- Treaty of Balta Liman
The Treaty of Balta Liman was a commercial treaty signed in 1838 between the Ottoman Empire and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, regulating international trade. Duties were set at 7 % on imports, 16 % on exports, and 8 % on transiting goods. The Ottomans also agreed to the abolition of all monopolies. In 1831, Mehmet Ali of Egypt's son Ibrahim Pasha led a successful military expedition into Syria, established himself as governor, and set to modernize the country. There was concern in the United Kingdom about the possibility of the establishment of an independent state allied to Russia against the Ottomans and Qajar Persia (the independence and territorial integrity of both the Ottoman Empire and Persia were seen as vital to British interests in the region). There were also numerous complaints of British businessmen who were subject to duties levied on good transshipped across the Ottoman Empire and arbitrary levies by local pashas. When Muhammad Ali refused to implement the agreement because of the threat this posed to his nascent industrialisation project, Sultan Mahmud II gave him a year's grace period, after which Muhammad Ali still refused to comply. In 1840, the Ottomans, with British assistance, attacked and reasserted control over Syria. The price paid for the help was a high one though, as the treaty had initiated a new commercial era for British interests and continued dominance of the Ottoman Empire.
The Convention of Balta Liman of May 1, 1849 was an agreement between Russia and the Ottomans regulating the political situation of the two Danubian Principalities (the basis of present-day Romania), signed during the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1848. Moldavia, which had been placed under Russian occupation in late spring 1848 following a revolutionary attempt, and Wallachia, where a liberal Provisional Government had briefly assumed power before facing a common Ottoman-Russian reaction, were confirmed their previous status of Ottoman suzerainty and Russian protectorate (first established in 1831-32 by the Regulamentul Organic). Minor provisions were added, signifying a relative increase in Ottoman influence — namely, hospodars were no longer elected by the local National Assemblies for life, and instead appointed by the Porte for seven-year terms. A common military presence was maintained until 1851. The document led to the appointment of Barbu Dimitrie Ştirbei as hospodar of Wallachia and Grigore Alexandru Ghica as hospodar of Moldavia. The Convention was rendered void by the Crimean War (during which the Principalities fell under Austrian occupation), and the statutory system itself was annulled by the 1856 Treaty of Paris.
- James L. Gelvin, The Modern Middle East , Oxford University Press, 2005.
- Keith Hitchins, Românii, 1774-1866, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1998 (translation of the English-language edition The Romanians, 1774-1866, Oxford University Press, USA, 1996).
Treaties of the Ottoman EmpireVenetian maritime • Szeged • Constantinople (1479) • Constantinople (1533) • Franco-Ottoman • Adrianople (1547) • Amasya • Adrianople (1568) • Istanbul (1590) • Zitvatorok • Nasuh Pasha • Busza • Serav • Khotin • Zuhab • Vasvár • Buczacz • Żurawno • Bakhchisaray • Karlowitz • Constantinople (1700) • Pruth • Passarowitz • Constantinople (1724) • Ahmet Pasha • Istanbul (1736) • Belgrade • Niš • Kerden • Kuçük Kaynarca • Aynalıkavak • Sistova • Jassy • Tripoli • Tunis • Paris (1802) • Dardanalles • Bucharest • Erzurum • Akkerman • Adrianople (1829) • Constantinople (1832) • Hünkar İskelesi • Kütahya • Balta Liman • London (1840) • London (1841) • Paris (1856) • Scutari (1862) • San Stefano • Berlin (1878) • Cyprus • Tophane • Constantinople (1897) • Ouchy • London (1913) • Constantinople (1913) • Athens • Anglo-Ottoman Convention • Brest-Litovsk • Trabzon • Erzincan • Batum • Mudros • Sèvres
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Liman — may refer to: *Liman (surname), the surname, originated from Zagalwadi village, in Satara district, Maharashtra in INDIA. *Liman (landform), a type of lake, most prominent on the coast of the Black Sea *Liman, Azerbaijan, a city in Lankaran Rayon … Wikipedia
Treaty of Paris (1856) — For other treaties of Paris, see Treaty of Paris. From Auguste Blanchard s copper plate engraving after Edouard Dubufe s Picture … Wikipedia
Treaty of Constantinople (1832) — Map showing the original territory of the Kingdom of Greece as laid down in the Treaty of 1832 (in dark blue). The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of… … Wikipedia
Anglo-Ottoman Treaty — Having a favourable balance of trade up until the mid nineteenth century; ‘In the years 1820 22, the Ottoman Empire exported goods worth £650,000 to the United Kingdom. By 1836 38, that figure had reached £1,729,000.’ [ Sevket Pamuk (1987) The… … Wikipedia
Ottoman–Venetian maritime treaty (1416) — The Ottoman–Venetian maritime treaty of 1416 was signed between Ottoman Empire and Republic of Venice, ending a short conflict between the two powers and stipulating the rules maritime trade between them. Background After the collapse of the… … Wikipedia
Ottoman Empire — دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet i Âliyye i Osmâniyye … Wikipedia
Regulamentul Organic — 1832 Wallachian copy of Regulamentul Organic (printed in the Romanian Cyrillic transitional alphabet … Wikipedia
Mihail Kogălniceanu — For other uses, see Mihail Kogălniceanu (disambiguation). Mihail Kogălniceanu Prime Minister of Romania In office October 11, 1863 – January 26, 1865 … Wikipedia
Muhammad Ali of Egypt — This article is about the leader of Egypt. For other people named Muhammad Ali, or Mehmet Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation) and Mehmet Ali. Muhammad Ali Pasha Wāli of Egypt, Sudan, Palestine, Syria, Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, Crete … Wikipedia
Grigore Alexandru Ghica — or Ghika (1803 or 1807 – August 24, 1857) was a Prince of Moldavia between October 14, 1849 and June 1853, and again between October 30, 1854 and June 3, 1856. His wife was Helena, a member of the Sturdza family and daughter of Ioan Sturdza, who… … Wikipedia