List of California hurricanes
A California hurricane is a tropical cyclonethat affects the state of California. Usually, only the remnants of tropical cyclones affect California. No hurricane has ever made landfall in California in recorded history. Two tropical storms have hit California, one by direct landfall from offshore, another after making landfall in Mexico.
Since 1900, only four tropical cyclones have brought gale-force winds to the Southwestern United States. They are an unnamed tropical storm that made landfall near San Pedro in 1939, the remnants of Hurricane Joanne in 1972, the remnants of Hurricane Kathleen in 1976, and Hurricane Nora in 1997 which entered California as a tropical storm. In addition, a recently-discovered and reconstructed hurricane just missed making landfall in 1858.
In most cases, rainfall is the only effect that these cyclones have on California. Sometimes, this rainfall is severe enough to cause flooding and damage. For example, floods from Hurricane Kathleen devastated
Ocotillo, Californiaand killed several people. Precipitation other than rainfall is unusualcite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995marilyn.html|title=Preliminary Report Hurricane Marilyn|author= Ed Rappaport|publisher= National Hurricane Center|date=1996-01-17|accessdate=2008-01-14] in tropical cyclones because of their weak updrafts and lack of supercooled water.cite web|url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/C5a.html|author= Chris Landsea|title=Subject: C5a) Why don't we try to destroy tropical cyclones by seeding them with silver iodide?|work=FAQ|accessdate=2008-01-14|publisher= National Hurricane Center]
An improbable event
There are two reasons why tropical cyclones rarely strike California: sea surface temperatures, and the usual upper level steering winds in the eastern Pacific, with sea surface temperature being the most important.
Tropical cyclones usually require very warm water to depth, generally above 26.5 °C (80 °F) extending to a depth of 50 metres (160 ft).cite web | title=Subject: A16) Why do tropical cyclones require 80 °F (26.5 °C) ocean temperatures to form ? | work= Tropical Cyclone FAQ| url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/A16.html | accessdate=2007-12-25| author=
Christopher Landsea|publisher= National Hurricane Center]
The waters off California are cold even in summer. They rarely rise above 24 °C (75 °F) in near-shore southern California,cite web|url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/G9.html|title=Subject: G8) Why do hurricanes hit the East coast of the U.S., but never the West coast?|work=Tropical Cyclone FAQ|publisher=
National Hurricane Center|author= Christopher Landsea|accessdate=2007-12-25] and usually don't get above 17 °C (63 °F) along most of the rest of the coast and outer coastal waters, although El Niñoevents may warm the waters somewhat. This is due primarily to the extensive upwellingof colder sub-surface waters caused by the prevailing northwesterly winds acting through the Ekman Effect. The winds drive surface water to the right of the wind flow, that is offshore, which draws water up from below to replace it. The upwelling further cools the already cool California Currentwhich runs north to south along coastal California and even much of coastal Baja California. This is the same mechanism which produces coastal California's characteristic fog.
The second reason is the general path of tropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific. They generally move north-westward or westward due to steering by the prevailing upper level winds, which takes them far out to sea and away from land.
These factors make eastern Pacific landfalls improbable north of about central Baja California. In those instances when upper level steering winds do allow a more northerly path, much cooler sea surface temperatures quickly weaken tropical cyclones that approach California, although torrential rainfall can still occur. For example, the September 24-hour rainfall record for Los Angeles is held by the
1939 Long Beach Tropical Storm, as of January 2007.cite web|url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sgx/research/Guide/weatherhistory.pdf|title=A History of Significant Weather Events in Southern California|format=PDF|pages=10|publisher=NOAA|accessdate=2007-12-26|month=January|year=2007]
List of cyclones
Most of these cyclones are mainly the remnants of hurricanes or tropical storms. In the twentieth century, only four eastern Pacific tropical cyclones have brought tropical storm-force winds to the
Continental United States: the 1939 Long Beach Tropical Storm, Tropical Storm Joanne in 1972, Tropical Storm Kathleen in 1976, and Tropical Storm Nora in 1997.cite web|url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Landsea/chenowethlandsea.pdf|title=The San Diego Hurricane of October 2, 1858|author= Christopher Landsea& Michael Chenoweth|publisher= American Meteorological Society|work= Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society|pages=1689|month=November|format=PDF|year=2004|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* Before June or after October, 1854: A system considered a tropical cyclone made landfall just north of the
Golden Gate.cite web|url=http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/mwr/050/mwr-050-06-0295.pdf|title=Tropical Cyclones in the Northeast Pacific, Between Hawaii and Mexico|author=Stephen S. Visher|format=PDF|work= Monthly Weather Review|publisher= American Meteorological Society|pages=296|month=June|year=1922|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* October 2, 1858: The
1858 San Diego Hurricaneapproached very close to southern California. It brought several hours of hurricane and gale-force winds to an area stretching from San Diegoto Los Angeles. This storm is reconstructed as just missing making landfall, dissipating offshore.
* Sometime before October 14, 1858: Since the above cyclone is reported in a newspaper as being only "one of the most terrific and violent hurricanes ever noted", the report may imply the existence of an earlier hurricane in Southern California. Other than occurring before the newspaper account was published (October 18, 1858), everything else about this "hurricane", including whether it even existed, is unknown.
* Before June or after October, 1859: A system considered a tropical cyclone made landfall between
Cape Mendocinoand San Francisco Bay.
* August 11 - August 12, 1873: Rain from a tropical storm fell on San Diego. The rain on August 12 set a record for wettest August day.cite web|pages=3|url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sgx/research/Guide/weatherhistory.pdf|title=A History of Significant Weather Events in Southern California|publisher=
* July 20-July 21, 1902: The remnants of a hurricane brought rain to southern California.cite news|url=http://www.usatoday.com/weather/whhcalif.htm|title=California's Tropical Cyclones|author=Jack Williams|publisher=
* August 18-August 19, 1906: A cyclone moved north from the
Gulf of Californiaand brought rain to southern California.
* September 15, 1910: The remnants of a hurricane brought rain to
Santa Barbara County.
* August 26, 1915: The remnants of a tropical cyclone brought around an inch of rain to Riverside.
* September 11-September 12, 1918: The remnants of a cyclone produced six inches (150 mm) of rain to the mountains of southern California.
* August 20-August 21, 1921: A cyclone moved north from Lower California and into Arizona, producing rain.
* September 30, 1921: The remnants of a cyclone moved from Baja California and brought rain to Arizona and parts of California.
* September 18, 1929: A cyclone in the Pacific Ocean generated rain in Southern California.
* September 28-October 1, 1932: The remnants of a hurricane brought four days of rain. Flash floods killed 15 people.
* August 25, 1935: A cyclone moved from the south and brought rain to southern California and parts of Arizona.
* August 9, 1936: A hurricane's remnants moving north brought heavy rains to the Los Angeles area.
* September 4-September 7, 1939: The remnants of a hurricane brought over a year's worth of rain to parts of southern California.
* September 11-September 12, 1939: The remnants of a hurricane in the Gulf of California brought rain.
* September 19-September 21, 1939: A dissipated cyclone brought rain.
* September 25, 1939: The
1939 California tropical stormmade landfall near Long Beach. Winds were near 80 km/h (50 mph) and rain was near 12 inches (300 mm). At sea, 48 people were killed. On land, 45 were killed in flooding, although these deaths may be partially attributable to a nasty thunderstorm immediately preceding the tropical storm. This is the only known landfall by a cyclone at tropical storm strength in the twentieth century.
* September 1941: Moisture from a hurricane caused rain.
* September 9-September 10, 1945: A dissipated cyclone moved north and brought rain to southern California.
* September 30-October 1, 1946: The remnants of a tropical storm brought several inches of rain.
* August 27-August 29, 1951: The remnants of a tropical cyclone brought enough rain to wash out some roads in Southern California.
* September 19-September 21, 1952: The remnants of a hurricane brought rain to mountains in Southern California.
* July 17-July 19, 1954: The remnants of a hurricane moved into Arizona, bringing rain to the state and parts of California.
* October 1-October 6, 1958: The remnants of a hurricane moved into Arizona, causing heavy rain.
* September 11, 1959: The remnants of a hurricane generated some rain.
* September 9-September 10, 1960: The remnants of Hurricane Estelle generated rain.
* September 17-September 19, 1963: Tropical Storm Jen-Kathcite web|url=http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/e_pacific/1963/JEN-KATH/track.gif|title=Tropical Storm Jen-Kath|format=GIF|publisher=Unisys|accessdate=2007-12-29] dissipated over northern Baja California and caused several inches of rain.
* September 4-September 5, 1965: Hurricane Emily's remnants brought rainfall.
* September 30-October 1, 1971: Atlantic Hurricane Irene crossed Central America and became Hurricane Olivia. Olivia eventually re-curved and made landfall in Baja California, with the remnants bringing rain to California.
* September 3, 1972: Tropical Depression Hyacinth made landfallcite web|url=http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/e_pacific/1972/HYACINTH/track.gif|format=GIF|title=Hurricane HYACINTH|accessdate=2007-12-26] and produced rain around Los Angeles.
* October 6, 1972: Hurricane Joanne made landfall in Mexico and managed to bring gale-force winds to Arizona and rain to that state and California.
* September 10-September 11, 1976: Hurricane Kathleen crossed the peninsula of Baja California moved into California as a tropical storm.
Yuma, Arizonareported sustained winds of 91 km/h (57 mph). Rains from Kathleen caused catastrophic damage to Ocotillo, Californiaand killed three to six people.cite web|pages=16|url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sgx/research/Guide/weatherhistory.pdf|title=A History of Significant Weather Events in Southern California|publisher= NOAA|month=January|year=2007|format=PDF|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* August 18-August 19, 1977: Hurricane Doreen dissipated off the coast of California. The remnants moved inland and caused flooding and crop damage as 7.01 inches (178 mm) of rain fell on Yuma Valley, Arizona.cite web|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/tcmaxima.html|title=Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima|publisher=
Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|date=2007-12-24|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* October 6-October 7, 1977: Hurricane Heather's remnants moved into Arizona, bringing 8.30 inches (211 mm) of rain to Nogales, Arizona and up to 14 inches (360 mm) of rainfall to the adjacent mountains. This led to significant flooding. [ [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/heather1977.html Hurricane Heather - October 5-8, 1977 ] ]
* September 5-September 6, 1978: Tropical Depression Norman made landfall in California.cite web|title=Hurricane NORMAN|format=GIF|url=http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/e_pacific/1978/NORMAN/track.gif|accessdate=2007-12-26] Its remnants produced several inches of rain.
* June 29-June 30, 1980: Hurricane Celia's remnants produced a minor amount of rain.
* September 17-September 18, 1982: Remnants from Hurricane Norman generated rain in Arizona and Southern California.
* September 24-September 26, 1982: The remnants of Hurricane Olivia produced inches of rain in California.
* September 20-September 21, 1983: The remnants of Hurricane Manuel caused rain.
* October 7, 1983: The very weak remnants of Hurricane Priscilla caused showers in Southern California.
* September 10-September 11, 1984: Hurricane Marie's weak remnants generated showers.
* September 22-September 23, 1987: The remnants of Hurricane Norma generate thunderstorms, which cause some flooding.cite web|pages=21|url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sgx/research/Guide/weatherhistory.pdf|title=A History of Significant Weather Events in Southern California|publisher=
* October 5-October 12, 1987: Weather associated with Hurricane Ramon caused moderate to heavy rains in southern
California. The highest amount noted was 2.14 inches (54 mm) at Camp Pendleton.
* September, 1989: Hurricane Octave's remnants brought rain to California, doing minimal damage.cite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1989-prelim/octave/prelim02.gif|title=Preliminary Report Hurricane Octave (file 2)|author=Gil Clark|publisher=
National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-12-26|format=GIF|date=1989-11-09]
* June, 1990: The remnants of Hurricane Boris caused briefly heavy rainfall in southern California. This was one of the reasons that it was the wettest June in San Diego since record-keeping began in 1850.cite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1990-prelim/boris/prelim02.gif|title=Preliminary Report Hurricane Boris 9 (file 2)|accessdate=2007-12-16|author=
Max Mayfield|format=GIF] Despite this, less than an inch (25 mm) of rain fell in most locations.cite web|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/boris1990rain.gif|title=Remains of Boris|format=GIF|publisher= Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* July, 1992: Cloudiness associated with the remnants of Hurricane Darby caused cloudiness in California. These clouds were also enough to delay the landing of the Space Shuttle "Columbia" for a day and cause it to land in Florida rather than California.cite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1992-prelim/darby/prelim03.gif|title=Preliminary Report Hurricane Darby (file 3)|date=1992-08-09|author=
Max Mayfield|format=GIF|publisher= National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* August, 1992: Hurricane Lester's remnants caused rain in extreme southwestern California.cite web|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/lester1992rain.gif|title=Hurricane Lester|publisher=
Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|format=GIF|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* August 5, 1997: Surf from Hurricane Guillermo causes a
rip currents near Corona Del Mar and a place just north of Huntington Beach, injuring three and killing one.cite web|url=http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~283099|title=Event Record Details|publisher= National Climatic Data Center|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* August 19-August 20, 1997: Tropical Storm Ignacio's remnants produced gusty winds over the outer waters of California, and passed directly over the
San Francisco Bay Area, and then across the interior of the Pacific Northwest. Sporadic moderate to heavy rainfall was recorded.cite web|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/ignacio1997.html|title=Remains of Ignacio|publisher= Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|accessdate=2007-12-26]
* September 13-September 14, 1997: Hurricane Linda was at one point forecast to make landfall in California.cite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1997linda.html|title=Preliminary Report Hurricane Linda|author=
Max Mayfield|date=1997-10-25|publisher= National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-12-26] Instead, it moved out to sea, although waves from it did wash a five people off a jetty in Newport Beach.
* September 25-September 26, 1997: After making landfall in Baja California, Hurricane Nora maintained tropical storm status into California and Arizona. Moderate to heavy rains fell across southeast California and Arizona, with a new 24-hour maximum for Arizona 305 mm (12 inches) falling in the Mogollon Rim. Damage totaled several hundred million, including US$40 million to lemon trees. There were a few indirect deaths caused by the hurricane.cite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1997nora.html|title=Preliminary Report Hurricane Nora|date=1997-10-30|author=
Edward Rappaport|accessdate=2007-12-26|publisher= National Hurricane Center]
* September 2001: Remnant moisture from Hurricane Flossie caused thunderstorms, lightning, and floods in Southern California. Lightning struck four people, killing two of them.cite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2001flossie.html|title=Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Flossie|date=2001-10-27|author=Stacy R. Stewart|accessdate=2007-12-26|publisher=
National Hurricane Center]
* September 30, 2001: Thunderstorms from the remnants of Hurricane Juliette caused minor damage to Californiacite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2001juliette.html|title=Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Juliette|date=2001-11-30|author=Miles B. Lawrence & Michelle Mainelli|accessdate=2007-12-26|publisher=
National Hurricane Center] and brought rain of less than an inch (25 mm) to the area.
* September 2006: Remnants of Hurricane John triggered flash flood watches.cite web|url=http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/September_4%2C_2006_NWS_San_Diego_Flash_Flood_Watch|date=2006-09-04|author=National Weather Service San Diego|publisher=NWS, archived at Wikisource|accessdate=2007-12-26|title=September 4, 2006 NWS San Diego Flash Flood Watch]
Most tropical cyclones impacting California do so in the month of September. September 1939 was "unprecedented" in having four tropical cyclones impact the state.cite web|url=http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sgx/research/Guide/weatherhistory.pdf|title=A History of Significant Weather Events in Southern California|format=PDF|pages=9|publisher=NOAA|accessdate=2007-12-26|month=January|year=2007]
While rare, tropical cyclones do affect California, occasionally very seriously as far as rainfall is concerned.
A modern repeat of the 1858 storm is estimated to cause damages of hundreds of millions of dollars. A repeat of the 1939 tropical storm would cause around 200 million dollars in damage. The most serious damage would be due to rains rather than winds or storm surge, although distant hurricanes may still create heavy surf, possibly injuring or killing people. Nora caused millions in damage and skirted extreme southeastern California.
When Linda was forecast to make landfall, statements about its possible impact were issued by the
Oxnard, Californiaoffice of the National Weather Service. They stressed the uncertainty of a forecast that far in the future.
When Nora was threatening, "unprecedented coordination" was required between the NHC and several other agencies. The coordination was "smooth and effective". However, no inland tropical storm warnings were issued for any area in the United States as Nora was approaching from the south.
There are five Pacific Coast breakpoints in the United States. They are, from north to south, Point Conception, Point Mugu, the mouth of the
San Gabriel River, San Mateo Point, and the mouth of the Tijuana River, although places outside this area can be selected if conditions warrant.cite web|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/breakpoints_list.shtml?|publisher=National Hurricane Center|title=Hurricane and Tropical Storm Watch/Warning Breakpoints|accessdate=2007-12-27|date=2007-06-01] Should there be the threat of landfall, warnings or watches would be issued for those sections of coast. It is highly unlikely that any tropical cyclone will threaten the Central Coast or farther north, due to the stronger influence of the California Current.
List of tropical cyclones
List of Arizona hurricanes
List of Baja California Peninsula hurricanes
List of Pacific hurricane seasons
* [http://www.usatoday.com/weather/whhcalif.htm USA Today: California's tropical storms] accessed September 29, 2005
* [http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/G9.html NOAA Tropical Cyclone FAQ Subject G9] accessed September 29, 2005
* [http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Landsea/chenowethlandsea.pdf The San Diego Hurricane of October 2, 1858] accessed September 29, 2005
* [http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/e_pacific/index.html Unisys East Pacific Tropical Storm Tracking by Year] accessed September 29, 2005
* [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/breakpoints_list.shtml? NHC International Breakpoints list] accessed October 15, 2005
* [http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/e_pacific/index.html Unisys East Pacific Tropical Storm Tracking by Year]
* [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/tcwest.html Tropical Cyclone Rainfall for the Western United States]
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