Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
psychology, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) is a questionnaire to assess the personality traits of a person.It was devised by the psychologists Hans Jürgen Eysenckand his wife Sybil B. G. Eysenck. [Cite book
Hans Jürgen Eysenck& Sybil B. G. Eysenck
title = Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
location = London
Hodder and Stoughton
year = 1975]
Hans Eysenck's theory is based primarily on physiology and genetics. Although he was a behaviorist who considered learned habits of great importance, he considers personality differences as growing out of our genetic inheritance. He is, therefore, primarily interested in what is usually called temperament.
Temperament is that aspect of our personalities that is genetically based, inborn, there from birth or even before. That does not mean that a temperament theory says we don't also have aspects of our personality that are learned, it's just that Eysenck focused on "nature," and left "nurture" to other theorists.
Eysenck initially conceptualized personality as two, biologically-based categories of temperament:
Extraversionis characterized by being outgoing, talkative, high on positive affect (feeling good), and in need of external stimulation. According to Eysenck's arousal theory of extraversion, there is an optimal level of cortical arousal, and performance deteriorates as one becomes more or less aroused than this optimal level. Arousal can be measured by skin conductance, brain waves or sweating. At very low and very high levels of arousal, performance is low, but at a more optimal mid-level of arousal, performance is maximized. Extraverts, according to Eysenck's theory, are chronically under-aroused and bored and are therefore in need of external stimulation to bring them up to an optimal level of performance. Introverts, on the other hand, are chronically over-aroused and jittery and are therefore in need of peace and quiet to bring them up to an optimal level of performance.
Neuroticismor emotionality is characterized by high levels of negative affect such as depression and anxiety. Neuroticism, according to Eysenck's theory, is based on activation thresholds in the sympathetic nervous system or visceral brain. This is the part of the brain that is responsible for the fight-or-flight response in the face of danger. Activation can be measured by heart rate, blood pressure, cold hands, sweating and muscular tension (especially in the forehead). Neurotic people, who have low activation thresholds, and unable to inhibit or control their emotional reactions, experience negative affect (fight-or-flight) in the face of very minor stressors - they are easily nervous or upset. Emotionally stable people, who have high activation thresholds and good emotional control, experience negative affect only in the face of very major stressors - they are calm and collected under pressure.
The two dimensions or axes, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability, define four quadrants. These are made up of:
* Stable extraverts (sanguine qualities such as - outgoing, talkative, responsive, easygoing, lively, carefree, leadership)
* Unstable extraverts (choleric qualities such as - touchy, restless, excitable, changeable, impulsive, irresponsible)
* Stable introverts (phlegmatic qualities such as - calm, even-tempered, reliable, controlled, peaceful, thoughtful, careful, passive)
* Unstable introverts (melancholic qualities such as - quiet, reserved, pessimistic, sober, rigid, anxious, moody).
Further research demonstrated the need for a third category of temperament: [Cite journal
title = This Weeks Citation Classics
url = http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/classics1986/A1986D675700001.pdf]
Psychoticismis associated not only with the liability to have a psychotic episode (or break with reality),but also with aggression. Psychotic behavior is rooted in the characteristics of toughmindedness,non-conformity, inconsideration, recklessness, hostility, anger and impulsiveness. The physiological basis suggested by Eysenck for psychoticism is testosterone, with higher levels of psychoticism associated with higher levels of testosterone.
The following table describes the traits that are associated with the three temperaments in Eysenck's model of personality:
EPQ has a fourth scale the Lie (L) scale.
The EPQ is a reliable research tool that is validated by criterion analysis.Fact|date=August 2008Disadvantages of the questionnaire are that it asks yes/no questions which forces a sometimes inaccurate response, and it can be psychometrically inferior.Fact|date=August 2008
EPQ also exists in Finnish and Turkish versions. [Cite journal
author = Timo Lajunena & Hanna R. Scherler
title = Is the EPQ Lie Scale bidimensional? Validation study of the structure of the EPQ Lie Scale among Finnish and Turkish university students
Personality and Individual Differences
volume = 26
issue = 4
month = March
year = 1999
pages = 657–664
doi = 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00163-9]
In 1985 a revised version of EPQ was described—the EPQ-R—with a publication in the journal "
Personality and Individual Differences". [Cite journal
Sybil B. G. Eysenck, Hans Jürgen Eysenck& Paul Barrett
title = A revised version of the psychoticism scale
Personality and Individual Differences
volume = 6
issue = 1
pages = 21-29
year = 1985
url = http://www.pbarrett.net/publications/EPQR_1985_paper.pdf] This version has 100 yes/no questions in its full version and 48 yes/no questions in its "short scale" version.A different approach to personality measurement developed by Eysenck, which distinguishes between different facets of these traits, is the
Eysenck Personality Profiler.
Revised NEO Personality Inventory
Temperament and Character Inventory
* Cite web
url = http://similarminds.com/eysenck.html
title = Eysenck personality Test
publisher = SimilarMinds Extraversion/Introversion corresponds with Category, Neuroticism/Stability corresponds with Category B (Emotional Stability) in the online test, while Psychoticism/Socialisation corresponds with Category C (Mastery/Sympathy).The further Categories included in the 'Know Your Own Mind' online test are not fundamental temperaments but during the exhaustive testing of personality that Eysenck conducted, he also looked into the areas of sexuality and political attitudes that of course play a major part in our lives, and determined norms of behavior and viewpoint with his usual statistical thoroughness.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Personality and Individual Differences — Abbreviated title (ISO) … Wikipedia
Personality test — Diagnostics The four temperaments as illustrated by Johann Kaspar Lavater MeSH … Wikipedia
Eysenck, Hans Jürgen — (1916–1997) Born in Berlin, the child of an actor father (who was Protestant) and a film star Protestant mother (who was Jewish by ethnicity), Eysenck was denied admission to the University of Berlin and in 1934 emigrated to England, where… … Historical dictionary of Psychiatry
Personality and Preference Inventory — The Personality and Preference Inventory (PAPI) was originally designed by Dr Max Kostick, Professor of Industrial Psychology at Boston State College, in Massachusetts, USA, in the early 1960s. Kostick’s original goal was to design an instrument… … Wikipedia
Personality psychology — studies personality based on theories of individual differences. One emphasis in this area is to construct a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes (Bradberry, 2007). Another emphasis views personality as the… … Wikipedia
Hans Eysenck — Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 in Berlin, Germany September 4, 1997 in London, UK) was a psychologist best remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. At the time of his death, Eysenck… … Wikipedia
Hans Eysenck — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hans J. Eysenck — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hans Jürgen Eysenck — Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (* 4. März 1916 in Berlin; † 4. September 1997 in London) war ein deutsch britischer Psychologe, der besonders mit seinen Forschungen zur menschlichen Intelligenz und Persönlichkeit bekannt wurde … Deutsch Wikipedia
Big Five personality traits — Psychology … Wikipedia