Type Approval is granted to a product that meets a minimum set of regulatory, technical and safety requirements. Generally, type approval is required before a product is allowed to be sold in a particular country, so the requirements for a given product will vary around the world. Processes and certifications known as Type Approval in English are generally called Homologation, or some cognate expression, in other European languages.
Compliance to type-approval requirements is often denoted by a marking on the back of the product. The familiar CE mark found on the back of many electronic devices, for example, means that the product has obtained Type Approval in the European Union.[dubious ] On the other hand, in China type approval is denoted by the CCC mark.
Type Approval is not a term confined to a particular industry. Type Approval requirements exist for products as diverse as marine equipment, mobile phones, automotive industry, or medical equipment. Type approval simply means that the product is certified to meet certain requirements for its type, whatever that may be.
In the automotive industry
The new Framework Directive (Directive 2007/46/EC establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles) rules the approval schemes of the new motor vehicles and their trailers in the European Union:
- European Community Whole Vehicle Type Approval (ECWVTA), that is applied to applies to passenger cars. Over the next few years, ECWVTA will be extended to cover all new road vehicles and trailers.
- United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations.
- National Small Series Type Approval (NSSTA) - the key advantages of this scheme are that some technical requirements may be reduced in comparison with ECWVTA; however, the number of vehicles that can be manufactured are limited.
- Individual Vehicle Approval (IVA)
Each jurisdiction that regulates communications requires all types of equipment, and especially radiocommuncations equipment, that are not specifically exempted (by reason of low power output, for instance) to be tested for conformance to local regulations before it is approved for use in that jurisdiction. Such conformance might include power and noise characteristics, use of permitted frequencies only, frequency stability, and various other electrical parameters.
Certificate of Conformity, Conformance or Compliance
A certificate of conformance is defined in American commerce as a document certified by a competent authority that the supplied good or service meets the required specifications.
American nuclear business
A C of C may be required of vendors of goods to nuclear generating stations to get the vendor to legally commit to stating compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
A COC or EC Certificate of Conformity is a equal to a declaration of the conformity with the type approval of EC. It is produce to ensure the free movement of cars within the European Union, specifically for those cars that are subject to homologation or registration.
A COC is a producer’s declaration car or motorcycles comply with the given approved type. This document contains information about the vehicle and its producer’s identification, type approval number, other technical specifications. The content of a COC is defined by the European regulation (Amendment IX, Regulation 92/53). Vehicles which do not apply with the EU specification (as vehicle manufactured for the U.S. or Japanese market) and older vehicles that have not been given the type approval of the EC yet, cannot have an existing COC. Similarly, it is not possible to issue a COC for converted vehicles; in this case another technical document might help register your car. Only car and motorcycles are eligible.
History and legislation
Certificate of Conformity have been defined in EU’s Single Internal Market and Type Approval Directive (EC-92). EU’s single internal market became official on 1 January 1993. Part of the “EC-92” effort was to remove the technical barriers preventing the free movement of products within the EU market. The greatest impact of this effort has been in the area of standards in the automotive sector. The EU Commission is seeking to harmonise the automotive, technical and environmental standards between all the member states. EU legislation defines the standards in the areas of noise, particle emissions and safety. In addition, the EU’s directive on Type Approval (EU Council Directive 92/53) eliminates the need for national type approval requirements by establishing one set of rules for automobiles and their components throughout the EU. This directive aims at the clarification of the type approval procedure for motor vehicles, separate technical units (i.e., trailers), and components.
It simplifies the documentation, designates the type approval number of a separate technical unit by a certificate of conformity, and defines the vehicles, individual technical unit(s), and component(s). Certificates of Conformity, as specified in Annex IX of EU Directive 92/53, will be required for an automobile to enter into service. For component approvals, an endorsement that is issued under the relevant regulations by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is recognised as equivalent to an approval granted under comparable EU legislation. In March 1992, the EU Council formally adopted the few remaining pieces of component-related legislation that are necessary to make the whole-vehicle type approval a reality for passenger cars. In June 1992, EU member state officials approved the adoption of EU legislation creating a single system for the certification of passenger cars, in turn defining the safety, and other technical, requirements. Legislation established an EU type approval system to replace the national schemes of the twelve member states. In 1996, the EU type approval system became mandatory.
Vehicles with an EU type approval can be marketed anywhere in the European Community. Therefore, a vehicle only needs to receive the type approval certification in one EU country in order to be accepted in all of the other member countries. To receive a type approval, products may either be brought to a testing facility or manufacturers may opt to maintain their own testing equipment. Nevertheless, US and EU automobiles still must be certified to this single set of rules by an authorised member state agency. A similar system was adopted for the type approval of two and three wheeled vehicles, which became effective on 1 January 1994.
- American Bureau of Shipping
- Aftermarket kit
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
- Type certificate - for aerospace craft
- Vehicle registration
- ^ "Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles (Framework Directive) Text with EEA relevance". EUR-Lex.europa.eu - Access to European Union law. publications.europa.eu - Publications Office of the European Union. 09/10/2007. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:263:0001:01:EN:HTML. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- ^ "Motor Vehicle Approval Schemes". Ireland: National Standards Authority of Ireland. NSAI.ie. 1 April 2009. http://www.nsai.ie/index.cfm/area/page/information/motorvehicleapproval. Retrieved 27 September 2009. [dead link]
- ^ "EC Whole Vehicle Type Approval - Introduction". UK Vehicle Certification Agency, Department for Transport. VCA.gov.uk. 24 September 2009. http://www.vca.gov.uk/vehicletype/ecwvta-framework-directive.asp. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- What is Type Approval? - a Malaysian opinion from PaulTan.org
- Type Approval for companies worldwide
- Official Website European Certificate of Conformity
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Look at other dictionaries:
type approval — tipo patvirtinimas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Teisiškai pagrįstas sprendimas, kuris remiasi įvertinimo ataskaita, pagal kurią matavimo priemonės tipas atitinka atitinkamus įstatymų reikalavimus ir gali būti… … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
type approval — noun official confirmation from a government or other body that a manufactured item meets required specifications … English new terms dictionary
Type Approval Code — Die International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) ist eine eindeutige 15 stellige Seriennummer, anhand derer jedes GSM oder UMTS Endgerät eindeutig identifiziert werden kann. In der breiten Öffentlichkeit ist die IMEI durch die… … Deutsch Wikipedia
type approval of measuring instrument — matavimo priemonės tipo patvirtinimas statusas Aprobuotas sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Procedūra, kurios metu valstybės įgaliota institucija nustato ir patvirtina, kad matavimo priemonės tipas atitinka nustatytus reikalavimus … Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)
type approval certificate — tipo patvirtinimo sertifikatas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Dokumentas, liudijantis, kad tipas buvo oficialiai patvirtintas. atitikmenys: angl. type approval certificate vok. Zulassungsbescheinigung, f rus.… … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
type approval with limited effect — ribotos paskirties tipo patvirtinimas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Matavimo priemonės, susijusios su vienu ar keliais išvardytais ribojamaisiais dalykais, tipo patvirtinimas. Ribojamieji dalykai yra tokie: galiojimo … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
type approval of a measuring instrument — matavimo priemonės tipo patvirtinimas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Procedūra, kurios metu valstybės įgaliota institucija nustato ir patvirtina, kad matavimo priemonės tipas atitinka numatytus reikalavimus.… … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
type approval mark — tipo patvirtinimo žymuo statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Matavimo priemonės žymuo, liudijantis, kad ji atitinka patvirtintąjį tipą. atitikmenys: angl. type approval mark pranc. marque d’approbation de type, f … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
type approval procedure — tipo tvirtinimo procedūra statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Tvarka, pagal kurią tipo bandymų serija atliekama su viena ar keliomis to paties tipo matavimo priemonėmis, turinčiomis vienodas charakteristikas ir parinktomis … Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas
type approval certificate — A British certificate issued by the Department of Transport denoting that a particular vehicle type meets official requirements … Dictionary of automotive terms