Elam


Elam
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History of Iran
see also Kings of Persia · Timeline of Iran


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Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam is a transcription from Biblical Hebrew, corresponding to the Sumerian elam(a), the Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the ancient near east.[1]

Situated just to the east of Mesopotamia, Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history where writing was used slightly earlier. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands.[2] Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite is generally treated as an isolate language.

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Etymology

The Elamites called their country Haltamti,[3] Sumerian ELAM, Akkadian Elamû, female Elamītu "resident of Susiana, Elamite".[4] Additionally, it is known as Elam in the Hebrew Bible, where they are called the offspring of Elam, eldest son of Shem (see Elam in the Bible; Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9).

The high country of Elam was increasingly identified by its low-lying later capital, Susa. Geographers after Ptolemy called it Susiana. The Elamite civilization was primarily centered in the province of what is modern-day Khuzestān and Ilam in prehistoric times. The modern provincial name Khuzestān is derived from Persian: Old Persian Hūjiya "Elam" (Old Persian:


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  • ELAM — (Heb. עילם, eylam; Elamite halhatamti; Akk. Elamtu), region on the edge of the southwestern part of the Iranian plateau, modern Khuzistan, including the river valley around Susa and the highlands beyond. In Elamite Elam may mean the lord country …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • Elam — (grch. Elymaïs), in der Bibel das Land östl. von Babylonien und dem untern Tigris …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • ELAM — Fil. Semi. Vide Elamitae …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Elam — Èlām m DEFINICIJA pov. antička država na tlu JZ Irana, osnovana o. 2500 pr. Kr …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Elam — [ē′ləm] ancient kingdom of SW Asia, at the head of the Persian Gulf (fl. 13th & 12th cent. B.C. ) …   English World dictionary

  • Élam — Cet article possède un paronyme, voir : Eelam. L Élam est un ancien pays occupant la partie sud ouest du plateau Iranien, entre les actuelles provinces du Khuzistan et du Fars, qui correspondent à ses deux principales régions, celle de Suse… …   Wikipédia en Français


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