Nationalism


Nationalism

Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity.[1] There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism. It can be a belief that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious, or identity group, or that multinationality in a single state should necessarily comprise the right to express and exercise national identity even by minorities.[2]

It can also include the belief that the state is of primary importance, or the belief that one state is naturally superior to all other states.[3][4] It is also used to describe a movement to establish or protect a 'homeland' (usually an autonomous state) for an ethnic group. In some cases the identification of a national culture is combined with a negative view of other races or cultures.[5]

Conversely, nationalism might also be portrayed as collective identities toward imagined communities which are not naturally expressed in language, race or religion but rather socially constructed by the very individuals that belong to a given nation.[6] These new elements of the nation are commonly presented as long standing and natural, and have been called invented traditions by the historian E.J. Hobsbawm. Nationalism is sometimes reactionary, calling for a return to a national past, and sometimes for the expulsion of foreigners. Other forms of nationalism are revolutionary, calling for the establishment of an independent state as a homeland for an ethnic underclass. This was the inspiration for the independence of Finland from Sweden and the penning of the national epic, the Kalevala.

Nationalism emphasizes collective identity - a 'people' must be autonomous, united, and express a single national culture.[7] Integral nationalism is a belief that a nation is an organic unit, with a social hierarchy, co-operation between the different social classes and common political goals. However, liberal nationalists stress individualism as an important part of their own national identity.[8]

National flags, national anthems, and other symbols of national identity are often considered sacred, as if they were religious rather than political symbols. Deep emotions are aroused.[9][10][11][12] Gellner and Breuilly, in Nations and Nationalism, contrast nationalism and patriotism. "If the nobler word 'patriotism' then replaced 'civic/Western nationalism', nationalism as a phenomenon had ceased to exist."[13][14][15]

Contents

History

In Europe before the development of nationalism, people were generally loyal to a city or to a particular leader rather than to their nation. Encyclopaedia Britannica identifies the movement's genesis with the late-18th century American Revolution and French Revolution; other historians point specifically to the ultra-nationalist party in France during the French Revolution.[16][17][18]

The term nationalism was coined by Johann Gottfried Herder (nationalismus) during the late 1770s.[19] Precisely where and when nationalism emerged is difficult to determine, but its development is closely related to that of the modern state and the push for popular sovereignty that surfaced with the French Revolution and the American Revolution in the late 18th century and culminated with the ethnic/national revolutions of Europe, for instance the Greek War of Independence.[16] Since that time, nationalism has become one of the most significant political and social forces in history, perhaps most notably as a major influence or postulate of World War I and especially World War II. Fascism is a form of authoritarian nationalism which stresses absolute loyalty and obedience to the state, whose purpose is to serve the interests of its nation alone.[20][21][22][23] Benedict Anderson argued that, "Print language is what invents nationalism, not a particular language per se".[24]

Varieties

Civic nationalism

Civic nationalism (also known as liberal nationalism) defines the nation as an association of people who identify themselves as belonging to the nation, who have equal and shared political rights, and allegiance to similar political procedures.[25] According to the principles of civic nationalism, the nation is not based on common ethnic ancestry, but is a political entity whose core identity is not ethnicity. This civic concept of nationalism is exemplified by Ernest Renan in his lecture in 1882 "What is a Nation?", where he defined the nation as a "daily referendum" (frequently translated 'daily plebiscite") dependent on the will of its people to continue living together".[25]

Civic Nationalism is a kind of non-xenophobic nationalism compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.[26] Ernest Renan[27] and John Stuart Mill[28] are often thought to be early liberal nationalists. Liberal nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity in order to lead meaningful, autonomous lives[29] and that liberal democratic polities need national identity in order to function properly.[30]

Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalism and liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism. Membership of the civic nation is considered voluntary, as in Ernest Renan's "daily referendum" formulation in What is a Nation?. Civic-national ideals influenced the development of representative democracy in countries such as the United States and France (see the United States Declaration of Independence of 1776, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789).

Ethnocentrism

Whereas nationalism does not necessarily imply a belief in the superiority of one ethnicity over others, some nationalists support ethnocentric protectionism or ethnocentric supremacy. Studies have yielded evidence that such behaviour may be derived from innate preferences in humans from infancy.[31]

The term ethnocentrism is a more accurate and meaningful term.[32]

Liberty Leading the People (Eugène Delacroix, 1830) is a famous example of nationalist art.

National purity

Some nationalists exclude certain groups. Some nationalists, defining the national community in ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historic, or religious terms (or a combination of these), may then seek to deem certain minorities as not truly being a part of the 'national community' as they define it. Sometimes a mythic homeland is more important for the national identity than the actual territory occupied by the nation.[33]

Left-wing nationalism

Left-wing nationalism (occasionally known as socialist nationalism, not to be confused with national socialism)[34] refers to any political movement that combines left-wing politics with nationalism. Many nationalist movements are dedicated to national liberation, in the view that their nations are being persecuted by other nations and thus need to exercise self-determination by liberating themselves from the accused persecutors. Anti-revisionist Marxist-Leninism is closely tied with this ideology, and practical examples include Stalin's early work Marxism and the National Question and his Socialism in One Country edict, which declares that nationalism can be used in an internationalist context, fighting for national liberation without racial or religious divisions. Other examples of left-wing nationalism include Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement that launched the Cuban Revolution ousting the American-backed Fulgencio Batista in 1959, Ireland's Sinn Féin, Wales's Plaid Cymru, Scotland's SNP, the Awami League in Bangladesh and the African National Congress in South Africa.[citation needed]

Territorial nationalism

Nationalist slogan "Brazil, love it or leave it", often used during the Brazilian military dictatorship.

Territorial nationalists assume that all inhabitants of a particular nation owe allegiance to their country of birth or adoption.[35] A sacred quality is sought in the nation and in the popular memories it evokes.[36] Citizenship is idealised by territorial nationalist[36] A criterion of a territorial nationalism is the establishment of a mass, public culture based on common values and traditions of the population.[36]

Pan-nationalism

Pan-nationalism is unique in that it cover a large area span. Pan-nationalism focuses more on "clusters" of ethnic groups.

Ultranationalism

Ultranationalism is a zealous nationalism that expresses extremist support for one's nationalist ideals. It is often characterized by authoritarianism, efforts toward reduction or stoppage of immigration, expulsion and or oppression of non-native populations within the nation or its territories, demagoguery of leadership, emotionalism, scapegoating outsiders in socioeconomic crises, fomenting talk of presumed, real, or imagined enemies, predicating the existence of threats to the survival of the native, dominant or otherwise idealized national ethnicity or population group, instigation or extremist reaction to crack-down policies in law enforcement, efforts to limit international trade through tariffs, tight control over businesses and production, militarism, populism and propaganda. Prevalent ultranationalism typically leads to or is the result of conflict within a state, and or between states, and is identified as a condition of pre-war in national politics.[citation needed] In its extremist forms ultranationalism is characterized as a call to war against enemies of the nation/state, secession or, in the case of ethnocentrist ultranationalism, genocide.[37][38]

Fascism is a form of palingenetic ultranationalism[39] that promotes "class collaboration" (as opposed to class struggle), a totalitarian state, and irredentism or expansionism to unify and allow the growth of a nation. Fascists sometimes promote ethnic or cultural nationalism. Fascism stresses the subservience of the individual to the state, and the need to absolute and unquestioned loyalty to a strong ruler.[40]

Anti-colonial Nationalism

This form of nationalism came about during the decolonialisation of the post war period. It was a reaction mainly in Africa and Asia against being subdued by foreign powers. This form of nationalism took many guises, including the peaceful passive resistance movement led by Gandhi in the Indian subcontinent [41] Benedict Anderson argued that anti-colonial nationalism is grounded in the experience of literate and bilingual indigenous intellectuals fluent in the language of the imperial power, schooled in its "national" history, and staffing the colonial administrative cadres up to but not including its highest levels. Post-colonial national governments have been essentially indigenous forms of the previous imperial administration.[42]

Criticisms

Critics of nationalism have argued that it is often unclear what constitutes a "nation", or why a nation should be the only legitimate unit of political rule. A nation is a cultural entity, and not necessarily a political association, nor is it necessarily linked to a particular territorial area - although nationalists argue that the boundaries of a nation and a state should, as far as possible, coincide.[43] Philosopher A.C. Grayling describes nations as artificial constructs, "their boundaries drawn in the blood of past wars". He argues that "there is no country on earth which is not home to more than one different but usually coexisting culture. Cultural heritage is not the same thing as national identity".[44]

Nationalism is inherently divisive because it highlights perceived differences between people, emphasizing an individual's identification with their own nation. The idea is also potentially oppressive because it submerges individual identity within a national whole, and gives elites or political leaders potential opportunities to manipulate or control the masses.[45] Much of the early opposition to nationalism was related to its geopolitical ideal of a separate state for every nation. The classic nationalist movements of the 19th century rejected the very existence of the multi-ethnic empires in Europe. Even in that early stage, however, there was an ideological critique of nationalism. That has developed into several forms of anti-nationalism in the western world. The Islamic revival of the 20th century also produced an Islamic critique of the nation-state.

At the end of the 19th century, Marxists and other socialists (such as Rosa Luxemburg) produced political analysis that were critical of the nationalist movements then active in central and eastern Europe (though a variety of other contemporary socialists and communists, from Lenin (a communist) to Józef Piłsudski (a socialist), were more sympathetic to national self-determination).[46]

In his classic essay on the topic George Orwell distinguishes nationalism from patriotism, which he defines as devotion to a particular place. Nationalism, more abstractly, is "power-hunger tempered by self-deception." [47]

For Orwell the nationalist is more likely than not dominated by irrational negative impulses:

There are, for example, Trotskyists who have become simply enemies of the U.S.S.R. without developing a corresponding loyalty to any other unit. When one grasps the implications of this, the nature of what I mean by nationalism becomes a good deal clearer. A nationalist is one who thinks solely, or mainly, in terms of competitive prestige. He may be a positive or a negative nationalist — that is, he may use his mental energy either in boosting or in denigrating — but at any rate his thoughts always turn on victories, defeats, triumphs and humiliations. He sees history, especially contemporary history, as the endless rise and decline of great power units, and every event that happens seems to him a demonstration that his own side is on the upgrade and some hated rival is on the downgrade. But finally, it is important not to confuse nationalism with mere worship of success. The nationalist does not go on the principle of simply ganging up with the strongest side. On the contrary, having picked his side, he persuades himself that it is the strongest, and is able to stick to his belief even when the facts are overwhelmingly against him.[47]

In the liberal political tradition there is widespread criticism of ‘nationalism’ as a dangerous force and a cause of conflict and war between nation-states. Nationalism has often been exploited to encourage citizens to partake in the nations' conflicts. Such examples include The Two World Wars, where nationalism was a key component of propaganda material. Liberals do not generally dispute the existence of the nation-states. The liberal critique also emphasizes individual freedom as opposed to national identity, which is by definition collective.

The pacifist critique of nationalism also concentrates on the violence of nationalist movements, the associated militarism, and on conflicts between nations inspired by jingoism or chauvinism. National symbols and patriotic assertiveness are in some countries discredited by their historical link with past wars, especially in Germany. Famous pacifist Bertrand Russell criticizes nationalism for diminishing the individual's capacity to judge his or her fatherland's foreign policy.[48] William Blum has said this in other words: "If love is blind, patriotism has lost all five senses."[49][page needed] Albert Einstein stated that "Nationalism is an infantile disease... It is the measles of mankind." [50]

The anti-racist critique of nationalism concentrates on the attitudes to other nations, and especially on the doctrine that the nation-state exists for one national group to the exclusion of others. This view emphasizes the chauvinism and xenophobia that have often resulted from nationalist sentiment. Norman Naimark relates the rise of nationalism to ethnic cleansing and genocide.[citation needed]

Political movements of the left have often been suspicious of nationalism, again without necessarily seeking the disappearance of the existing nation-states. Marxism has been ambiguous towards the nation-state, and in the late 19th century some Marxist theorists rejected it completely. For some Marxists the world revolution implied a global state (or global absence of state); for others it meant that each nation-state had its own revolution. A significant event in this context was the failure of the social-democratic and socialist movements in Europe to mobilize a cross-border workers' opposition to World War I. At present most, but certainly not all, left-wing groups accept the nation-state, and see it as the political arena for their activities.[citation needed]

Anarchism has developed a critique of nationalism that focuses on its role in justifying and consolidating state power and domination. Through its unifying goal it strives for centralization both in specific territories and in a ruling elite of individuals while it prepares a population for capitalist exploitation. Within anarchism this subject has been treated extensively by Rudolf Rocker in Nationalism and Culture and by the works of Fredy Perlman such as Against His-Story, Against Leviathan and "The Continuing Appeal of Nationalism".[citation needed]

In the Western world, the most comprehensive current ideological alternative to nationalism is cosmopolitanism. Ethical cosmopolitanism rejects one of the basic ethical principles of nationalism: that humans owe more duties to a fellow member of the nation, than to a non-member. It rejects such important nationalist values as national identity and national loyalty. However, there is also a political cosmopolitanism, which has a geopolitical program to match that of nationalism: it seeks some form of world state, with a world government. Very few people openly and explicitly support the establishment of a global state, but political cosmopolitanism has influenced the development of international criminal law, and the erosion of the status of national sovereignty. In turn, nationalists are deeply suspicious of cosmopolitan attitudes, which they equate with eradication of diverse national cultures.[citation needed]

While internationalism in the cosmopolitan context by definition implies cooperation among nations and states, and therefore the existence of nations, proletarian internationalism is different, in that it calls for the international working class to follow its brethren in other countries irrespective of the activities or pressures of the national government of a particular sector of that class. Meanwhile, most (but not all) anarchists reject nation-states on the basis of self-determination of the majority social class, and thus reject nationalism. Instead of nations, anarchists usually advocate the creation of cooperative societies based on free association and mutual aid without regard to ethnicity or race.[citation needed]

See also

Lists:

Notes

  1. ^ Smith, Anthony D. (1993). National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press. p. 71. ISBN 0874172047. http://books.google.com/?id=bEAJbHBlXR8C. 
  2. ^ Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0198290918. http://books.google.com/?id=eiRqsXrJo1UC. 
  3. ^ Smith, Anthony D. (1993). National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press. p. 72. ISBN 0874172047. http://books.google.com/?id=bEAJbHBlXR8C. 
  4. ^ Ernest Gellner and John Breuilly, Nations and Nationalism, "In brief, nationalism is a theory of political legitimacy, which requires that ethnic boundaries should not cut across political ones.", p. 1, Cornell University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0801475009
  5. ^ Thomas Blank and Peter Schmidt, National Identity in a United Germany: Nationalism or Patriotism? An Empirical Test with Representative Data, in Political Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 2, (2003)
  6. ^ Anderson, Benedict (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso. pp. 37–46. ISBN 978-0860915461. http://books.google.com/?id=4mmoZFtCpuoC&lpg=PP1&dq=imagined%20communities&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q. 
  7. ^ Hutchinson, John and Smith, Anthony D., ed (1994). Nationalism. Oxford Readers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 4–5. 
  8. ^ Anthony D. Smith, Nationalism, p. 17-20, Polity, 2002, ISBN 978-0745626598.
  9. ^ Billig, Michael (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage. ISBN 0803975252. http://books.google.com/?id=VV18cdwqVf4C. 
  10. ^ Gellner, Ernest (2005). Nations and Nationalism (Second ed.). Blackwell. ISBN 1405134429. http://books.google.com/?id=jl7t2yMfxwIC. 
  11. ^ Canovan, Margaret (1996). Nationhood and Political Theory. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1840640111. http://books.google.com/?id=kIW5GAAACAAJ. 
  12. ^ Miller, David (1995). On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198293569. http://books.google.com/?id=1GuaIAAACAAJ. 
  13. ^ Ernest Gellner and John Breuilly, Nations and Nationalism, p. xvii, Cornell University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0801475009
  14. ^ Ashmore, Richard D; Jussim, Lee J; Wilder, David (2001). Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction; Volume 3 of Rutgers series on self and social identity. Oxford University Press. pp. 74, 75. ISBN 9780195137422. http://books.google.com/?id=NzO8hZ8pwsUC&pg=PA75&dq=nationalism+pejorative&q=. 
  15. ^ Istvan Hont (2005). Jealousy of trade: international competition and the nation-state in historical perspective. Harvard University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9780674010383. http://books.google.com/?id=lHu6kBLV4CUC&pg=PA144&dq=nationalism+pejorative&q=nationalism%20pejorative. 
  16. ^ a b "Nationalism". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/405644/nationalism. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  17. ^ Smith, Anthony D. (1998). Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415063418. http://books.google.com/?id=4O0w3ZH57KkC. 
  18. ^ Iain McLean, Alistair McMillan, Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, "French Revolution ... It produced the modern doctrine of nationalism, and spread it directly throughout Western Europe...", Oxford, 2009, ISBN 9780199205165.
  19. ^ T. C. W. Blanning (2003). The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture: Old Regime Europe 1660-1789. Oxford University Press. pp. 259, 260. ISBN 9780199265619. http://books.google.com/?id=3qCIzooCRlwC&pg=PA260&dq=nationalism+pejorative#v=onepage&q=nationalism%20pejorative. 
  20. ^ Laqueuer, Walter." Comparative Study of Fascism" by Juan J. Linz. Fascism, A Reader's Guide: Analyses, interpretations, Bibliography. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. Pp. 15 "Fascism is above all a nationalist movement and therefore wherever the nation and the state are strongly identified."
  21. ^ Laqueur, Walter. Fascism: Past, Present, Future. Oxford University Press, 1997. Pp. 90. "the common belief in nationalism, hierarchical structures, and the leader principle."
  22. ^ "Goebbels on National-Socialism, Bolshevism and Democracy, Documents on International Affairs, vol. II, 1938, pp. 17-19. Accessed from the Jewish Virtual Library on February 5, 2009. [1] Joseph Goebbels describes the Nazis as being allied with countries which had "authoritarian nationalist" ideology and conception of the state "It enables us to see at once why democracy and Bolshevism, which in the eyes of the world are irrevocably opposed to one another, meet again and again on common ground in their joint hatred of and attacks on authoritarian nationalist concepts of State and State systems. For the authoritarian nationalist conception of the State represents something essentially new. In it the French Revolution is superseded.".
  23. ^ Koln, Hans; Calhoun, Craig. The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in its Origins and Background. Transaction Publishers. Pp 20.
    University of California. 1942. Journal of Central European Affairs. Volume 2.
  24. ^ Anderson, Benedict (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso. p. 122. ISBN 978-0860915461. 
  25. ^ a b Nash, Kate (2001). The Blackwell companion to political sociology. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 391. ISBN 0631210504 
  26. ^ Tamir, Yael. 1993. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07893-9; Will Kymlicka. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3; David Miller. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5.
  27. ^ Renan, Ernest. 1882. "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"
  28. ^ Mill, John Stuart. 1861. Considerations on Representative Government.
  29. ^ Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3. For criticism, see: Patten, Alan. 1999. "The Autonomy Argument for Liberal Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism. 5(1): 1-17.
  30. ^ Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. For criticism, see: Abizadeh, Arash. 2002. "Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments." American Political Science Review 96 (3): 495-509; Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. "Liberal Nationalist versus Postnational Social Integration." Nations and Nationalism 10(3): 231-250.
  31. ^ Bar-Haim, Yair; Yair Bar-Haim, Talee Ziv, Dominique Lamy, Richard M. Hodes (2008). "Nature and Nurture in Own-Race Face Processing". Psychological Science 17 (2): 159–163. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01679.x. PMID 16466424. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118597334/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 
  32. ^ Timothy G. Reagan (2005). Non-Western Educational Traditions: Indigenous Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Routledge. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9780805848571. http://books.google.com/?id=gFK9txcEYHYC 
  33. ^ Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations London: Basil Blackwell. pp 6–18. ISBN 0-631-15205-9.
  34. ^ Political Science, Volume 35, Issue 2; Class and Nation: Problems of Socialist Nationalism
  35. ^ Middle East and North Africa: Challenge to Western Security by Peter Duignan and L.H. Gann, Hoover Institution Press, 1981, ISBN 978-0817973926 (page 22)
  36. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of Nationalism by Athena S. Leoussi and Anthony D. Smith, Transaction Publishers, 2001, ISBN 978-0765800022, (page 62)
  37. ^ http://www.maknews.com/html/articles/savich/nationalism.pdf
  38. ^ Connor, Walker (1994). Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780691025636. http://books.google.com/?id=bmgineq0r3MC&printsec=frontcover. 
  39. ^ Griffin, Roger (1994). Staging The Nation's Rebirth: The Politics and Aesthetics of Performance in the Context of Fascist Studies. http://ah.brookes.ac.uk/resources/griffin/stagingfascism.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-21. 
  40. ^ Roger Griffin, Fascism, Oxford University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0192892492.
  41. ^ Grant, Moyra. "Politics Review". Moyra Grant is an experienced politics teacher, examiner and author.. Politics Review. http://moodle.collyers.ac.uk/file.php/465/Politics_Review_articles/nationalism_expansionistanddesrtuctive.pdf. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  42. ^ Anderson, Benedict (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso. pp. 37–46. ISBN 978-0860915461. 
  43. ^ Heywood, Andrew (1999). Political Theory: An Introduction (Second ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 97–98. ISBN 0333760913. 
  44. ^ Grayling, A.C. (2001). The Meaning of Things. Applying Philosophy to Life.. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 78–79. ISBN 0297607588. 
  45. ^ Heywood, Andrew (2000). Key Concepts in Politics. London: Macmillan Press. p. 256. ISBN 0333770951. 
  46. ^ Cliff, Tony (1959). "Rosa Luxemburg and the national question". Marxists Internet Archive. http://www.marxists.org/archive/cliff/works/1959/rosalux/6-natquest.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  47. ^ a b George Orwell, Notes on Nationalism, orwell.ru.
  48. ^ Russell Speaks His Mind, 1960. Fletcher and son Ltd., Norwich, United Kingdom
  49. ^ Blum in his book Rogue State
  50. ^ Einstein http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins107012.html

Further reading

General

  • Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
  • Breuilly, John. 1994. Nationalism and the State. 2nd ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-07414-5 .
  • Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57224-X .
  • Greenfeld, Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-60319-2
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43961-2 .
  • Jusdanis, Gregory. 2001. The Necessary Nation. Princeton University Press.
  • Malesevic, Sinisa 2006. Identity as Ideology: Understanding Ethnicity and Nationalism. New York: Palgrave, ISBN 1-4039-8786-6.
  • Ozkirimli, Umut 2010. Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. New York: Palgrave.
  • Royce, Mathias O. 2010. The Rise and Propagation of Political Right-Wing Extremism: The Identification and Assessment of Common Sovereign Economic and Socio-Demographic Determinants SMC - Swiss Management Center, Working Paper Series, August 5, 2010, Available at SSRN [2]
  • Harvard Asia Pacific Review, 2010. "Nations and Nationalism." ISSN 1522-1113

Reference works

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.