- Partition of Bengal (1905)
The Partition of Bengal in
1905, was made on 16 Octoberby then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. Due to the high level of political unrest generated by the partition, the eastern and western parts of Bengal were reunited in 1911.
The province of
Bengalhad an area of 189,000 sq miles and a population of 78.5 million. Eastern Bengal was almost isolated from the western part by geography and poor communications. In 1836, the upper provinces were placed under a lieutenant governor, and in 1854 the Governor-General-In-Council was relieved of the direct administration of Bengal. In 1874 Assam, including Sylhet, was severed from Bengal to form a Chief-Commissionership, and the Lushai Hills were added to it in 1898.
Partitioning Bengal was first considered in
1903. There were also additional proposals to separate Chittagongand the districts of Dhakaand Mymensinghfrom Bengal and attaching them to the province of Assam. Similarly incorporating Chhota Nagpurwith the central provinces.
The government officially published the idea in January
1904, and in February, Lord Curzon made an official tour to eastern districts of Bengal to assess public opinion on the partition. He consulted with leading personalities and delivered speeches at Dhaka, Chittagong and Mymensingh explaining the government's stand on partition.
The new province would consist of the state of Hill
Tripura, the Divisions of Chittagong, Dhaka and Rajshahi(excluding Darjeeling) and the district of Maldaincorporated with Assam province. Bengal was to surrender not only these large eastern territories but also to cede to the Central Provinces the five Hindi-speaking states. On the western side it was offered Sambalpurand five minor Oriya-speaking states from the Central Provinces. Bengal would be left with an area of 141,580 sq. miles and population of 54 million, of which 42 million would be Hindus and 9 million Muslims.
The new province was named
Eastern Bengal and Assamwith Dhaka as its capitaland subsidiary headquarters at Chittagong. Its area would be 106,540 sq. miles with a population of 31 million, where 18 million would be Muslims and 12 million Hindus. Administration would consist of a Legislative Council, a Board of Revenueof two members, and the jurisdiction of the Calcutta High Court would be left undisturbed. The government pointed out that Eastern Bengal and Assam would have a clearly demarcated western boundary and well defined geographical, ethnological, linguistic and social characteristics. The government of India promulgated their final decision in a resolution dated July 19, 1905 and the partition of Bengal was effected on October 16of same year.
This created a huge political crisis. The Muslims in
East Bengalhad the impression that a separate region would give them more opportunity for education, employment etc. However, the partition was not liked by the people in West Bengal and a huge amount of nationalist literature was created there during this period. Opposition by Indian National Congresswas led by Sir Henry Cottonwho had been Chief Commissioner of Assam, but Curzon was not to be moved. Later, Cotton, now Liberal MP for Nottingham Eastcoordinated the successful campaign to oust the first lieutenant-governor of East Bengal, Sir Bampfylde Fuller. In 1906, Rabindranath Tagorewrote Amar Shonar Banglaas a rallying cry for proponents of annulment of Partition, which, much later, in 1972, became the national anthemof Bangladesh.
Due to these political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited in 1911. A new partition which divided the province on linguistic, rather than religious, grounds followed, with the Hindi, Oriya and Assamese areas separated to form separate administrative units. The administrative capital of
British Indiawas moved from Kolkatato New Delhias well.
However, conflict between Muslims and Hindus resulted in new laws having to be introduced so as to satisfy the political needs of both groups.
* [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/P_0100.htm Banglapedia Article on Partition of Bengal]
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