Guajira Peninsula

Guajira Peninsula ( _es. Peninsula de La Guajira) is a peninsula in northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. It is the northernmost peninsula in South America and has an area of 25,000 km² extending from the Manaure Bay (Colombia) in the Caribbean sea to the Calabazo Ensenada in the Gulf of Venezuela (Venezuela). Most of the territory is part of Colombia, making part of the Department of La Guajira, while the remaining strip pertains to the Venezuelan State of Zulia. The northern most part of the peninsula is called Punta Gallinas (12° 28´ N) and is also considered the northernmost part of mainland South America. [ USGS: Caribbean Coast: Guajira Peninsula coast] USGS Accessed 24 August 2007.]


The region receives the flow of the Trade winds from the northern hemisphere and forms along the northeastern coast of Venezuela and the Antilles, the Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub. The Trade winds cause a resurgence of the deep littoral waters and makes the sea more rich in living species on the western side of the peninsula. The northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range acts as a barrier that generates abundant rainfall in its steps and originate the Rancheria River, the only major river in the area. Climate and vegetation varies from south to north, presenting a hyper humid jungle weather in the southern part (3000 mm a year) to the desertic areas in the north (300 mm a year).

In the northern area there is a small range of mountains called Macuira that reaches 900 m over sea level that trap some of the Trade winds and cause mist. Most of the mountain range is a protected area called National Natural Park of Macuira. Nearby there is also the 80 km² Flamingos Fauna and Flora Sanctuary.

The peninsula is mainly inhabited by members of the native tribe of the Wayuus which use the plains to raise cattle, sheeps, goats and horses. The descendants of the Spanish colonizers settled in the southeastern part of the peninsula (sometimes referred to as the Padilla Province) were the land is more fertile due to the proximity to other river basins, such as the cesar river basin and is subject to large plantations of cotton, sorghum and cattle ranching.

Since the 1980s the central area of the peninsula was subject to the exploration and exploitation of coal and natural gas in the area of Cerrejon and of oil in the littoral.




*es icon Henri Candelier. 1892. Riohacha y los Indios Guajiros. Crónica de un viajero y explorador francés quien durante tres años, 1889-1892, recorrió La Guajira.

*es icon Martha Ligia Castellanos, Luis Carlos Pardo L. 2000. Caracterización y primera aproximación a la determinación del índice de biodiversidad en los suelos de la cuenca del arroyo Mekijanao, Serranía de la Macuira, Alta Guajira. En: Juan Carlos Pérez (editor) X Congreso Nacional de la Ciencia del Suelo. Programa y resúmenes. El suelo un componente del medio natural. Medellín, Octubre 11 al 13 de 2000

*es icon Edith González, Gabriel Guillot, Néstor Miranda, Diana Pombo (editores). 1990. Perfil Ambiental de Colombia. Colciencias. Escala. Bogotá.

*es icon Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi. 1996. Diccionario Geográfico de Colombia. Edición en CD-ROM. Bogotá, Colombia.

* [ Thomas Stadtmüller. 1987. Cloud Forests in the Humid Tropics.] A Bibliographic Review. The United Nations University, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Turrialba, Costa Rica. 82 pp.

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  • Guajira Peninsula, La — ▪ peninsula, South America Spanish  Península de La Guajira , Guajira also spelled  Goajira        peninsula on the northwestern coast of South America. It is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the north and west, the Gulf of Venezuela to the… …   Universalium

  • Guajira, península de la — Península de la costa noroeste de América del Sur. La rodean el mar Caribe por el norte y el oeste y el golfo de Venezuela por el sudeste. La mayor parte de la península pertenece a Colombia y el resto a Venezuela. Su principal ciudad es Ríohacha …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • La Guajira Peninsula — Peninsula, northwestern coast of South America. It is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the north and west and the Gulf of Venezuela to the southeast. Much of the peninsula lies in Colombia, and the rest is in Venezuela. Ríohacha, Colom. (pop.,… …   Universalium

  • Guajira — may refer to: * Guajira (Cuban slang) for a yeoman or farmer from the countryside * Guajira (music), a style of Cuban music, song or dance * Department of La Guajira, a department of Colombia which includes most of the Guajira Peninsula * La… …   Wikipedia

  • Guajira — puede referirse a: Guajira, telenovela colombiana. Guajira, estilo de música. La Guajira, departamento colombiano. La Guajira, península sudamericana. Esta página de desambiguación cataloga artículos relacionados con el mismo título …   Wikipedia Español

  • Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub — The Guajira Barranquilla xeric scrub is a xeric shrubland ecoregion in Colombia, covering an estimated area of 150.000 km2.ettingThe ecoregion occupies the Guajira Peninsula, the valley of Rancheria river and Guajira Department, covering parts of …   Wikipedia

  • peninsula — peninsular, adj. peninsularism, peninsularity /peuh nin seuh lar i tee, nins yeuh /, n. /peuh nin seuh leuh, nins yeuh leuh/, n. 1. an area of land almost completely surrounded by water except for an isthmus connecting it with the mainland. 2.… …   Universalium

  • Península — (Del lat. paeninsula.) ► sustantivo femenino GEOGRAFÍA Extensión de tierra rodeada de agua por todas partes menos por una, por la que se une a una tierra mayor. * * * península (del lat. «paeninsŭla») f. *Territorio rodeado de agua en casi todo… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Península de la Guajira — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Vista satelital de la península de La Guajira La Guajira es la más septentrional de las penínsulas sudamericanas, situada entre el extremo nororiental de Colombia y el extremo noroccidental de Venezuela. Tiene una… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Guajira-Halbinsel — Cabo de la Vela auf der Halbinsel Guajira Gewässer 1 Karibisches Meer Gewässer 2 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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