List of Presidents of the United States


List of Presidents of the United States

The President of the United States is the head of state and the head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the Presidency is the highest political official position in the United States by influence and recognition. The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. armed forces. The President is indirectly elected to a four year term by an Electoral College. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1951, no person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice. [cite web|url=http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html|title=The Constitution: Amendments 11-27|publisher=U.S. National Archives & Records Administration|accessdate=2008-10-01] This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. For American leaders prior to this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress. The list does not include any Acting Presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the the U.S. Constitution.

There have been 42 people sworn into office, and 43 Presidencies because Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and the 24th President. Of the individuals elected as President, four have died in office of natural causes, one has resigned, and four were assasinated. The first President was George Washington in 1789. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office at 32 days. At over twelve years, Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest time in office, and is the only President to serve more that two terms. The incumbent President is George W. Bush, who is serving his second term. His term is scheduled to end with Inauguration Day—when the next President is sworn in—on January 20, 2009. [cite web|url=http://inaugural.senate.gov/|title=Inauguration Day is January 20, 2009|publisher=Rules Committee|accessdate=2008-10-01]

Presidents


- party shading/Democratic-Republican
rowspan=2 | 4
rowspan=2 | James Madison
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1809
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1817
rowspan=2 | Democratic-Republican
align=center | 6
- party shading/Democratic-Republican
Elbridge Gerryref label|Note01|D|D
"vacant"
align=center | 7
- party shading/Democratic-Republican
rowspan=2 | 5
rowspan=2 | James Monroe
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1817
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1825
rowspan=2 | Democratic-Republican
rowspan=2 | Daniel D. Tompkins
align=center | 8
- party shading/Democratic-Republican
align=center | 9
- party shading/Democratic-Republican
6
John Quincy Adams

March 4, 1825
March 4, 1829
Democratic-Republican
National Republican
John C. Calhoun
align=center | 10
- party shading/Democratic
rowspan=2 | 7
rowspan=2 | Andrew Jackson
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1829
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1837
rowspan=2 | Democratic
John C. Calhounref label|Note02|R|R
"vacant"
align=center | 11
- party shading/Democratic
Martin Van Buren
align=center | 12
- party shading/Democratic
8
Martin Van Buren

March 4, 1837
March 4, 1841
Democratic
Richard Mentor Johnson
align=center | 13
- party shading/Whig
9
William Henry Harrison

March 4, 1841
April 4, 1841ref label|Note01|D|D
Whig
John Tyler
rowspan=2 align=center | 14
- party shading/Whig
10
John Tyler

April 4, 1841
March 4, 1845
Whig
No partyref label|Note04|N|N
"vacant"
- party shading/Democratic
11
James K. Polk

March 4, 1845
March 4, 1849
Democratic
George M. Dallas
align=center | 15
- party shading/Whig
12
Zachary Taylor

March 4, 1849
July 9, 1850ref label|Note01|D|D
Whig
Millard Fillmore
rowspan=2 align=center | 16
- party shading/Whig
13
Millard Fillmore

July 9, 1850
March 4, 1853
Whig
"vacant"
- party shading/Democratic
14
Franklin Pierce

March 4, 1853
March 4, 1857
Democratic
William R. Kingref label|Note01|D|D
"vacant"
align=center | 17
- party shading/Democratic
15
James Buchanan

March 4, 1857
March 4, 1861
Democratic
John C. Breckinridge
align=center | 18
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 16
rowspan=2 | Abraham Lincoln
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1861
rowspan=2 | April 15, 1865ref label|Note03|A|A
rowspan=2 | Republican
National Unionref label|Note05|U|U
Hannibal Hamlin
align=center | 19
- party shading/Democratic
Andrew Johnson
rowspan=2 align=center | 20
- party shading/Democratic
17
Andrew Johnson

April 15, 1865
March 4, 1869
Democratic
National Unionref label|Note05|U|U
"vacant"
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 18
rowspan=2 | Ulysses S. Grant
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1869
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1877
rowspan=2 | Republican
Schuyler Colfax
align=center | 21
- party shading/Republican
Henry Wilsonref label|Note01|D|D
"vacant"
align=center | 22
- party shading/Republican
19
Rutherford B. Hayes

March 4, 1877
March 4, 1881
Republican
William A. Wheeler
align=center | 23
- party shading/Republican
20
James A. Garfield

March 4, 1881
September 19, 1881ref label|Note03|A|A
Republican
Chester A. Arthur
rowspan=2 align=center | 24
- party shading/Republican
21
Chester A. Arthur

September 19, 1881
March 4, 1885
Republican
"vacant"
- party shading/Democratic
22
Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1885
March 4, 1889
Democratic
Thomas A. Hendricksref label|Note01|D|D
"vacant"
align=center | 25
- party shading/Republican
23
Benjamin Harrison

March 4, 1889
March 4, 1893
Republican
Levi P. Morton
align=center | 26
- party shading/Democratic
24
Grover Cleveland
"(2nd term)"

March 4, 1893
March 4, 1897
Democratic
Adlai E. Stevenson I
align=center | 27
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 25
rowspan=2 | William McKinley
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1897
rowspan=2 | September 14, 1901ref label|Note03|A|A
rowspan=2 | Republican
Garret Hobartref label|Note01|D|D
"vacant"
align=center | 28
- party shading/Republican
Theodore Roosevelt
rowspan=2 align=center | 29
- style="background:#ffc2e1"
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 26
rowspan=2 | Theodore Roosevelt
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | September 14, 1901
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1909
rowspan=2 | Republican
"vacant"
- party shading/Republican
Charles W. Fairbanks
align=center | 30
- party shading/Republican
27
William Howard Taft

March 4, 1909
March 4, 1913
Republican
James S. Shermanref label|Note01|D|D
"vacant"
align=center | 31
- party shading/Democratic
rowspan=2 | 28
rowspan=2 | Woodrow Wilson
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1913
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1921
rowspan=2 | Democratic
rowspan=2 | Thomas R. Marshall
align=center | 32
- party shading/Democratic
align=center | 33
- party shading/Republican
29
Warren G. Harding

March 4, 1921
August 2, 1923ref label|Note01|D|D
Republican
Calvin Coolidge
rowspan=2 align=center | 34
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 30
rowspan=2 | Calvin Coolidge
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | August 2, 1923
rowspan=2 | March 4, 1929
rowspan=2 | Republican
"vacant"
- party shading/Republican
Charles G. Dawes
align=center | 35
- party shading/Republican
31
Herbert Hoover

March 4, 1929
March 4, 1933
Republican
Charles Curtis
align=center | 36
- party shading/Democratic
rowspan=4 | 32
rowspan=4 | Franklin D. Roosevelt
rowspan=4 |
rowspan=4 | March 4, 1933
rowspan=4 | April 12, 1945ref label|Note01|D|D
rowspan=4 | Democratic
rowspan=2 | John Nance Garner
align=center | 37
- party shading/Democratic
align=center | 38
- party shading/Democratic
Henry A. Wallace
align=center |39
- party shading/Democratic
Harry S. Truman
rowspan=2 align=center | 40
- party shading/Democratic
rowspan=2 | 33
rowspan=2 | Harry S. Truman
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | April 12, 1945
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1953
rowspan=2 | Democratic
"vacant"
- party shading/Democratic
Alben W. Barkley
align=center | 41
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 34
rowspan=2 | Dwight D. Eisenhower
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1953
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1961
rowspan=2 | Republican
rowspan=2 | Richard Nixon
align=center | 42
- party shading/Republican
align=center | 43
- party shading/Democratic
35
John F. Kennedy

January 20, 1961
November 22, 1963ref label|Note03|A|A
Democratic
Lyndon B. Johnson
rowspan=2 align=center | 44
- party shading/Democratic
rowspan=2 | 36
rowspan=2 | Lyndon B. Johnson
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | November 22, 1963
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1969
rowspan=2 | Democratic
"vacant"
- party shading/Democratic
Hubert Humphrey
align=center | 45
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 37
rowspan=2 | Richard Nixon
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1969
rowspan=2 | August 9, 1974ref label|Note02|R|R
rowspan=2 | Republican
Spiro Agnew
align=center | 46
- party shading/Republican
Spiro Agnewref label|Note02|R|R
"vacant"
Gerald Ford
rowspan=2 align=center | 47
- party shading/Republican
38
Gerald Ford

August 9, 1974
January 20, 1977
Republican
"vacant"
Nelson Rockefeller
- party shading/Democratic
39
Jimmy Carter

January 20, 1977
January 20, 1981
Democratic
Walter Mondale
align=center | 48
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 40
rowspan=2 | Ronald Reagan
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1981
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1989
rowspan=2 | Republican
rowspan=2 | George H. W. Bush
align=center | 49
- party shading/Republican
align=center | 50
- party shading/Republican
41
George H. W. Bush

January 20, 1989
January 20, 1993
Republican
Dan Quayle
align=center | 51
- party shading/Democratic
rowspan=2 | 42
rowspan=2 | Bill Clinton
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | January 20, 1993
rowspan=2 | January 20, 2001
rowspan=2 | Democratic
rowspan=2 | Al Gore
align=center | 52
- party shading/Democratic
align=center | 53
- party shading/Republican
rowspan=2 | 43
rowspan=2 | George W. Bush
rowspan=2 |
rowspan=2 | January 20, 2001
rowspan=2 | Incumbent
("Term expires January 20, 2009")
rowspan=2 | Republican
rowspan=2 | Dick Cheney
align=center | 54
- party shading/Republican
align=center | 55
- party shading/Republican

Notes

*note label|Note00|*|* The numerals indicate the consecutive time in office served by a single person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first President (not the first and second). Gerald Ford assumed the Presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon, serving out the remainder of what would have been Nixon's second term. The fact that Ford was not voted into office does not affect the numbering, which makes him the 38th President.
*note label|Note01|D|D Died in office of natural causes.
*note label|Note02|R|R Resigned.
*note label|Note03|A|A Assassinated.
*note label|Note04|N|N Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
*note label|Note05|U|U Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.

See also

* President of the United States
* Timeline of Presidents of the United States
* United States presidential inauguration
* List of educational institutions named after U.S. presidents
* Presidential $1 Coin Program

References

* Frank Freidel and Hugh S. Sidey, [http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ "The Presidents of the United States"] . The White House.
* Robert S. Summers, [http://www.ipl.org/div/potus/ "POTUS: Presidents of the United States"] . Internet Public Library.

External links

* [http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/ Biographical Facts on all United States Presidents]
* [http://www.allpresidents.org/ Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies]

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