The result behaves similarly to fuel oil. An alcohol-based surfactant recently replaced the original phenol-based version; improving the transport properties of the fuel and eliminating the health concerns associated with the phenol group of surfactants.

Advantages

As a fuel for electricity generation, Orimulsion has a number of attractive characteristics:[citation needed]

  • the known reserves of bitumen are very large;
  • it is currently priced to be competitive with internationally traded coal;
  • it is relatively easy and safe to produce, transport, handle and store;
  • it is easy to ignite and has good combustion characteristics;
  • it can be used in power stations designed to run on coal or heavy fuel oil, with suitable modification.

Disadvantages

If there is a spill while shipping over water the mixture de-emulsifies and the bitumen drops out of suspension.

It is a non-Newtonian fluid, and if it is allowed to cool below 30 °C, it will 'set'. Pumping ceases to be problematic, and becomes impossible. There is no way of restarting operations or flow through the pipeline again.

Decreasing usage

Orimulsion is currently used as a commercial boiler fuel in power plants worldwide (e.g., Canada, Japan, Lithuania, Italy[1] and China). Use of fuel used to be much wider and demand was at the sky-rocketing increase stage. However, when a major strike hit PDVSA, most of the engineers were fired as punishment. Orimulsion had been the pride of the PDVSA engineers, so Orimulsion fell out of favor with the key political leaders. As a result, the government is trying to "Wind Down" the Orimulsion program. The one exception is the sales of Orimulsion to China. The Venezuelan government has close ties to China, as it has with Cuba. The result is that China is still supplied with Orimulsion, while the rest of the world has either had their supplies terminated, or are still experiencing the "Wind Down" phase. Orimulsion still has excellent potential for domestic consumption.[citation needed]

Another reason is that with rising crude oil prices, it has been found that mixing or diluting Orinoco bitumen (extra-heavy oil) with a lighter crude oil can make this blend more profitable as a crude oil on the world market than by selling it as Orimulsion. An example of this is the popular Merey blend (Orinoco bitumen and Mesa crude oil). ConocoPhillips along with PDVSA operate the Merey Sweeny 58,000-barrel-per-day (9,200 m3/d) (bpd) delayed coker, vacuum tower and related facilities at ConocoPhillips' refinery in Sweeny, Texas, U.S.A. for processing and upgrading heavy sour Merey crude oil.[citation needed]

Air pollutant control technology that is commonly available can limit emissions from Orimulsion to levels considered "Best Available Control Technology", as defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.[citation needed]

External links

References

  1. ^ The Torrevaldaliga Nord plant in Civitavecchia

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Orimulsion — ist ein geschützter Markenname eines Brennstoffs, der auf Bitumen basiert. Der Name ist eine Kombination aus dem Vorkommensgebiet, dem Orinoco Becken in Venezuela, und Emulsion. Neben dem kanadischen Öl und Teersand wird Orimulsion als Vierter… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Orimulsión — es una marca registrada que se utilizó para designar a un combustible desarrollado conjuntamente por las empresas petroleras Corpoven, Lagoven e INTEVEP, la filial de investigación y desarrollo de Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) para usos… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Orimulsion® — /o ri mulˈshən/ noun An emulsion of bitumen, water and detergents, used as a fuel ORIGIN: Orinoco in Venezuela, where the bitumen was originally obtained, and emulsion …   Useful english dictionary

  • Orimulsion — orimulsija statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Sunkiosios naftos ir vandens emulsija, gaminama Venesueloje iš ten pat Orinoko upės baseine išgaunamo bitumo. Sudėtis: anglis – 60–62 %, vandenilis – 7,5–7,7 %, siera – 2,7–3,0 %,… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • orimulsion — orimulsija statusas T sritis Energetika apibrėžtis Orimulsija yra gamtinio bitumo ir vandens mišinys, kuriame vandens yra 30 %. Ji išgaunama Orinoko upės baseine, Rytų Venesueloje. Iš žemės bitumas išgaunamas purškiant garą į bitumo telkinius.… …   Aiškinamasis šiluminės ir branduolinės technikos terminų žodynas

  • orimulsion — orimulsija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Sunkiosios naftos ir vandens emulsija, gaminama Venesuelos Orinoko provincijoje. atitikmenys: angl. orimulsion rus. оримульсия …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • Orimulsion — noun an emulsion of bitumen in water, used as an industrial fuel …   Wiktionary

  • Orimulsion — [ˌɒrɪ mʌlʃ(ə)n] noun trademark a fuel consisting of an emulsion of bitumen in water. Origin 1980s: blend of Orinoco (an oil belt in Venezuela where the bitumen was orig. extracted) and emulsion …   English new terms dictionary

  • Orimulsion — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Política energética de Venezuela — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda La política energética de Venezuela es una atribución del Poder Ejecutivo, quien se encarga de diseñarla y coordinarla por medio de sus diferentes órganos administrativos. Venezuela es uno de los principales… …   Wikipedia Español

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.