- Helge Ingstad
Helge Marcus Ingstad (
30 December, 1899in Meråker– 29 March, 2001in Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer. After mapping some Norse settlements, Ingstad and his wife Anne Stine, an archaeologist, in 1960 found remnants of a Vikingsettlement in L'Anse aux Meadowson the island of Newfoundland. With that they were the first to prove conclusively that the Greenlandic Norsemenhad found a way across the Atlantic Oceanto North America, roughly 500 years before Christopher Columbusand John Cabot. He also thought that the mysterious disappearance of the GreenlandViking settlement in the 14/15th century could be explained by their emigration to North America.
Helge Ingstad was born to Olav Ingstad and Olga Marie Qvam. His father was municipal engineer in
Tromsøand held the title of factory supervisor. Helge grew up in Bergen, and after graduating cand. jur. in 1922 he took up a practice of lawyer in Levanger.
Helge Ingstad was originally a lawyer by profession, but, ever an outdoorsman, he sold his successful law practice in
Levangerand went to Canada's Northwest Territoriesas a trapper in 1926. For the next three years, the Norwegian travelled with the local Indian tribeknown as the CaribouEaters. After returning to Norway, he wrote the bestselling "Pelsjegerliv" ("Trapper Life"), published in English as "The Land of Feast and Famine" (Knopf, 1933).
Ingstad was the governor (
Sysselmann) of Erik the Red's Landin 1932–33, when Norway annexed that eastern part of Greenland. The Permanent Court of International Justicein The Haguedecided that the lands belonged to Denmark, and so the official Norwegian presence had to end. Following the verdict, Ingstad was summoned by the government to the job as governor of Svalbard(Spitsbergen and the surrounding islands) — a position suiting him uniquely, considering his profession of law and his experience in Arctic living.
During his years on Svalbard Helge Ingstad met his wife, Anne Stine, nearly twenty years his junior. She had read his books from Canada and Greenland with great admiration, and got a crush on the explorer; she wrote to him, and after some time of correspondence and dating they were engaged and married. In 1946 the Ingstads made themselves a home near the
Holmenkollenarea of Norway's capital, Oslo, where they spent the rest of their lives when not travelling the world. They had one daughter, Benedicte, who became an archaeologist like her mother. From her teenage years, Benedicte accompanied her parents on their exploration journeys.
Helge Ingstad was a popular author, whose books on his visits to remote parts of the world gained him fame in Norway. From Greenland he wrote "Øst for den store bre" ("East of the Great Glacier"), from Svalbard he wrote "Landet med de kalde kyster" ("The Land With the Chilly Coasts"). He also visited the
ApacheIndians of northwestern Mexico, from which he wrote "Apache-indianerne - jakten på den tapte stamme" ("The Apaches - The Hunt for the Lost Tribe"). After World War IIhe stayed for a period in the Brooks Rangein northern Alaskaamong the Nunamiut eskimotribe, and afterwards wrote "Nunamiut - blant Alaskas innlandseskimoer" ("Nunamiut - Inland Eskimos of Alaska").
Helge Ingstad has two geographic features in America named after him. In Canada, a small river, Ingstad Creek, flows into
Great Slave Lake. In Alaska, the 1461-meter-high Ingstad Mountain in the Brooks Rangewas officially approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Nameson 19 April 2006. The name was suggested by the Nunamiut tribe in gratitude for Ingstad's efforts on their behalf. The asteroid 8993 Ingstad is also named after him.
Helge Ingstad died at
Diakonhjemmet's hospitalin Oslo at the age of 101. During the last few years of his life, he worked on categorizing and annotating the large quantity of photos and audio recordings (141 songs) he had made while living with the Nunamiut in 1950. The effort resulted in a booklet, "Songs of the Nunamiut", with an accompanying CD containing the audio material. This is an extremely valuable contribution to the preservation of the Nunamiut culture, because it turned out that much of what he had gathered in the mid-20th century was now lost locally and was only preserved in his recordings.
He was honorary member of the
Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. He also held honorary doctorates at the University of Oslo, Memorial University of Newfoundlandand at St. Olaf Collegein Minnesota. He was awarded the meritorial Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, Knight of the Order of Vasa, and he was presented with the Red Crosssign of honor for his efforts in Finnmarkduring World War II. He received a lifetime government grant from the Norwegian government from 1970. In 1986 he was presented Arts Council Norway's honor award.
* Ingstad, Helge; Gay-Tifft, Eugene (translator) (1992). "The Land of Feast and Famine". McGill-Queens University Press. ISBN 0-7735-0912-7.
* Ingstad, Helge; Naomi Walford (translator) (1966). "Land under the Pole Star; a voyage to the Norse settlements of Greenland and the saga of the people that vanished". St. Martins Press.
* Ingstad, Helge (1996). "Oppdagelsen av det nye land". J. M. Stenersens forlag (Oslo).
* Ingstad, Helge; Ingstad, Anne Stine (2001). "The Viking Discovery of America: The Excavation of a Norse Settlement in L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland". Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-4716-2.
* Ingstad, Helge; Groven, Eivind (transcriptions); Tveit, Sigvald (ed.) (1998). "Songs of the Nunamiut". Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. ISBN 82-518-3778-2.
* Ingstad, Helge (1965). "Vesterveg til Vinland; oppdagelsen av norrøne boplasser i Nord-Amerika". Gyldendal (Oslo).
Norse colonization of the Americas
* [http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/phillie/webquest/iobit.htm Obituary from the New York Times as it appeared in the Halifax Sunday Herald, April 1, 2001]
(note that the name of Ingstad's wife, Anne Stine, is misspelled, twice, differently, in this otherwise well-written obituary)
* [http://www.mun.ca/univrel/gazette/2000-2001/apr12/obit.html Concise obituary from Memorial University of Newfoundland Gazette, April 12, 2001]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16331154&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_docsum The Norse discovery of America] –
Pubmedabstract of article about the L'Anse Aux Meadows finds
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Helge Ingstad — Helge Marcus Ingstad (* 30. Dezember 1899 in Meråker, Norwegen; † 28. März 2001 in Oslo) war ein norwegischer Archäologe, Schriftsteller und Abenteurer, der gemeinsam mit seiner Ehefrau Anne Stine Ingstad als Entdecker der Wikingersiedlungen im… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Helge Ingstad — Helge Marcus Ingstad (30 décembre 1899, Meråker 29 mars 2001, Oslo) était un explorateur norvégien. Après avoir cartographié une partie des colonies viking, Ingstad et son épouse Anne Stine, archéologue, ont trouvé en 1960 les … Wikipédia en Français
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