Kentucky Department of Transportation
commons=The Kennedy Interchange, unofficially, though universally, referred to as
Spaghetti Junction, is the intersection of Interstates 64, 65 and 71 at the northeastern edge of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, USA. It is named for the " John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge" located immediately to the north of the interchange (which carries I-65).
The Kennedy Interchange was designed by Barstow, Mulligan and Vollmer, a New York firm. Construction began in the spring of 1962 and when it was complete, the design was adequate to handle the traffic needs of the time. Henry Ward, a member of the Louisville Chamber of Commerce in 1958, lobbied in Frankfort to Highway Commissioner Ward Oates to have I-65 (and other interstates) routed through downtown Louisville. At that time, Henry Ward, who would later become the state Highway Commissioner from 1960 to 1967, stated that "downtown Louisville felt it would be disastrous for it to be bypassed by the interstate." There was tremendous pressure from both sides to push the interstate highway system through downtown. Later on in 1996, he reflected back and stated that, "... it was a mistake. I think downtown Louisville would have been better off if Interstate 65 had not been located where it is."
However, traffic was not as bad then as it is now. The projections for traffic was nowhere close to 300,000, or what passes through the Kennedy Interchange that was only designed for a maximum capacity of 100,000.
In 1996, the Ohio River Major Investment Study suggested rebuilding the Kennedy Interchange at a cost of $120.5 million. It stated that during rush hour, traffic congests at the interchange causing pollution and creating potential accidents since it has a high crash rate. From 1996 to 1998, there were 261 crashes for every 100 million miles traveled within the Kennedy Interchange, 172% higher than the state average. The study recommended that two new bridges be constructed, one downtown and one linking the two segments of I-265. In 1997, U.S. Representatives
Anne Northupand Lee Hamilton, two local politicians, secured $40 million for an environmental impact study (EIS) that was completed in 2002. This allowed design of the new junction and bridges to commence.
Need for improvements
Since I-71 was completed from this interchange to the Watterson Expressway in 1968 and I-64 was completed to the Watterson Expressway in 1970, this interchange has served as the junction for almost all interstate highway traffic entering, exiting, and passing through
Downtown Louisville. Some of the ramps do not conform to modern interstate standards (such as merge ramps entering into the left-hand lane as opposed to the right-hand lane). Although the I-65 Kennedy Bridge was restriped for narrower northbound lanes in the 1990s (for a total of seven lanes - four northbound, three southbound), the bridge continues to operate beyond its intended capacity. Some complications at the interchange include the facts that westbound traffic from I-64 cannot exit to I-71 and that southbound traffic from I-71 cannot exit to eastbound I-64.
The states of
Kentuckyand Indianahave approved a multi-year project, namely the Ohio River Bridges Project, to completely reconfigure the interchange.
Redesign and reconstruction plans
On October 27, 2005, plans for a redesign for the Kennedy Interchange were revealed by the QK4 engineering firm. The $1.1 billion project entails rebuilding the entire I-64, I-65 and I-71 junction and relocating numerous off-ramps that serve the downtown, waterfront and the Butchertown neighborhood. This is part of the $2.46 billion
Ohio River Bridges Projectthat will build a parallel I-65 span and a new I-265 crossing by 2020.
The new downtown span and the redesigned interchange will be a vast improvement over the existing setup.
"Improvements slated for the Spaghetti Junction, Downtown Bridges Project:"
*I-64 will feature two lanes in each direction rather than being funneled into one lane.
*Dedicated lanes for I-64 will allow motorists a sweep through the junction rather than having to take an exit from the highway.
*Left-lane exit ramps will be eliminated. The new junction will use flyover ramps.
*There will be no weaving segments of the redesigned junction.
*Crossing multiple lanes of traffic to switch from I-71 to, for example, I-65, will be eliminated with new dedicated lanes.
*Widening the shoulders to 12 feet.
*94 bridges will be rebuilt.
*Improve over 28 miles of interstate highway.
*Converting Mellwood and Story Avenues from one-way to two-way streets. This will slow traffic at these new development hot-spots.
*Constructing a full interchange at Mellwood Avenue, which will be the new entrance into downtown Louisville. There is currently a half-interchange at Mellwood Avenue. Mellwood Avenue would also be widened to the south, costing $20 million and demolishing several businesses. Widening would not occur to the north due to historic shotgun residences.
*Removing the 3rd Street exit ramp from I-64 to reduce the number of highway lanes over Waterfront Park.
*Constructing exits onto River Road near Witherspoon Street to act as a new access point for downtown.
*Building new I-65 overpasses in the downtown at Brook, Floyd and Chestnut streets to make the spaces beneath brighter and more attractive to pedestrians and bikers. New landscaping would also be placed.
*Adding a new interchange along I-71 for Frankfort Avenue, creating a new access point for Butchertown.
The new Kennedy Interchange project will take 15 years to complete as more than 90 overpasses will need to be constructed. Along with that, three new sections of interstates that carry a very high volume of traffic will need to be reconstructed. Engineers will be required to maintain traffic through the junction.
Downtown access points will change considerably as well. Instead of the current interchange configuration at Third Street, it will be relocated to an exit at River Road near Witherspoon Street and Mellwood. This will considerably reduce the number of traffic lanes over Waterfront Park. Currently, seven lanes stretch for 154 feet over the Great Lawn; the preliminary plans call for 12 lanes over the Great Lawn totaling 318 feet.
*Spaghetti Junction project (Section 1, Kennedy Interchange) will be eight sequential construction phases spanning 17 years.
*Right-of-way acquisition plans are to be complete by late 2006.
*Minimizing the impacts on Waterfront Park, Extreme Park and historic neighborhoods such as
Butchertownand Phoenix Hill.
#"A look at Spaghetti Junction." Courier-Journal . 26 Oct. 2005. 3 Nov. 2005 [http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/gallery?Avis=B2&Dato=20051026&Kategori=NEWS01&Lopenr=1026012&Ref=PH&Profile=1008&SectionCat=ARCHIVES] .
#Environmental Planning Strategies "Transportation Case Study" [http://www.mnrg.gov/meetings/2005cimpacts/pdfs/TranspCaseStudy.pdf#search=%22Louisville%20Kennedy%20Bridge%20capacity%22] .
#Lyne, Jack. " Ky., Ind. Governors Back $1.4B Bridge Project over Bluegrass-Hoosier Waters." [http://www.siteselection.com/ssinsider/snapshot/sf020826.htm] .
#The Ohio River Bridges. U.S. Department of Transportation. 3 Nov. 2005 [http://kyinbridges.com] .
#Poynter, Chris. " Junction of the future." Courier-Journal [Louisville] 28 Oct. 2005. 3 Nov. 2005 [http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051028/NEWS01/510280419] .
#Poynter, Chris. "A recipe to rebuild Spaghetti Junction." Courier-Journal [Louisville] 23 Oct. 2005. 3 Nov. 2005 [http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051023/NEWS01/510230384] .
#Poynter, Chris. "Redesign debuts tonight." Courier-Journal [Louisville] 27 Oct. 2005. 3 Nov. 2005 [http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051027/NEWS01/510270414/1008/ARCHIVES] .
#Ward, Henry. Interview. (From "Interstate Highway System", a free publication from the state highway department.)
Transportation in Louisville, Kentucky
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