Atmospheric icing occurs when
waterdroplets in the air freeze on objects they contact. This is very dangerous on aircraft, as the built up ice changes the aerodynamics of the flight surfaces, and can cause loss of lift, with an increased risk of a subsequent crash.
Not all water freezes at 0°C or 32°F. Liquid water below this temperature is called supercooled, and such supercooled droplets cause the icing problems on aircraft. Below -20°C, icing is rare because clouds at these temperatures usually consist of ice particles rather than supercooled water droplets. Below -40oC it is generally accepted that icing on
Icing also occurs on
towers, wind turbines, boats, oil rigs, trees and other objects exposed to low temperatures and water droplets.
Ice protection system
FAA(U.S.) Advisory Circular 20-113] : Pilot Precautions and Procedures to be taken in Preventing Aircraft Reciprocating Engine Induction System and Fuel System Icing Problems
FAA(U.S.) Advisory Circular 20-117] : Hazards Following Ground Deicing and Ground Operations in Conditions Conducive to Aircraft Icing
FAA(U.S.) Advisory Circular 20-147] : Turbojet, Turboprop, and Turbofan Engine Induction System Icing and Ice Ingestion
[http://virtual.vtt.fi/virtual/arcticwind/experience.htm Wind Energy in Cold Climates] : Icing on wind turbines
* [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120753185285993925.html? Airline Regulators Grapple With Engine-Shutdown Peril]
WSJ April 7 2008
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