Florentin Smarandache

Florentin Smarandache (born December 10, 1954) is a Romanian-American writer and associate professor of mathematics and science at the University of New Mexico, Gallup, New Mexico.

Smarandache was born in Bălceşti, in the Romanian county of Vâlcea. According to his own autobiographical accounts, in 1986 he was refused an exit visa by the Ceauşescu regime that would have allowed him to attend the International Congress of Mathematicians at the University of California, Berkeley. He fled Romania in 1988, leaving behind his son and pregnant wife; after two years in refugee camps in Turkey, he immigrated to the United States in 1990. He was employed as a software engineer at a Honeywell facility in Phoenix, Arizona from 1990 to 1995 and was an adjunct professor at Pima Community College in Tucson from 1995 to 1997. He obtained a doctorate in mathematics from the Moldova State University, in 1997cite web
author = Florentin Smarandache
url = http://www.ad-astra.ro/whoswho/view_profile.php?user_id=91
title = Florentin Smarandache
work = Ad Astra Project - An Online Project for the Romanian Scientific Community
] cite web
author = Constantinescu S, Smarandache F
url = http://www.agonia.net/index.php/essay/63772/
title = Interviu: Silvia Constantinescu - Florentin Smarandache
date = 2003-08-15
language = Romanian
] . From 1997 to 2003 he was an assistant professor at the University of New Mexico, Gallup. He was promoted to Associate Professor of Mathematics in 2003; he is currently chairman of the Gallup Branch Department of Mathematics and Sciences. [ [http://www.gallup.unm.edu/academicdepts/mathscience/ Department of Math & Sciences, Gallup Branch, University of New Mexico] ]

Arts and literature

Smarandache has published material classified diversely as art,cite web
author = Smarandache F
title = Outer-art — An online gallery of paintings and photographs by Smarandache, promoting the paradoxical view that art must be as ugly as possible.
url = http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/a/Outer-Art.htm
year = 1990-2007
] poems, theatre plays, [Smarandache F. [http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/trickster.htm Trickster's Famous Deeds: A Trilogy of Theatrical Plays For Children] ] translations, novels, dramas and fiction in Romanian, French, and English. Some of his literary and philosophical writings are described by him as paradoxical; indeed, Smarandache also describes himself as the leader of an avant-garde movement in the arts and sciences called "paradoxism" which he set up in the 1980s as an anti-totalitarian protest against the regime in Romania.cite book
author = Vasiliu F
title = Paradoxism's Main Roots
publisher = Xiquanva
year = 1994
url = http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/ParadoxismRoots.pdf

According to Smarandache "The goal is to enlarge the artistic sphere through non-artistic elements. ... 'The flying of a bird', for example, represents a "natural poem", that is not necessary to write down, being more palpable and perceptible in any language than some signs laid on the paper, which, in fact, represent an "artificial poem""."

Mathematics and philosophy

In mathematical logic Samarandache has promoted the notion of "neutrosophy", a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets, in which each logical variable comes with a probability that it is true, false or undetermined. Florentin Smarandache (1999) [http://arxiv.org/abs/math.GM/0010099 Neutrosophy, NSF interdisciplinary project proposal] ] He has also produced work in other areas of mathematics such as number theory and statistics, with papers on algebraic structures, non-Euclidean geometry and especially information fusion.cite journal
author = Smarandache F, Dezert J (eds.)
title = Fusing Uncertain, Imprecise and Paradoxist Information (Dezert-Smarandache theory)
url = http://www.isn.ethz.ch/pubs/ph/details.cfm?id=26798
journal = Information & Security
volume = 20
issue =
pages = 1–143
year = 2006

In number theory Smarandache's name has been attached to various objects.

The "n"-th Smarandache-Wellin number is defined as the concatenation of the first "n" prime numbers written in decimal notation. The first Smarandache-Wellin numbers are 2, 23, 235, 2357, 235711, ... OEIS|id=A019518.

"The Smarandache constant" x is the positive solution of 127 ^ x - 113 ^ x = 1 . Its value is xapprox 0.56714813020 ldots OEIS|id=A038458. Smarandache conjectured that x is in fact the smallest solution x_n of p_{n+1}^{x_n} - p_n^{x_n} =1 as n varies, where p_n is the nth prime, and interpreted this as a generalization of Andrica's conjecture. Florentin Smarandache [http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/CP3.pdf Collected Papers Vol 3, page 105] ] MathWorld|title=Smarandache Constants|urlname=SmarandacheConstants] cite book
last = Dumitrescu
first = Constantin
coauthors = Marcela Popescu, V. Seleacu
editor = Homer Tilton
title = The Smarandache Function in Number Theory
publisher = Erhus University Press
year = 1996
month = March
isbn = 1879585472
] cite book
last = Ashbacher
first = Charles
editor = Marcela Popescu
title = An Introduction to the Smarandache Function
publisher = Erhus University Press
month = December
year = 1995
isbn = 1879585499
] cite book
last = Ibstedt
first = Henry
title = Surfing on the Ocean of Numbers - A Few Smarandache Notions and Similar Topics
publisher = Erhus University Press
year = 1997
isbn = 187958557X
] It should not be confused with a list of sixteen Smarandache constants denoted "s"1 to "s"16, which involve the Smarandache function "S"("n"), defined to be the smallest integer such that S(n)! is divisible by n.

A "Generalized Smarandache Palindrome" is a concatenated number of the form: a_{1}a_{2}ldots a_{n}a_{n} ldots a_{2}a_{1}, for n geq 1, or a_{1}a_{2} ldots a_{n-1}a_{n}a_{n-1} ldots a_{2}a_{1}, for n geq 2, where all a_1,a_2, ldots ,a_n are positive integers of various number of digits in a given base b. [ [http://planetmath.org/?op=getobj&from=objects&id=9348 Generalized Smarandache Palindrome] at PlanetMath]

Smarandache has harshly criticized the moderators of ArXiv.org (the most widely used eprint server in mathematics and theoretical physics) who he claims have put him on a "blacklist", moving his submissions to the GM (General Mathematics) category instead of accepting them as contributions to the intended field, or rejecting them outright. Smarandache attributes this to the fact that

....there is a MAFIA IN SCIENCE which ignores or even boycotts some scientists and ideas, while propagandistically promoting only theirs through the main mass-media that mafia controls! [...] Blacklisted scientists are subject to derision, ignorance, insults, lies, false accusations, personal attacks against them, misinterpretations regarding their research, culture, faith, etc. Prizes, awards, fellowships, high positions, etc. are all manipulated by this international mafia in science that rejects any dissident scientist [...] [Florentin Smarandache: [http://archivefreedom.org/freedom/Smarandache.html International Mafia in Science] ]

Theoretical physics

In theoretical physics the Smarandache hypothesis promotes the view that, as an extension and consequence of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and Bell's inequality, there might be no speed barrier in the Universe.cite journal
author = Florentin Smarandache
title = There Is No Speed Barrier in the Universe
journal = Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Delhi, India
volume = 17D
issue = 1
pages = 61
year = 1998
url = http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/NoSpLim.htm
] This hypothesis contradicts the generally accepted relativistic bounds on the transmission of information provided by Einstein's theory of relativity.cite journal
author = Maciel AK, Tiomno J
title = Experiments to detect possible weak violations of special relativity
journal = Phys Rev Lett
volume = 55
issue = 2
pages = 143–146
year = 1985

doi = 10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.143] Smarandache's theory is mentioned on Eric Weisstein's World of Physics as an example of several

..."theories" [which] continue to be rejected by the physics community as ill-informed speculation, [while] their proponents continue to promulgate them in rather obscure journals. [Eric Weisstein's World of Physics, entry [http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Superluminal.html Superluminal] ]


Smarandache is one of five "Editors-in-chief" of International Journal of Applied Mathematics & Statistics, which is a printed international mathematical journal started in December 2003. [ [http://ceser.res.in/ijamas/eb-ijamas.html International Journal of Applied Mathematics & Statistics] ceser.res.in]

He is also "Associate Editor" of Progress in Physics, an alternative printed and online journal in experimental and theoretical physics which was started in 2005 with the Mathematics Department at UNM-Gallup as its address.

Notes and references

External links

* [http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/ Smarandache Notions Journal at UNM]
* [http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Smarandache%2C%20Florentin The Online Books Page: Florentin Smarandache] , John Mark Ockerbloom, onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu, 2007

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  • Florentín Smarandache — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Florentin Smarandache es Profesor Asociado de Matemática a la Universidad de New Mexico en EE.UU. Publicó más de 75 libros y 100 artícuculos y notas de matemático, físico, filosofía, psicología, literatura, rebus. En …   Wikipedia Español

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  • Smarandache function — DefinitionsThe Smarandache function S ( n ) in number theory is defined for a given positive integer n as the smallest positive integer S(n) such that its factorial S ( n )! is divisible by n .cite book author = C. Dumitrescu, M. Popescu, V.… …   Wikipedia

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  • Smarandache-Wellin number — In mathematics, a Smarandache Wellin number is an integer that in a given base is the concatenation of the first n prime numbers written in that base. Smarandache Wellin numbers are named after Florentin Smarandache and Paul R. Wellin.The first… …   Wikipedia

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