Hillsdale College

Hillsdale College
Motto Virtus Tentamine Gaudet
Motto in English Strength rejoices in the challenge
Established December 4, 1844
Type Liberal arts college
Endowment $295 million (2011)[1]
President Larry P. Arnn
Provost David M. Whalen
Academic staff 102 full-time, 37 adjunct
Undergraduates 1,402
Location Hillsdale, Michigan, USA
Campus Rural, 200 acres (45 buildings)
Former names Michigan Central College
Colors Blue and White         
Athletics NCAA Division II; 11 varsity intercollegiate sports teams
Nickname Chargers
Website www.hillsdale.edu

Hillsdale College in Hillsdale, Michigan, is a co-educational liberal arts college known for being the first American college to prohibit in its charter all discrimination based on race, religion, or sex[2]; its refusal of government funding; and its monthly publication, Imprimis.[3] National Review has described Hillsdale as a "citadel of American conservatism."[4][5]

More than 1,400 students attend Hillsdale from 45 states, the District of Columbia, and eight foreign countries. The college employs 116 full-time faculty members. Hillsdale offers a variety of liberal arts majors, pre-professional programs, a teacher education program, and a journalism certificate program. Located in south-central Michigan, United States, its 200 acres (81 ha) campus contains multiple instructional and office buildings, thirteen residence halls, six fraternity and sorority houses, an athletic complex, music hall, arts center, and an arboretum.[6]



Founding principles and Civil War involvement

Hillsdale College coat-of-arms
Hillsdale in the nineteenth century
Hillsdale College's historic Central Hall and clocktower

Hillsdale College was established as Michigan Central College in Spring Arbor, Michigan on December 4, 1844. In 1853, the college moved to Hillsdale, Michigan and assumed its current name. Hillsdale was the first American college to prohibit in its charter all discrimination based on race, religion, or sex.[3] Hillsdale's founders were determined to uphold the principle of equality articulated by the Founders of America who had declared in 1776 that "all men are created equal."

Hillsdale was founded by Freewill Baptists, and in the nineteenth century Hillsdale and Bates College in Maine were the only American colleges affiliated with the denomination. Hillsdale no longer has any denominational affiliation, and Hillsdale Free Will Baptist College in Oklahoma was founded after Hillsdale College disaffiliated itself with the denomination.

Shortly after its founding, Hillsdale, as a part of the anti-slavery Freewill Baptist denomination, emerged as an early agitator for the abolition of slavery and for the education of black students.[7] Black students were admitted immediately after the college's 1844 founding, and the College became the second[3] school in the nation to grant four-year liberal arts degrees to women.[8]

Many Hillsdale students served in the Union army during the American Civil War. A higher percentage of Hillsdale students enlisted than from any other non-military college.[9] Of the more than 400 men serving, half became officers. During the conflict, four Hillsdale students received the Medal of Honor, three became generals, and many more served as regimental commanders. For the more than sixty that died, a monument was erected in their honor, which now stands between Kendall and Lane Halls.[3]

Non-discrimination policy

Hillsdale's non-discrimination policy remained controversial throughout its history. Furthermore, Hillsdale's football team refused to play in the 1956 Tangerine Bowl in Florida when the governing committee of the Bowl would not allow the team's black players to join the white players on the field; the committee then selected Juniata College instead.[10][11] Hillsdale College's policies came under fire in the 1970s following the enactment of affirmative action legislation. Because some students were receiving federal loans, the federal government asserted that it could require Hillsdale College to submit Assurance of Compliance forms mandated by Title IX as a condition of the continued receipt of federal financial assistance by two hundred Hillsdale students. Hillsdale refused compliance on the grounds that its own policies were less discriminatory than those the federal government would impose. This ongoing dispute with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) began to intensify in 1979 when the College filed a petition for judicial review in the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, asking the court to overturn a previous decision by the Reviewing Authority, Office of Civil Rights of HEW. In December 1982, the Sixth Circuit upheld Hillsdale's refusal to sign the compliance forms but also ruled that government aid to individual students could be terminated without a finding that a college actually discriminated. In February 1984, in a related case, Grove City College v. Bell, the Supreme Court required every college or university to fulfill federal requirements - past and future requirements - if its students received federal aid. As a result of the court's decision, Hillsdale withdrew from all federal assistance beginning with the 1984-85 academic year; Grove City College, the defendant in that case, followed Hillsdale's lead four years later. Beginning with the 2007-2008 academic year, Hillsdale also stopped accepting Michigan state assistance, instead matching any funds that a student would have received from the state with its own aid.[12]

Since 2007, Hillsdale's entire operating budget of the college, including scholarships, comes from private funding and endowments.

Delp Hall and the Liberty Walk, facing Central Hall

Recent history

Since 1981, Hillsdale has presented National Leadership Seminars nationwide on issues of politics, economics and culture. To date, more than 19,000 community, business and media leaders around the country have attended these seminars. Past speakers include Steve Forbes, Benjamin Netanyahu, Dan Quayle, Tony Snow, Margaret Thatcher, and Caspar Weinberger.[13][14]

In 1987, Hillsdale College's dean of women initiated a lawsuit against another faculty member, alleging he had made slanderous remarks about her in the context of a controversy around her role in the selection of the editor of the student newspaper, The Hillsdale Collegian. A subsequent investigation by a committee of the American Association of University Professors concluded that Hillsdale had violated the Association's standards in the context of the nonreappointment and found evidence that the administration had made that decision because of Treadgold's role in preparing the letter, even though this activity "should have been protected under generally accepted principles of academic freedom."[15]

Hillsdale often features prominent speakers at college events, including its Center for Constructive Alternatives (CCA) program. Speakers have included Stephen Ambrose, Benazir Bhutto, Harry Browne, Russell Kirk, Harvey Mansfield, Ralph Nader, P.J. O'Rourke, and Phyllis Schlafly.[16][17]

Hillsdale's campus includes Hillsdale Academy, a private K-12 liberal arts school.[18]

The Heritage Room located in Michael Alexander Mossey Library

College presidents

Early presidents

Daniel McBride Graham was the college's first president, serving from 1844 to 1848 and later serving a second term from 1871 to 1874.[19]

Edmund Burke Fairfield was the college's second president, leading Hillsdale from 1848 to 1869.[19] During his presidency, he helped found the Republican Party.[20]

James Calder was the college's third president, serving from 1869 to 1871. He later resigned to serve as president of the Pennsylvania State University.[19] He was succeeded by DeWitt Clinton Durgin, a graduate of Union College, from 1874-1878,[19] and George F. Mosher, who served from 1886 to 1901.[19][21]

Joseph William Mauck was the sixth president, leading from 1902 to 1922.[19] He was an outspoken advocate for women's suffrage.[22][23] He was succeeded by William Gear Spencer from 1922 to 1932,[19] who departed to lead Franklin College.[24]

Willfred Otto Mauck was the eighth president from 1933 to 1942. He was succeeded by Harvey L. Turner from 1942 to 1952, and J. Donald Phillips from 1952 to 1971.[19]

George Roche III

George Roche III was the eleventh president of Hillsdale College, serving from 1971 to 1999. He focused on raising the college's endowment, establishing new programs like the Center for Constructive Alternatives and bringing prominent national speakers to campus. It was also during his time at the school that Imprimis, Hillsdale's speech digest, was published in 1972.[19] He resigned from his position at the college on November 10, 1999 after being placed on a leave of absence by the college's board of directors. This occurred after Lissa Jackson Roche, his daughter-in-law, was found dead in Slayton Arboretum shortly after alleging that she and Roche had an affair. He emphatically denied her claims and maintained that no sexual relationship had taken place. Her death was ruled a suicide by investigators.[4][25]

Larry P. Arnn

Dr. Larry P. Arnn currently serves as president of the college, a position he assumed in 2000.[26] Arnn's academic interest in Sir Winston Churchill led to the establishment of the annual Churchill Dinner in Washington, D.C. Past speakers at the dinner include Charles Krauthammer, Rush Limbaugh, Karl Rove, and Clarence Thomas.[27] Arnn is one of the highest paid liberal arts college presidents in the United States, earning an annual compensation package in 2009 totaling $608,615, which includes a base salary of $289,867.[28][29]

Allan P. Center for Constitutional Studies and Citizenship, in Washington D.C.


Hillsdale is ranked 60th of 650 schools, including 7th in the Midwest and 1st in the state of Michigan, in the 2011 Forbes report of America's Best Colleges.[30]It ranked 88th in the 2011 U.S. News & World Report listing of best American Liberal Arts colleges.[31] (It was not ranked in 2012 due to insufficient data provided to the magazine.)[32][33] It ranks first in the Princeton Review's The Best 376 Colleges 2011 listing of colleges where students are "most conservative."[34]

Off-campus study

Off-campus study programs include the Washington Journalism Internship at the National Journalism Center in Washington, D.C.; the James C. Quayle Journalism Intern Program; Hillsdale College Professional Sales Intern Program; Hillsdale in Seville, Spain at The Center for Cross-Cultural Study; the Hillsdale/Oxford Scholars Program; Hillsdale College/Universität des Saarlandes, at Saarbrücken, Germany; Hillsdale College Intensive Language Summer School in Tours, France; Hillsdale College Intensive Language & Culture Summer Program in Würzburg, Germany; Hillsdale College at Regent's College, London; Hillsdale College at the University of St. Andrews, at St. Andrews, Scotland; and the Washington-Hillsdale Internship Program (WHIP), where students reside one semester in Washington, D.C., studying Political Science by working 35–40 hours per week in government or private sector positions, and take two classroom courses in either American Politics or Public Policy, and either Contemporary American Foreign Policy or National Security.[35]

The Allan P. Kirby, Jr. Center for Constitutional Studies & Citizenship in Washington, D.C., exists "to advance the principles and ideas that have made America free and prosperous."[36] The Kirby Center sponsors lectures and online events consistent with the mission of Hillsdale College.[37][5]

Statues of the Liberty Walk

Along with message-inscribed bricks purchased by friends and alumni of Hillsdale College, the Liberty Walk is lined with the likenesses of numerous well-known Western leaders and icons, the writings and ideas of which the college considers invaluable to both its own history and those of the United States and the Western tradition. Aside from the Hillsdale Eagle and a statue of the nameless Union soldier (dedicated in 1895, the 30th anniversary of the end of the Civil War), these include George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill, and Margaret Thatcher. A statue of Ronald Reagan was dedicated on October 7, 2011, coinciding with the centennial year of his birth. Reagan spoke at the college in 1977 prior to his presidency, stating, "Hillsdale deserves the appreciation of all who labor for freedom."[38] Statues of James Madison, Frederick Douglass, and Hillsdale theologian Ransom Dunn are among possible future contributions.[39]

However, numerous Hillsdale students have, for years, called for considering the likenesses of more classical Western thinkers, such as Socrates, Cicero, Aristotle, Augustine, or Thomas Aquinas among others. These requests range in urgency, and stem partly from the fear that by focusing too much on "modern" conservative icons, Hillsdale College risks being seen as "a mere right-wing ideology center." One student author commented as early as 2003, "I don't frown upon the statues we've chosen; I only regret the lack of historical depth, the relatively shallow reach with which we are dipping into tradition's pool. If we want to represent truly the glory of the Western tradition, then we need to include the likenesses of those men that paved the way for present and recent heroes."[40][41]

The Grewcock Student Union in the evening

Campus life


The College has a number of sports teams that compete on the NCAA Division II level, including baseball, men's and women's basketball, football, softball, women's swimming, track and field, cross country, and volleyball.[42] The college also has club teams and intramural sports that vary from year to year.[43] The Chargers, as the Hillsdale athletics teams are known, compete in the Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.

Football coach Frank "Muddy" Waters was the head coach at Hillsdale from 1954-1973. The football stadium, Frank Waters Stadium, is named in his honor.[44]


  • 1985: Football - NAIA Division I[45]
  • 1993 and 1994: Men's High Jump NAIA Indoor National Champion Jim McHugh

National Runners-up:

Basketball Final Four:

  • 1981: Men's Basketball - NAIA Division I[47]

Greek life

North-American Interfraternity Conference Fraternities

National Panhellenic Conference Sororities

Notable alumni

Bion J. Arnold
Jared Maurice Arter
Chris Chocola
Elizebeth Friedman
Washington Gardner
Moses A. Luce

Notable faculty

Present faculty

Visiting faculty & fellows

Past faculty


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  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=ZJ7phRjZmUsC&pg=PA177&dq=hillsdale+first+college+to+prohibit+discrimination&hl=en&ei=_7T-TcBKyuKIAqy7lI0F&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hillsdale%20first%20college%20to%20prohibit%20discrimination&f=false
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  5. ^ a b Mackenzie Weinger (2011-04-11). "'Conservative Citadel' Comes to Capitol Hill". Roll Call. http://www.rollcall.com/issues/56_108/Conservative-Citadel-Comes-to-Capitol-Hill-Hillsdale-College-204762-1.html. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
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  60. ^ Steve Van Andel: Board of Directors, Alticor, Inc.
  61. ^ Hillsdale College faculty profile: Larry P. Arnn
  62. ^ Hillsdale College faculty profile: Michael Bauman
  63. ^ Hillsdale College faculty profile: Allan Carlson
  64. ^ Hillsdale College faculty profile: Burton Folsom
  65. ^ Mackinac Center for Public Policy biography of Gary L. Wolfram
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  67. ^ Hillsdale College Department-Sponsored Speakers
  68. ^ Hillsdale College faculty profile: Stephen J. Markman
  69. ^ The Future of Freedom Foundation biography of Richard Ebeling
  70. ^ College Football Hall of Fame Muddy Waters

External links

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