Seven Laws of Noah


Seven Laws of Noah
The rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement, recalling the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible.

The Seven Laws of Noah (Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני נחSheva mitzvot B'nei Noach) form the major part of the Noachide Laws, or Noahide Code.[1] This code is a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud, were given by God[2] as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humankind.[3][4] According to religious Judaism, any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as a Righteous Gentile, and is assured of a place in the world to come (Olam Haba), the final reward of the righteous.[5][6] Adherents are often called "B'nei Noach" (Children of Noah) or "Noahides" and may often network in Jewish synagogues.[citation needed]

The seven laws listed by the Tosefta and the Talmud are[7]

  1. Prohibition of Idolatry
  2. Prohibition of Murder
  3. Prohibition of Theft
  4. Prohibition of Sexual immorality
  5. Prohibition of Blasphemy
  6. Prohibition of eating flesh taken from an animal while it is still alive
  7. Establishment of courts of law

The Noachide Laws comprise the six laws which were given to Adam in the Garden of Eden, according to the Talmud's interpretation of Gen 2:16,[8] and a seventh one, which was added after the Flood of Noah. Later, at the Revelation at Sinai, the Seven Laws of Noah were re-given to humanity and embedded in the 613 Laws given to the Children of Israel along with the Ten Commandments, which are part of, and not separate from, the 613 mitzvot. These laws are derived from the Torah. According to religious Judaism, the 613 mitzvot or "commandments" given in the written Torah, as well as their reasonings in the oral Torah, were only issued to the Jews and are therefore binding only upon them, having inherited the obligation from their ancestors. At the same time, at Mount Sinai, the Children of Israel were given the obligation to teach other nations the embedded Noachide Laws.[citation needed] These laws also affect Jewish law in a number of ways.

While some Jewish organizations, such as Chabad have worked to promote the acceptance of Noachide laws, there are no figures for how many actually do.

Contents

Biblical origins

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Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew Bible does not mention the Law in connection with Noah, nor that there were "Seven" Laws. However Noah was able to distinguish between "clean" animals (seven of each) and "unclean animals" (two of each) when loading animals onto the ark, which indicates some existence of food laws before the Law of Moses.[9] According to the Biblical narrative, the Deluge covered the whole world, killing every surface-dwelling creature except Noah, his wife, his sons and their wives, sea creatures, and the animals taken aboard Noah's Ark. After the flood, God sealed a covenant with Noah with the following admonitions (Genesis 9):

  • Food: "However, flesh with its life-blood [in it] you shall not eat." (9:4)
  • Murder: "Furthermore, I will demand your blood, for [the taking of] your lives, I shall demand it [even] from any wild animal. From man too, I will demand of each person's brother the blood of man. He who spills the blood of man, by man his blood shall be spilt; for in the image of God He made man." (9:5–6)

Second Temple period texts

Although other texts from the Second Temple period are not considered authoritative in Judaism, they do show reference to the concept of Noahic laws before the Talmud.

2nd Century BCE, Book of Jubilees

An early reference to Noachide Law may appear in the Book of Jubilees 7:20–28, which is generally dated to the 2nd century BCE:

"And in the twenty-eighth jubilee [1324–1372 A.M.] Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth ... For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth."[10][11]

1st century CE, Acts 15

The Jewish Encyclopedia article on Saul of Tarsus states:

According to Acts, Paul began working along the traditional Jewish line of proselytizing in the various synagogues where the proselytes of the gate [a biblical term, for example see Exodus 20:9] and the Jews met; and only because he failed to win the Jews to his views, encountering strong opposition and persecution from them, did he turn to the Gentile world after he had agreed at a convention with the apostles at Jerusalem to admit the Gentiles into the Church only as proselytes of the gate, that is, after their acceptance of the Noachian laws (Acts 15:1–31).

Jewish Encyclopedia: New Testament — Spirit of Jewish Proselytism in Christianity states:

For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws — namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal — should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church.

Some modern scholars however dispute the connection between Acts 15 and Noahide Law[12] and the Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles and the nature of Biblical law in Christianity.

Talmud

According to Judaism, as expressed in the Talmud, the Noachide Laws apply to all humanity through humankind's descent from one paternal ancestor, the head of the only family to survive The Flood, who in Hebrew tradition is called Noah. In Judaism, בני נח B'nei Noah (Hebrew, "Descendants of Noah", "Children of Noah") refers to all of humankind.[13] The Talmud also states: "Righteous people of all nations have a share in the world to come" (Sanhedrin 105a). Any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as one of "the righteous among the gentiles". Maimonides writes that this refers to those who have acquired knowledge of God and act in accordance with the Noachide laws out of obedience to God. According to what scholars consider to be the most accurate texts of the Mishneh Torah, Maimonides goes on to say that anyone who upholds the Noachide laws only because they appear logical is not one of the "righteous among the nations," but rather he is one of the wise among them. The more prolific versions of the Mishneh Torah say of such a person: "..nor is he one of the wise among them."[14]

The Talmud states that the instruction not to eat "flesh with the life" was given to Noah, and that Adam and Eve had already received six other commandments. Adam and Eve were not enjoined from eating from a living animal; they were forbidden to eat any animal. The remaining six are exegetically derived from the sentence "And the Lord God commanded the man saying, of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat." in Gen 2:16.[15]

Historically, some rabbinic opinions consider non-Jews not only not obligated to adhere to all the remaining laws of the Torah, but are actually forbidden to observe them.[16] The Noachide Laws are regarded as the way through which non-Jews can have a direct and meaningful relationship with God, or at least comply with the minimal requisites of civilization and of divine law.[citation needed]

Maimonides states, in Mishneh Torah[17] that a non-Jew who is precise in the observance of these seven Noachide commandments is considered to be a Righteous Gentile and has earned a place in the world to come. This follows a similar statement in the Talmud.[18]

Noachide law differs radically from Roman law for gentiles (Jus Gentium), if only because the latter was enforceable judicial policy. Rabbinic Judaism has never adjudicated any cases under Noachide law (per Novak, 1983:28ff.), although scholars disagree about whether Noachide law is a functional part of Halakha ("Jewish law") (cf. Bleich).

In recent years, the term "Noahide" has come to refer to non-Jews who strive to live in accord with the seven Noachide Laws; the terms "observant Noahide" or "Torah-centered Noahides" would be more precise but are infrequently used. Support for the use of Noahide in this sense can be found with the Ritva, who uses the term Son of Noah to refer to a Gentile who keeps the seven laws, but is not a Ger Toshav.[19] The rainbow, referring to the Noachide or First Covenant (Genesis 9), is the symbol of many organized Noahide groups, following Genesis 9:12-17. A non-Jew of any ethnicity or religion is referred to as a bat ("daughter") or ben ("son") of Noah, but most organizations that call themselves בני נח (b'nei noach) are composed of gentiles who are keeping the Noachide Laws.[citation needed]

Subdividing the Seven Laws

Various rabbinic sources have different positions on the way the seven laws are to be subdivided in categories. Maimonides[20] lists other additional Noahide commandments, including the coupling of different kinds of animals and the grafting of different species (as defined by Jewish law) of trees. Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra (Radbaz), a contemporary commentator on Maimonides, expressed surprise that he left out castration and sorcery which were listed in the Talmud.[21]

The 10th century Rabbi Saadia Gaon added tithes and levirate marriage. The 11th century Rav Nissim Gaon included "listening to God's Voice", "knowing God" and "serving God" besides going on to say that all religious acts which can be understood through human reasoning are obligatory upon Jew and Gentile alike. The 14th century Rabbi Nissim ben Reuben Gerondi added the commandment of charity.

The 16th century work Asarah Maamarot by Rabbi Menahem Azariah of Fano (Rema mi-Fano) enumerates thirty commandments, listing the latter twenty-three as extensions of the original seven, which includes prohibitions on various forms of sorcery, as well as incest and bestiality. Another commentator, Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Chajes (Kol Hidushei Maharitz Chayess I, end Ch. 10) suggests these are not related to the first seven, nor based on Scripture, but were passed down by oral tradition. The number thirty derives from the statement of the Talmudic sage Ulla in tractate Hullin 92a, though he lists only three other rules in addition to the original seven, consisting of details of the prohibitions against homosexuality and cannibalism, as well as the imperative to honor the Torah.

Talmud commentator Rashi remarks on this that he does not know the other Commandments that are referred to. Though the authorities seem to take it for granted that Ulla's thirty commandments included the original seven, an additional thirty laws is also possible from the reading[citation needed].

The 10th century Shmuel ben Hophni Gaon lists thirty Noahide Commandments based on Ulla's Talmudic statement, though the text is problematic.[22] He includes the prohibitions against suicide and false oaths, as well as the imperatives related to prayer, sacrifices and honoring one's parents.

The contemporary Rabbi Aaron Lichtenstein counts 66 instructions[citation needed] but Rabbi Harvey Falk has suggested that much work remains to be done in order to properly identify all of the Noahide Commandments, their divisions and subdivisions.[citation needed]

Theft, robbery and stealing covers the appropriate understanding of other persons, their property and their rights. The establishment of courts of justice promotes the value of the responsibility of a corporate society of people to enforce these laws and define these terms. The refusal to engage in unnecessary lust or cruelty demonstrates respect for the creation itself as renewed after the Flood. The prohibition against committing murder includes a prohibition against human sacrifice.[citation needed]

Maimonides, in his Mishnah Torah, interpreted the prohibition against homicide as including a prohibition against abortion.[23]

Legal status of an observer of Noahide Laws

From the perspective of traditional halakhah, if a non-Jew is to be accepted to live among the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, then that person must keep the Noahide Laws, and a number of additional laws and regulations apply as well. Such a person is called a Ger Toshav, a "Sojourning Alien" amid the people of Israel. A Ger Toshav is the only kind of non-Jew who Jewish law permits to live among the Jewish people in the Land of Israel when the land is run according to Halacha and there is a Sanhedrin and a Temple.[citation needed]Jewish law only allows the official acceptance of a Ger Toshav as a sojourner in the Land of Israel during a time when the Year of Jubilee (yovel) is in effect.[24]

There are several differences in Jewish law between a Ger Toshav and a regular Gentile. Although the Jewish community does not formally accept Gerei Toshav at the present time, there is discussion in Halakic sources as to whether some of the laws that apply to a Ger Toshav may be applied to some modern Gentiles, particularly Muslims.[25]

A Ger Toshav should not be confused with a Ger Tzedek, who is a person who prefers to proceed to total conversion to Judaism, a procedure that is traditionally only allowed to take place after much thought and deliberation over converting.

Punishment

The Talmud laid down the statutory punishment for transgressing any one of the Seven Laws of Noah (but not other parts of the Noahide code) as capital punishment [26] by decapitation, which is considered one of the lightest[27] of the four modes of execution of criminals. According to some opinions, punishment is the same whether the individual transgresses with knowledge of the law or is ignorant of the law.[28]

Modern Times

Modern views

Some modern views hold that penalties are a detail of the Noahide Laws and that Noahides themselves must determine the details of their own laws for themselves. According to this school of thought – see N. Rakover, Law and the Noahides (1998); M. Dallen, The Rainbow Covenant (2003) – the Noahide Laws offer mankind a set of absolute values and a framework for righteousness and justice, while the detailed laws that are currently on the books of the world's states and nations are presumptively valid.

Chabad views: A Shulchan Aruch for Gentiles

After the late Rebbe of Chabad Lubavitch Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson started his Noahide Campaign in the 1980s, the number of Gentiles, willing to keep the Seven Laws of Noah as described in the Torah is increasing continuously.[citation needed] A codification of the exact obligations of the Gentiles in the spirit of the classical Shulchan Aruch was needed. In 2005 the scholar Rabbi Moshe Weiner of Jerusalem accepted to produce an in-depth codification of the Noahide precepts.[29] The work is called Sefer Sheva Mitzvot HaShem, published 2008/ 2009. As it is approved by both Chief Rabbis of Israel, Rabbi Shlomo Moshe Amar and Rabbi Yonah Metzger, as well as other Hasidic- and non-Hasidic halachic authorities like Rabbi Zalman Nechemia Goldberg, Rabbi Gedalia Dov Schwartz and Rabbi Jacob Immanuel Schochet, it can claim an authoritative character and is referred as a "Shulchan Aruch"[30] for Gentiles at many places.

Public endorsement of Noahide Laws

United States Congress

The Seven Laws of Noah were recognized by the United States Congress in the preamble to the 1991 bill that established Education Day in honor of the birthday of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the leader of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement:

Whereas Congress recognizes the historical tradition of ethical values and principles which are the basis of civilized society and upon which our great Nation was founded; Whereas these ethical values and principles have been the bedrock of society from the dawn of civilization, when they were known as the Seven Noahide Laws.[31]

Israeli Druze

In January 2004, the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel, Sheikh Mowafak Tarif, signed a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the Noahide Laws as laid down in the Talmud and expounded upon in Jewish tradition. The mayor of the Galilean city of Shefa-'Amr (Shfaram), where Muslim, Christian and Druze communities live side by side, also signed the document. The declaration includes the commitment to make a better, more humane world based on the Seven Noahide Commandments and the values they represent commanded by the Creator to all mankind through Moses on Mount Sinai.

Support for the spread of the Seven Noahide Commandments by the Druze leaders reflects the Biblical narrative itself. The Druze community reveres the non-Jewish father-in-law of Moses, Jethro, whom Arabs call Shoaib. According to the Biblical narrative, Jethro joined and assisted the Jewish people in the desert during the Exodus, accepted monotheism, but ultimately rejoined his own people. In fact, the tomb of Jethro in Tiberias is the most important religious site for the Druze community.[32]

Christianity and the Noahide Laws

Christian views on the old covenant vary. Most Christian denominations incorporate the Ten Commandments, the Great Commandment, and The Golden Rule, however some believe in the complete Abrogation of Old Covenant laws. The only Noahide law that is not part of the standard moral teaching of mainstream Christianity is the prohibition against eating the flesh of an animal while it is still alive (number 6 above). By many interpretations, Acts and the Pauline Epistles make clear that the Jewish dietary laws as a whole are not binding on gentile Christians, though the Apostolic Decree which is still observed by the orthodox includes some food restrictions.[33] However, the Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles and the relationship between Paul of Tarsus and Judaism are still disputed.

The 18th-century Rabbi Jacob Emden proposed that Jesus, and Paul after him, intended to convert the Gentiles to the Noahide laws while allowing the Jews to follow full Mosaic Law.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ That the Noachide code may include more than the seven laws, see Talmud Bavli, Sanhedrin 58b–59a; also see Rabbi Yosef Karo, Kesef Mishna, explaining Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 10:9, as well as Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, Entry Ben Noah), for both this opinion (various places) and for an indication (page 350) that there are views that all of the Noachide code can be subsumed under the seven laws
  2. ^ According to Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, Entry Ben Noah, page 349), most medieval authorities consider that all seven commandments were given to Adam, although Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) considers the dietary law to have been given to Noah.
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, introduction) states that after the giving of the Torah, the Jewish people were no longer in the category of the sons of Noah; however, Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) indicates that the seven laws are also part of the Torah, and the Talmud (Bavli, Sanhedrin 59a, see also Tosafot ad. loc.) states that Jews are obligated in all things that Gentiles are obligated in, albeit with some differences in the details.
  4. ^ Compare Genesis 9:4–6.
  5. ^ Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 8:14
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, end of article); note the variant reading of Maimonides and the references in the footnote
  7. ^ Tosefta Avodah Zarah 9.4, dated circa 300, quoted in Talmud Sanhedrin 56a.
  8. ^ 56a/b
  9. ^ The Torah and its God: a humanist inquiry Jordan Jay Hillman - 2001 "The question, then, is how can Noah distinguish between clean and unclean animals? What does he know of the classification and its details? As yet Genesis is silent "
  10. ^ Jubilees at wesley.nnu.edu, This is R. H. Charles' 1913 translation from the Koine Greek, but Jubilees is also extant in Geez and multiple texts found at Qumran which are still being examined.
  11. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Jubilees, Book of: The Noachian Laws
  12. ^ Joseph Fitzmyer, The Acts of the Apostles (The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries), Yale University Press (December 2, 1998), ISBN 0-300-13982-9, chapter V
  13. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit, Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, introduction
  14. ^ Mishnah Torah Shoftim, Laws of Kings and their wars 8:14
  15. ^ Sanhedrin 56a/b, quoting Tosefta Avodah Zarah 9:4; see also Rashi on Genesis 9:3
  16. ^ Gentiles May Not Be Taught the Torah.
  17. ^ The Laws of Kings 8:11,
  18. ^ Sanhedrin 105b
  19. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit, Hebrew edition, 5741/1981, Appendix, entry Ben Noah, introduction
  20. ^ Mishneh Torah, Laws of Kings 10:6
  21. ^ Sanhedrin 56b.
  22. ^ Each surviving manuscript is defective between the seventeenth and nineteenth positions, cf. The Seven Laws of Noah by Rabbi Aaron Lictenstein, pp. 119
  23. ^ Mishnah Torah Shoftim, Laws of Kings and their wars 9:6
  24. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit, Hebrew edition, 5739/1979, entry Get Toshav
  25. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit, Hebrew edition, 5739/1979, entry Get Toshav
  26. ^ Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Judges, Laws of Kings, chapters 9 and 10,
  27. ^ Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Judges, Laws of Sanhedrin, chapter 14, law 4
  28. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Makkot 9a, commentary of Rashi
  29. ^ The Divine Code, R. Moshe Weiner, Ed. Dr. Michael Schulman Ph.D., Vol, I., p. 21, 2008, publ. Ask Noah International
  30. ^ Letter of Blessing (for Sefer Sheva Mitzvoth HaShem) , R. Yonah Metzger, Chief Rabbi of Israel, p.1.
  31. ^ [1], 102nd Congress of the United States of America, March 5, 1991.
  32. ^ "Druze Religious Leader Commits to Noachide "Seven Laws"". 2004-01-18. http://www.arutzsheva.com/news.php3?id=56379. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  33. ^ Karl Josef von Hefele's commentary on canon II of Gangra notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra, the rule of the Apostolic Synod with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force. With the Greeks, indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show. Balsamon also, the well-known commentator on the canons of the Middle Ages, in his commentary on the sixty-third Apostolic Canon, expressly blames the Latins because they had ceased to observe this command. What the Latin Church, however, thought on this subject about the year 400, is shown by St. Augustine in his work Contra Faustum, where he states that the Apostles had given this command in order to unite the heathens and Jews in the one ark of Noah; but that then, when the barrier between Jewish and heathen converts had fallen, this command concerning things strangled and blood had lost its meaning, and was only observed by few. But still, as late as the eighth century, Pope Gregory the Third (731) forbade the eating of blood or things strangled under threat of a penance of forty days. No one will pretend that the disciplinary enactments of any council, even though it be one of the undisputed Ecumenical Synods, can be of greater and more unchanging force than the decree of that first council, held by the Holy Apostles at Jerusalem, and the fact that its decree has been obsolete for centuries in the West is proof that even Ecumenical canons may be of only temporary utility and may be repealed by disuse, like other laws."
  34. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Gentile: Gentiles May Not Be Taught the Torah: "R. Emden (), in a remarkable apology for Christianity contained in his appendix to "Seder 'Olam" (pp. 32b–34b, Hamburg, 1752), gives it as his opinion that the original intention of Jesus, and especially of Paul, was to convert only the Gentiles to the seven moral laws of Noah and to let the Jews follow the Mosaic law; this explains the apparent contradictions in the New Testament regarding the laws of Moses and the Sabbath."

Further reading

  • Barre Elisheva. "Torah for Gentiles - the Messianic and Political Implications of the Bnei Noah Laws", 2008, ISBN 978-965-91329-0-4
  • Bleich, J. David. "Judaism and natural law" in Jewish law annual, vol. VII 5–42
  • Bleich, J. David. "Tikkun Olam: Jewish Obligations to Non-Jewish Society" in: Tikkun olam: social responsibility in Jewish thought and law. Edited by David Shatz, Chaim I. Waxman and Nathan J. Diament. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1997. ISBN 0-7657-5951-9.
  • Broyde, Michael J. "The Obligation of Jews to Seek Observance of Noahide Laws by Gentiles: A Theoretical Review" in Tikkun olam: social responsibility in Jewish thought and law. Edited by David Shatz, Chaim I. Waxman and Nathan J. Diament. Northvale, N.J. : Jason Aronson, 1997. ISBN 0-7657-5951-9.
  • Cecil, Alan W. "The Noahide Code: A Guide to the Perplexed Christian." (Aventura: Academy of Shem Press, 2006). ISBN 0-9779885-0-3.
  • Cohen, Yakov Dovid. "Divine Image " Insights into the Laws of Noah, published by The Institute of Noahide Code 2006 ISBN 1-4243-10008 online www.Noahide.org
  • Cowen, Shimon Dovid. "Perspectives on the Noahide Laws - Universal ethics". The Institute of Judaism and Civilization (3rd edition) 2008 ISBN 0 9585933 8 8 www.ijc.com.au
  • Clorfene C and Rogalsky Y. The Path of the Righteous Gentile: An Introduction to the Seven Laws of the Children of Noah. Targum Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87306-433-X. Online version.
  • Lichtenstein, Aaron. "The Seven Laws of Noah". New York: The Rabbi Jacob Joseph School Press and Z. Berman Books, 2d ed. 1986. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 80-69121.
  • Novak, David. The image of the non-Jew in Judaism: an historical and constructive study of the Noahide Laws. New York : E. Mellen Press, 1983.
  • Novak, David. Natural law in Judaism. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Rakover, Nahum. Law and the Noahides: law as a universal value. Jerusalem: Library of Jewish Law, 1998.
  • Michael Dallen. The Rainbow Covenant: Torah and the Seven Universal Laws ISBN 0-9719388-2-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2003102494 online excerpts

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