cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages. Rotor machines were the cryptographic state-of-the-art for a brief but prominent period of history; they were in widespread use in the 1930s–1950s. The most famous example is the Enigma machine.
The primary component is a set of "rotors", also termed "wheels" or "drums", which are rotating disks with an array of
electrical contacts on either side. The wiring between the contacts implements a fixed substitution of letters, scrambling them in some complex fashion. On its own, this would offer little security; however, after encrypting each letter, the rotors advance positions, changing the substitution. By this means, a rotor machine produces a complex polyalphabetic substitutioncipher.
classical cryptography, one of the earliest encryption methods was the simple substitution cipher, where letters in a message were systematically replaced using some secret scheme. "Monoalphabetic" substitution ciphers used only a single replacement scheme — sometimes termed an "alphabet"; this could be easily broken, for example, by using frequency analysis. Somewhat more secure were schemes involving multiple alphabets, polyalphabetic ciphers. Because such schemes were implemented by hand, only a handful of different alphabets could be used; anything more complex would be impractical. However, using only a few alphabets left the ciphers vulnerable to attack. The invention of rotor machines mechanised polyalphabetic encryption, providing a practical way to use a much larger number of alphabets.
The earliest cryptanalytic technique was
frequency analysis, in which letter patterns unique to every language could be used to discover information about the substitution alphabet(s) in use in a monoalphabetic substitution cipher. For instance, in English, the plaintext letters E, T, A, O, I, N and S, are usually easy to identify in ciphertext on the basis that since they are very frequent (see ETAOIN SHRDLU), their corresponding ciphertext letters will also be as frequent. In addition, bigramcombinations like NG, ST and others are also very frequent, while others are rare indeed (Q followed by anything other than U for instance). The simplest frequency analysis relies on one ciphertextletter always being substituted for a plaintextletter in the cipher: if this is not the case, deciphering the message is more difficult. For many years, cryptographers attempted to hide the telltale frequencies by using several different substitutions for common letters, but this technique was unable to fully hide patterns in the substitutions for plaintext letters. Such schemes were being widely broken by the 1500s.
In the mid-1400s, a new technique was invented by Alberti, now known generally as
polyalphabetic ciphers, which recognised the virtue of using more than a single substitution alphabet; he also invented a simple technique for "creating" a multitude of substitution patterns for use in a message. Two parties exchanged a small amount of information (referred to as the "key") and used it to create many substitution alphabets, and so many different substitutions for each plaintext letter over the course of a single plaintext. The idea is simple and effective, but proved more difficult to use than might have been expected. Many ciphers were only partial implementations of Alberti's, and so were easier to break than they might have been (e.g. the Vigenère cipher).
Not until the 1840s (Babbage) was any technique known which could reliably break any of the polyalphabetic ciphers. His technique also looked for repeating patterns in the
ciphertext, which provide clues about the length of the key. Once this is known, the message essentially becomes a series of messages, each as long as the length of the key, to which normal frequency analysis can be applied. Charles Babbage, Friedrich Kasiski, and William F. Friedmanare among those who did most to develop these techniques.
Cipher designers tried to get users to use a different substitution for every letter, but this usually meant a very long key, which was a problem in several ways. A long key takes longer to convey (securely) to the parties who need it, and so mistakes are more likely in key distribution. Also, many users do not have the patience to carry out lengthy, letter perfect evolutions, and certainly not under time pressure or battlefield stress. The 'ultimate' cipher of this type would be one in which such a 'long' key could be generated from a simple pattern (ideally automatically), producing a cipher in which there are so many substitution
alphabets that frequency counting and statistical attacks would be effectively impossible. Enigma, and the rotor machines generally, were just what was needed since they were seriously polyalphabetic, using a different substitution alphabet for each letter of plaintext, and automatic, requiring no extraordinary abilities from their users. Their messages were, generally, much harder to break than any previous ciphers.
It is relatively straightforward to create a machine for performing simple substitution. We can consider an electrical system with 26 switches attached to 26 light bulbs; when you turn on any one of the switches, one of the light bulbs is illuminated. If each switch is operated by a key on a
typewriter, and the bulbs are labelled with letters, then such a system can be used for encryption by choosing the wiring between the keys and the bulb: for example, typing the letter A would make the bulb labelled Q light up. However, the wiring is fixed, providing little security.
Rotor machines build on this idea by, in effect, changing the wiring with each key stroke. The wiring is placed inside a rotor, and then rotated with a gear every time a letter was pressed. So while pressing A the first time might generate an Q, the next time it might generate a J. Every letter pressed on the keyboard would spin the rotor and get a new substitution, implementing a polyalphabetic substitution cipher.
Depending on the size of the rotor, this may or may not be more secure than hand ciphers. If the rotor has only 26 positions on it, one for each letter, then all messages will have a (repeating) key 26 letters long. Although the key itself (mostly hidden in the wiring of the rotor) might not be known the methods for attacking these types of codes don't need that information. So while such a "single rotor" machine is certainly easy to use, it's no more secure than any other partial polyalphabetic cipher system.
But this is easy to correct. Simply stack more rotors next to each other, and gear them together. After the first rotor spins "all the way", make the rotor beside it spin one position. Now you would have to type 26 × 26 = 676 letters (for the
Latin alphabet) before the key repeats, and yet it still only requires you to communicate a key of two letters/numbers to set things up. If a key of 676 length is not long enough, another rotor can be added, resulting in a period 17,576 letters long.
In order to be as easy to decipher as encipher, some rotor machines, most notably the
Enigma machine, were designed to be "symmetrical", i.e., encrypting twice with the same settings recovers the original message (see involution).
The concept of a rotor machine occurred to a number of inventors independently at a similar time.
In 2003, it emerged that the first inventors were two Dutch naval officers, Theo A. van Hengel (1875 – 1939) and R. P. C. Spengler (1875 – 1955) in 1915 (De Leeuw, 2003). Previously, the invention had been ascribed to four inventors working independently and at much the same time:
Edward Hebern, Arvid Damm, Hugo Kochand Arthur Scherbius.
United States Edward Hugh Hebernbuilt a rotor machine using a single rotor in 1917. He became convinced he would get rich selling such a system to the military, the Hebern Rotor Machine, and produced a series of different machines with one to five rotors. His success was limited, however, and he went bankruptin the 1920s. He sold a small number of machines to the US Navyin 1931.
In Hebern's machines the rotors could be opened up and the wiring changed in a few minutes, so a single mass-produced system could be sold to a number of users who would then produce their own rotor keying. Decryption consisted of taking out the rotor(s) and turning them around to reverse the circuitry. Unknown to Hebern,
William F. Friedmanof the US Army's SIS promptly demonstrated a flaw in the system that allowed the ciphers from it, and from any machine with similar design features, to be cracked with enough work.
Another early rotor machine inventor was Dutchman
Hugo Koch, who filed a patenton a rotor machine in 1919. At about the same time in Sweden, Arvid Gerhard Damminvented and patented another rotor design. However, the rotor machine was ultimately made famous by Arthur Scherbius, who filed a rotor machine patent in 1918. Scherbius later went on to design and market the Enigma machine.
The Enigma machine
Enigma machineThe most widely known example of a rotor machine is the German Enigma machineused during World War II, of which there were a number of variants.The standard Enigma model, Enigma I, used three rotors. At the end of the stack of rotors was an additional rotor-like disk, wired such that the inputs were connected electrically back out to some other contact on the same side – in some sense, half of a normal rotor. When current was sent into most of these machines it would travel through the rotors and out the other side to the lamps, but in the Enigma it was "reflected" back through the disks before going to the lamps. The advantage to this system was that there was nothing that had to be done to the setup in order to decrypt a message; the machine was symmetrical at all times. The reflector guaranteed that no letter could be enciphered as itself, so an A could never turn back into an A, which helped British efforts to break the cipher. "See" Cryptanalysis of the Enigma.
Scherbius joined forces with a mechanical engineer named Ritter and formed Chiffriermaschinen AG in
Berlinbefore demonstrating Enigma to the public in Bernin 1923, and then in 1924 at the World Postal Congress in Stockholm. In 1927 Scherbius bought Koch's patents, and in 1928 they added a "plugboard", essentially a non-rotating manually-rewireable fourth rotor, on the front of the machine. After the death of Scherbius in 1929, Willi Kornwas in charge of further technical development of Enigma.
As with other early rotor machine efforts, Scherbius had limited commercial success. However, the German armed forces, responding in part to revelations that their codes had been broken during World War I, adopted the Enigma to secure their communications. The German Navy adopted Enigma in 1926, and the German Army began to use a different variant around 1928.
The Enigma (in several flavors) was the rotor machine Scherbius' company, and its successor, Heimsoth & Reinke, supplied to the German military and to such assorted civilian agencies as the Nazi party security organization, the SD. The German Army version was the Enigma the Poles broke in the early 1930s not long after it was first used. They passed their progress on to the French and British in July 1939, and the British and French continued to break German Army Enigma — along with
LuftwaffeEnigma traffic — until French cryptanalysis (at Station PC Bruno) was shut down. The British continued breaking Enigma and, assisted eventually by the United States, extended the work to German Naval Enigma traffic, most especially to and from U-boats during the Battle of the Atlantic.
World War II(WWII), both the Germans and Allies developed additional rotor machines. The Germans used the Lorenz SZ 40/42and Siemens and Halske T52machines to encipher teleprinter traffic which used the Baudot code. The Allies developed the Typex(British) and the SIGABA(American). During the War the Swiss began development on an Enigma improvement which became the NEMA machinewhich was put into service after WWII. There was even a Japanese developed variant of the Enigma in which the rotors sat horizontally; it was apparently never put into service. The Japanese PURPLEmachine was not a rotor machine, being built around electrical stepping switches, but was conceptually similar.
Rotor machines continued to be used even in the computer age. The
KL-7(ADONIS), an encryption machine with 8 rotors, was widely used by the U.S. and its allies from the 1950s until the 1980s. The last Canadian message encrypted with a KL-7 was sent on June 30, 1983.
A unique rotor machine was constructed in 2002 by
Netherlands-based Tatjana van Vark [http://www.tatjavanvark.nl/index.html] . This unusual device is inspired by Enigma, but makes use of 40-point rotors, allowing letters, numbers and some punctuation; each rotor contains 509 parts [http://www.tatjavanvark.nl/tvv1/pht10.html] .A software implementation of a rotor machine was used in the crypt command that was part of early UNIX operating systems. It was among the first software programs to run afoul of U.S. export regulations which classified cryptographicimplementations as munitions.
List of rotor machines
Combined Cipher Machine
Lorenz SZ 40/42
Siemens and Halske T52
Hebern rotor machine
Friedrich L. Bauer, "An error in the history of rotor encryption devices", Cryptologia 23(3), July 1999, page 206.
* Cipher A. Deavours, Louis Kruh, "Machine Cryptography and Modern Cryptanalysis", Artech House, 1985. ISBN 0-89006-161-0.
* Karl de Leeuw, "The Dutch invention of the rotor machine, 1915 - 1923." Cryptologia 27(1), January 2003, pp73–94.
* [http://www.jproc.ca/crypto/ Site with cipher machine images, many of rotor machines]
* [http://home.ca.inter.net/~hagelin/crypto.html Rotor machine photographs]
* [http://users.telenet.be/d.rijmenants/en/timeline.htm Timeline of Cipher Machines]
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