Loevinger's stages of ego development

Jane Loevinger's stages of ego development includes nine sequential stages, each of which represents a progressively more complex way of perceiving oneself in relation to the world.


* Presocial
* No ego
* Not Differentiated from the World
* Symbiotic
* Self-Nonself Differentiation
* Stability of Objects


* Curbed by Restraints, Rewards & Punishments
* Others are Seen as What They Can Give
* "Nice to Me" or "Mean to Me"
* Present-Centred
* Physical but not Psychological Causation


* Anticipates Rewards & Punishments
* First Self-Control
* "Don’t Get Caught"
* Externalize Blame
* Opportunistic Hedonism


* Take in Rules of the Group
* No Self Apart from Others
* Other’s Disapproval is Sanction
* Not Only Fear of Punishment
* Rules and Norms not Distinguished
* Rejects Out-Group
* Stereotypes Roles
* Security = Belonging
* Behaviours Judged Externally not by Intentions


* Self Distinct from Norms & Expectations
* First Inner Life
* Banal Feelings Always in Reference to Others
* Pseudo-Trait Conceptions
* Modal Stage of Adults


* Goals and Ideals
* Sense of Responsibility
* Rules are Internalized
* Guilt is From Hurting Another, not Breaking Rules
* Having Self Apart from Group
* Standards are Self-Chosen
* Traits are Part of Rich Interior World
* Standards Distinguished from Manners
* Motives and not Just Actions
* Sees Self from Other Point of View


* Distancing from Role Identities
* Subjective Experience as Opposed to Objective Reality
* Greater Tolerance of Self & Others
* Relationships Cause Dependency
* Awareness of Inner Conflict
* Inner Reality Vs. Outward Appearance
* Psychological Causality and Development


* Inner Conflicts of Needs Vs Duties
* Polarity, Complexity, Multiple Facets
* Integrate Ideas
* Tolerate Ambiguity
* Freeing from Conscience
* Concern for Emotional Interdependence
* Integrates Different Identities
* Self-Fulfillment
* How They Function in Different Roles


* Transcendence of Conflicts
* Self-Actualizing
* Fully Worked Out Identity

ee also

*Jean Piaget, Theory of cognitive development
*Erik Erikson, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
*James W. Fowler, Stages of faith development
*Lawrence Kohlberg, Kohlberg's stages of moral development.


* Loevinger, J. (1976). "Ego Development". San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

* Hy, L. X. & Loevinger, J. (1996). "Measuring Ego Development". Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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