- Milka Planinc
Milka Planinc Prime Minister of Yugoslavia In office
16 May 1982 – 15 May 1986
President Petar Stambolić
Preceded by Veselin Đuranović Succeeded by Branko Mikulić Chairperson of the League of Communists of Croatia In office
14 December 1971 – 16 May 1982
Preceded by Savka Dabčević-Kučar Succeeded by Jure Bilić Personal details Born 21 November 1924
Drniš, Yugoslavia (now Croatia)
Died 7 October 2010(aged 85)
Political party League of Communists
Milka Planinc (21 November 1924 – 7 October 2010) was an ethnic Croatian Yugoslav politician. She served as a Prime Minister of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1982 to 1986. She was the first female head of government in the history of real socialism. 
Her mandate as prime minister was remembered as the times when the government finally decided to regulate external debt of SFR Yugoslavia and to start to pay it back. In order to achieve necessary means, her cabinet implemented restrictive economic measures for a few years. The political roles which Planinc held during her career included Secretary of the People’s Assembly of Trešnjevka 1957; Secretary of Cultural Affairs of the City of Zagreb 1961–1963; Secretary of Education 1963–1965; President of the Assembly 1967–1971; Leader of the Communist Party in Croatia 1971–1982; and President of the Federal Executive Council (Prime Minister) of SFR Yugoslavia 1982–1986.
Planinc was born Milka Malada in Žitnić, a small village near Drniš, Dalmatia. She attended school, but with the onset of World War II her schooling was interrupted. She joined the Communist Youth League in 1941, which was a pivotal year in Planinc’s life and for her country. Nazi Germany invaded Yugoslavia and divided the country among German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian occupying authorities. Soon a resistance group known as the Partisans was formed, led by a locksmith named Josip Broz who called himself "Tito". Planinc waited impatiently for the day when she would be old enough to join the anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia.
Aged 19, Planinc joined the Partisans and became extremely devoted to Tito. In 1944 she joined the Communist party. She became county commissar of the 11th Dalmatian Shock Brigade whose job it was to teach party principles and policies, and ensure party loyalty. Planinc spent years working for the Partisans and the Communist party, and when they gained control of the entire region she enrolled in the Higher School of Administration in Zagreb to continue her education. Partisan commander Simo Dubajić later alleged that Planinc was involved with the post-war massacre at Kočevski Rog.
She married an engineer named Zvonko Planinc. The couple had a son and a daughter. From the late 1990s until her death, Milka Planinc was using a wheelchair and rarely left her apartment. She resided in Zagreb until her death on 7 October 2010, aged 85.
Planinc began to pursue a full-time career within the League of Communists of Croatia. She specialized in education, agitation, and propaganda, and in 1959 she was elected into the Croatian Central Committee, the executive body. Although she served in a variety of posts in Zagreb, as an official in the Secretariat for Education and Culture of the Zagreb City Assembly, Secretary of the Zagreb City League of Communists Committee, and as Republican Secretary for Education, greater party acknowledgment did not come until 1966 when she was elected into the Presidium of the LCC, and then to the executive committee of the LCC in 1968.
After the events of Croatian Spring, the leadership of LCC was removed, and Planinc became president of the Central Committee in 1971. She made the decision to arrest Franjo Tuđman, Marko Veselica, Dražen Budiša, Šime Đodan and Vlado Gotovac, among others, who had all participated in the Croatian Spring.
When Tito died in 1980, he left a plan for a rotation of eight leaders, with the leader coming from each federal unit in turn. On 29 April 1982, the Federal Conference of the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia approved a list of ministers submitted by Planinc, and on 15 May 1982 a joint session of the National Assembly’s two houses named her head of the Federal Executive Council; thus she became prime minister. She became the first woman to occupy such a high post in the country's 64 year history. Planinc had a new governmental body, The Federal Executive Committee, and it consisted of 29 members. All of the members of this committee were new, except for five that were members of the old committee.
The 1974 constitution had left the central government with very little authority, as the power was divided into the separate republics. Planinc tried to re-focus the central government and gain international alliances with visits to Britain, the United States, and Moscow. Though her visits to Washington gave her promises of economic support, her visit to Moscow was said to be with "nothing lost, and nothing gained".
Planinc offered her resignation in October 1985, but this was not accepted. On February 12, 1986 Planinc's government submitted a request to the International Monetary Fund for advanced surveillance. The request was approved a month later. Her term ended in May 1986, and before long she became a member of the LCY Central Committee.
The former prime minister spent the rest of her time living through bitter days of war with the disestablishment of Communism, the fall of the Berlin wall, and the fighting between Croats and Serbs. In 1993 her husband died, and in 1994 her son Zoran committed suicide.
- ^ a b Djokic, Dejan (2010-10-10). "Milka Planinc obituary". London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/10/milka-planinc-obituary. Retrieved 2011-02-12. "Once the most powerful woman in Yugoslavia, Planinc lived modestly in a small apartment in Zagreb, wheelchair-bound and looked after by her daughter, Vesna, who survives her. Planinc rarely spoke publicly during the past 20 years, going into a self-imposed near isolation. Those few she remained in contact with admired her dignity and principles."
- ^ a b Opfell, Olga S., Women Prime Ministers and Presidents, p. 112. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 1993.
- ^ a b c d e Opfell, p. 113
- ^ Opfell, p. 114
- ^ a b Opfell, p. 116
- ^ "Kardelj's dispatches found", B92 (Serbian)
- ^ "Milka Planinc: Partisan and Homeland wars are anti-fascist", Jutarnji list
- ^ "Preminula Milka Planinc", Index.hr (Croatian)
- ^ a b c d e Opfell, p. 117
- ^ "Milka Planinc o Savki: 'Razišle smo se, ali se nikada nismo niti svađale niti mrzile'", Nacional
- ^ a b c d Stankovic, Slobodan. Open Society Archives. 6 May 1982 (retrieved on 15 April 2008)
- ^ Opfell, p. 118
- ^ Opfell, p. 119
- ^ Meier, Viktor; Yugoslavia: a history of its demise, Routledge, 1999. (p. 15)
- ^ Boughton, James M.; Silent revolution: the International Monetary Fund, 1979-1989, International Monetary Fund, 2001. (p. 433)
- ^ a b Opfell, p. 120
Party political offices Preceded by
Chairperson of the League of Communists of Croatia
Political offices Preceded by
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
Prime Ministers of Yugoslavia Prime Ministers (1918-1944)Nikola Pašić · Stojan Protić · Ljubomir Davidović · Stojan Protić · Milenko Vesnić · Nikola Pašić · Ljubomir Davidović · Nikola Pašić · Nikola Uzunović · Velimir Vukićević · Anton Korošec · Petar Živković · Vojislav Marinković · Milan Srškić · Nikola Uzunović · Bogoljub Jevtić · Milan Stojadinović · Dragiša Cvetković · Dušan Simović* · Slobodan Jovanović* · Miloš Trifunović* · Božidar Purić* · Ivan Šubašić* Prime Minister (1943-1953) Presidents of the Federal Executive Council (1953-1991) * in exile Chairpersons of the League of Communists of Croatia (SKH)Đuro Špoljarić (1937–1939) · Rade Končar (1940–1941) · Vlado Popović (1941–1942) · Andrija Hebrang (1942–1944) · Vladimir Bakarić (1944–1969) · Savka Dabčević-Kučar (1969–1971) · Milka Planinc (1971–1982) · Jure Bilić (1982–1983) · Josip Vrhovec (1983–1984) · Mika Špiljak (1984–1986) · Stanko Stojčević (1986–1989) · Ivica Račan (1989–1990)
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