Foreign born

Foreign born (also non-native) is a term used to describe a person born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but are also frequently naturalized citizens of a country.

The term "foreign born" encompasses both immigrants and expatriates but is not synonymous with either. Foreign born may, like immigrants, have committed to living in a country permanently or, like expatriates, live abroad for a significant period with the plan to return to their birth-country eventually.

The status of foreign born — particularly their access to citizenship — differs globally. The large groups of foreign born guest workers in the Gulf States, for example, have no right to citizenship no matter the length of their residence. In Canada and the United States, by contrast, foreign born are often citizens or in the process of becoming citizens. Certain countries have intermediary rules: in Germany and Japan it is often difficult but not impossible for the foreign born to become citizens.

Statistics of foreign born scientists and engineers in the United States

* 55% of Ph.D. students in engineering in the United States are foreign born (2004).William A. Wulf, President, National Academy of Engineering, Speaking before the 109th US Congress, September 15,2005]
* Between 1980 and 2000, the percentage of Ph.D. scientists and engineers employed in the United States who were born abroad has increased from 24% to 37%.
* 45% of Ph.D. physicists working in the United States are foreign born (2004).
* 80% of total post-doctoral chemical and materials engineering in the United States are foreign-born (1988).'Foreign and Foreign-Born Engineers in the United States: Infusing Talent, Raising Issues', Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, 1988. [ online text] ]
* At the undergraduate level, US-born engineering students constitute upwards of 90-95% of the student population since most foreign born candidates for engineering graduate schools are trained in their home countries. Yet, the size of the pool of BS engineering graduates with US citizenship is much larger than the number who apply to engineering graduate schools including foreign born engineers and scientist.
* the proportion of foreign-born engineers among assistant professors younger than 35 years has increased from 10% in 1972 to 50%-55% in 1983-1985, illustrating a dramatic increase on US dependence on foreign-born students in the US college system. The increase in non-citizen assistant professors of engineering is the result of the fact that, in recent years, foreign-born engineers received close to 50 percent of newly awarded engineering doctorates (naturalized citizens accounted for about 4 percent) and, furthermore, they entered academe in disproportionately large numbers.
* 33% of all U.S. Ph.D.s in science and engineering are now awarded to foreign born graduate students (2004).
* In 1982, foreign-born engineers constituted about 3.6% of all engineers employed in the United States, 13.9% of which were naturalized; and foreign-born Phds in Engineering constituted 15% and 20% were naturalized.
* In 1985, foreign-born Phds represented almost 33% of the engineering post-doctorate researchers in US universities. Foreign-born Phd engineers often accept postdoctoral position because other employment is unavailable until green card is obtained. A system that further incentivising replacement of US-citizens in the upper echelons of academic and private sector engineering firms due to higher educational attainment relative to native-born engineer who for the most part do train beyond undergraduate level.Walker, 'Incentivizing Replacement of Native Talent in the Upper Echelons of Science and Technology', Flattening the United States. 2004.]
* In recent years, The number of applicants for faculty openings at research universities have increased dramatically. Numbers of 50 to 200 applications for a single faculty opening have become typical, yet even with such high numbers of applicants have yielded a foreign-born component in excess of 50%.
*Among 1985 foreign-born engineering doctorate holders, about 40% expected to work in the United States after graduating. An additional 17 percent planned to stay on as post-doctorates, and most of these are likely to remain permanently in the United States. Those, almost 60% of foreign-born engineering doctorate holders are likely to become part of the US engineering labor force within a few years after graduating. The other approximately 40% of foreign born engineering Phds mostly likely find employment working for Multinational corporations outside of the US.
*Selection for admission to US graduate schools continue to be made by committees dominated by faculty member.(1985) Foreign born facility now accounts for over 50% of facility in engineering (1994).
* Large numbers of foreign-born engineering graduate students serve as TAs in undergrad classes at universities and colleges, many of these students have inadequate command of the English Language and a cultural background that have provided disincentives for native-born students. In addition, US universities including many foreign-born undergraduate professors have speak English very poorly.Questions have been raised bout the effectiveness of many of these people in the classroom.
* At the undergraduate level, US-born engineering students constitute upwards of 90-95% of the student population since most foreign born candidates for engineering graduate schools are trained in their home countries. The size of the pool of BS engineering graduates with US citizenship is much larger than the number who apply to engineering graduate schools.
* 1993 Median Salaries of U.S. Recipients of Ph.D.s in Science and Engineering: Foreign-Born vs. Native-Born: [Unpublished National Science Foundation tabulation of the 1993 Survey of Doctoral Recipients and the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates. Foreign-Born includes naturalized U.S. citizens, permanent residents and workers on temporary visas (including H-1B visas).]

Cities/Regions With Major Foreign Born Populations

See also

* Alien (law)
* Expatriate
* Immigration
* Naturalization
* Finishing School


External links

* [ ForeignBorn] - a resource for entering and living in the USA
* [ USA Census Bureau on foreign born population]
* [ international statistics] (pdf)
* [ tables]
* []
* []
* []
* [ migration article from U.C. Davis]

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