- United Democratic Front (South Africa)
The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-
apartheidorganisations of the 1980s. The non-racial coalition of about 400 civic, church, students', workers' and other organisations (national, regional and local) was formed in 1983, initially to fight the just-introduced Tricameral Parliament. Its slogan, "UDF Unites, Apartheid Divides" reflects the Front's broad support (about 3 million members).
The plans for a new political organisation were introduced by Rev.
Alan Boesakat a conference of the Transvaal Anti-SAIC Committee(TASC) on January 23, 1983. The part of his speech calling for a "united front" of "churches, civic associations, trade unions, student organizations, and sports bodies" was unplanned, but well-received. Trade unions were very important in the UDF. They began to emerge in the 1980s and took on the roll of the "muscle" of the UDF. UDF pursued a strategy known as "ungovernability": leadership of these organizations declared a strategy to make lands ungovernable. The TASC appointed a sub-committee to investigate the possibility of such a front. After much debate, it was decided that the new organization would be a coalition of non-racism anti-apartheid organizations.
The launch of the UDF
The UDF then formed regional committees, which established relationships with local organizations. The Natal UDF was launched first, in May, and then the
Transvaalregion (in June) and the Cape Province(July). Representatives of the regions formed the Interim National Committee, which also included outside activists.
At the end of July, the committee held a two-day meeting where they discussed a national launch date. Although most delegates wanted time to organise the regions before the national launch, they decided the best date was
August 20, the day the government planned to introduce the Tricameral Constitution. This Constitution was touted as reform, but in practice granted meaningless representation to Indians and Coloureds and left the Blackmajority in the same position. The UDF's symbols — logo and slogan — were also selected at the meeting. Both the logo and slogan portray the widespread support the UDF hoped to achieve by incorporating a wide range of South Africans of all races. Some member organisations adapted the "UDF Unites, Apartheid Divides" slogan; for example, the SowetoCivic Association used "Soweto Civic Association Unites — Piet KoornhofDivides".
August 20, 1983the UDF was launched in the Rocklands community hall, Mitchell's Plain, near Cape Town. After a conference of delegates from 565 organisations (400 were already members), a public rally was held, attended by about 10 000 people. Frank Chikane, the first major speaker, called the day "a turning point in the struggle for freedom".
The UDF was formed of organisations from throughout South Africa, although support was always concentrated in the Cape, Natal, and the
Witwatersrandarea. It soon attracted a massive following and had the support of around 3,000,000 members by 1985. Among its prominent leaders were Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Rev. Alan Boesakand several 1950s activists, including Albertina Sisulu, Oscar Mpethaand Helen Joseph. The UDF and its affiliates promoted rent boycotts, school protests, worker stay-away and a boycott of the tricameral system. Smaller organisations affiliated to the UDF targeted more specific targets for their protests; the End Conscription Campaign(ECC), for example, was set up in opposition to the compulsory military conscription of white males into the South African Defence Force. The Front and its members were largely responsible for the intensification and sustenance of resistance in the period from 1984 to 1986. At its peak, in 1987, it had some 700 affiliates. The most important of these were student/youth organisations, trade unions, "civics" and women's organisations and the church groups where the UDF had its roots.
Relationship with the ANC
Early in its life, the UDF adopted the
Freedom Charter, a statement of the aims for a free South Africa and basis for a democratic constitution. The strong relationship between the African National Congress(ANC) and the UDF was based on this shared mission statement. Throughout its existence, the UDF demanded the release of imprisoned ANC leaders, as well as other political prisoners. However, the UDF was never formally attached to the ANC, and did not participate in the armed struggle. The UDF also suggested resisting all changes whites presented.
Relationship with the Black Consciousness Movement
Black Consciousness Movementdisagreed with the UDF on the issue of multi-racialism. The Black Consciousness movement was based on the principle that the liberation struggle should be led by black people, whereas the UDF welcomed anyone who shared their goals.
Several UDF members were among the accused in two of South Africa's most highly publicised trials. Accused (with the banned ANC and
South African Communist Party[SACP] ) of plotting to overthrow the government, the sixteen accused, including Albertina Sisulu, were acquitted in the first of these trials. In the Delmas Treason Trial(1985–1988), however, the nineteen were convicted, but these convictions were later set aside.
The "new UDF"
On August 22, 2005, the
Western Capebranch of COSATU (the Congress of South African Trade Unions) launchedan initiative to bring together organisations working for a "progressive civil society". Although the initiativewas not given a name, an internal memo referred to it as "UDF-type initiative", and it was widely referred to asthe "new UDF".
The new political movement was triggered by the removal of Deputy President
Jacob Zumafrom office and difficultiesin the Tripartite Allianceof the ANC, COSATU and the SACP. It raised concerns of a splitin the alliance. There was much comment on the proposed initiative amongst the NGO left but nothing came of it and it was soon forgotten.
* [http://www.sahistory.org.za sahistory.org.za]
*"In Search Of History", M. Mulaudzi et al., Oxford University Press (2003)
*" [http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/2005/641/641p17.htm 'New UDF' sparks left debate] ", D.T. McKinley, Green Left Weekly (2005)
* [http://www.nelsonmandela.org/udf UDF Virtual Exhibition]
* [http://www.dispatch.co.za/2000/01/07/features/UDF.HTM UDF unites Apartheid divides]
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