Kamboja Aupamanyava

The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent, of what now forms north-eastern Afghanistan and southern parts of Tajikstan. They are frequently mentioned in ancient Indian texts, although not in the Rig Veda. They apparently belong to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-Europeans [ Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, 2000, p 257, John Stewart Bowman.] . Earning a reputation as a formidable Kshatriya force ("nation-in-arms") [Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of Hindu Times, Part I & II, 1978, p 51-52, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient Kamboja, Peooe and the Country, 1981, p 202, Dr J. L. Kamboj.] , there are also several references attesting to the Brahmanism and scholarship of the Kamboja people. Thus, besides excelling as fierce warriors in the battle field, the ancient Kambojas also distinguished themselves in the field of art and science by becoming distinguished "scholars and teachers of the Vedas" [ Cf: "They (Kambojas) were not only famous for their furs and skins embroidered with threads of gold, their woolen blankets, 'their wonderful horses and their beautiful women', but by the epic period, they became especially renowned as Vedic teachers and their homeland as a seat of Brahmanical learning" (See: Hindu World, Vol I, p 520, Prof Benjamin Walker; See also: Vietnam, Kampuchea, Laos, Bound in Comradeship: A Panoramic Study of ... , 1988, p 422, H. R. Chakrabartty - Political Science).] [cf: “The earliest mention of Kambojas occurs in Vamsa Brahamana of Samaveda where a teacher Kamboja Aupamanyava is referred to. The sage Upamanyu mentioned in the Rigveda (i.102,9) is in all probability the father of this Kamboja teacher. From the fact that Kamboja Aupamanyava is stated to a pupil of Madragara, Zimmer concludes that Kambojas and Madras were close neighbors in north-west. The speech of Kambojas is referred to by Yasaka as differing from that of =other Aryans and Grierson sees in this reference the Iranian affinities of the Kambojas, but the fact that the Kambojas teachers were reputed for their Vedic learning shows them to have been Vedic Aryans, so that the Kamboja was an Aryan settlement....(See: History & Culture of Indian People, the Vedic Age, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr K. D. Munshi, 1952, pp 259-260; Also: Vedoṃ meṃ Bhāratīya Saṃskrti, 1967, Ādyādatta Ṭhākura).] [ See also: Location of Kamboja, Purana, Vol VI No1, Jan 1964 pp 212-213; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 224, K. D. Sethna; Indological Studies, 1950, p 7; The Geographical Observer, p 96, by Meerut College Geographical Society; Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India, p 231, Dr B. C. Law.] [ Cf:The teachers of Kamboja were known for their Vedic learning. Culturally, Afghanistan then formed part of India...." (Ref: India's Contribution to World and Culture, 1970, p 216, Veveka Nanda, Lokesh Chandra). ] .

Kamboja Aupamanyava is one such illustrious and hallowed Vedic teacher who finds mention in the list of venerable ancient Vedic teachers given in the Vamsa Brahmana [:1.17 bʰānumānaupamanyava Ānandajāccāndʰanāyanāt|
:1.18 Ānandajaścāndʰanāyanaḥ Śāmbāccʰārkarākṣyāt Kāmbojāccopamanyavāt|
:1.19 Śāmbaḥ Śārkarākṣyaḥ Kāmbojaścaupamanyavo Madrakārāccʰauṅgāyaneḥ|
:1.20 Madrakāraḥ Śauṅgāyaniḥ svāterauṣṭrākṣeḥ|| ::— (Vamsa Brahmana 1.18-19).
] [See Link: cite web |url=http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/etcs/ind/aind/ved/sv/vb/vb.htm |title=http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/etcs/ind/aind/ved/sv/vb/vb.htm |accessdate= |format= |work= .] of the Sama Veda.

Born in Kamboja Family

Sage Kamboja Aupamanyava was born in the Kamboja family [See references appended in the next foot note below.] hence he was called Kamboja. He was called "Aupamanyava" since he was the son or descendant of Upamanyu [Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, 1958, p 149, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Arthur Berriedale Keith - Vedas.] [Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 230, Dr Bimala Churn Law; See also: Altindisches Leben: Die Cultur der vedischen Arier nach den Samḣitā, 1879, p 102, Dr Heinrich Zimmer; Dialectics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, pp 59, 133, Bhupendranātha Datta; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada (Ancient Kamboja, people and country), 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1952, 165, Chandra Chakraberty; Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī; Indological Studies, 1950, p 7; The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 264, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr Asoke Kumar Majumdar, Dr Achut Dattatraya Pusalker; The Racial History of India, 1944, p 810, Chandra Chakraberty; These Kamboj People, 1979, p 27-28; Bhandarkar Oriental Series, 1939, p 1, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 25-26, S Kirpal Singh.] .

Scholars have identified sage Upamanyu mentioned in the Rig Veda [ Rigveda I.102.09. ] as the father or ancestor of Aupamanyava Kamboja [Trans of Rig Veda, III,113, Dr Ludwig; Altindisches Leben: Die Cultur der vedischen Arier nach den Samḣitā, 1879, p 102, Dr Heinrich Zimmer; History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, p 260, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 6, K. D. Sethna; Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 231, Dr B. C. Law; Dialectics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, pp 59, 133; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; Bhandarkar Oriental Series, 1939, p 1, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations 1950, P 165, Chandra Chakraberty; The Geographical Observer, p 96, Meerut College Geographical Society; Aspects of Sanskrit Literature, 1976, P 71, Sushil Kumar De; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, P 290; Indological Studies, 1950, p 35, India; Tribes in Ancient India, 1943, p 25-27, B. C. Law; These Kamboja People, 1979, pp 27-28; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 25-27, S Kirpal Singh; Balocistān: Siyāsī Kashmakash, Muz̤mirāt va Rujḥānāt, 1989, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī, Balochistān (Pakistan); Purana, Vol VI, No 1, Jan 1964, p 212.13; Cf: The Society of the Rāmāyaṇa, 1991, p 88, Ananda W. P. Guruge ("Guruge also takes note of the ethnic connections between the ancient Kambojas, sage Upamnayu of the Rig Veda and his son/descendant Kamboja Aupamanyava of Vamsa Brahmana of Sama Veda, as implied in the Rig Vedic verse 1.102.09"); etc etc. ] .

Kamboja Aupamanyava excelled in Vedic Learning

Vamsa Brahmana informs us that "sage Anandaja" had received the Vedic learning from sage Samba, the son of "Sarkaraksa", as well as from Kamboja, the son or descendant of "Upamanyu".

It is not clear under what circumstances sage Anandaja had received the Vedic lore from two teachers as one teacher is the usual rule. One can only be certain that they both must have been very special. From the order in which the names are given, Samba appears to have been the first teacher and later the Kamboja teacher had been approached, perhaps because the latter was marked by some special pre-eminence in Vedic learning [Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 230, Dr B. C. Law; Trans of Rig Veda, III,113, Dr Ludwig. ] .

Kambojas' Connection with Uttaramadras

"Vamsa Brahamana" [See: Vamsa Brahmana verse 1.18-19] of the Sama Veda refers to one Rsi "Madragara Shaungayani" as the teacher of Aupamanyava Kamboja. As the name itself suggests, and as the scholars have rightly stated, Rsi Madragara Shaungayani belonged to Madra tribe [Dr Zimmer, Dr Keith & Macdonnel, Dr B. C. Law, Dr M. R. Singh etc.] . Dr Keith and Dr Macdonnel, the authors of Vedic Index, as also Dr H Zimmer and numerous other scholars postulate a possible relationship between the Madras i.e. the Uttaramadras and the "Trans-Hindukush" Kambojas [Quoted in Vedic Index, p II, p 123; See also: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 291; India in the Time of Patanjali, 1957, p 73, Dr Baij Nath Puri; India as Known to Pānini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashtādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Ancient India and South Indian History & Culture ...: Papers on Indian History and Culture, 1941, p 87; Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1927, p 208, (Asiatic Society of Bengal); Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1938, p 15, Uma Prasad; The Maha-Bodhi, p 495, Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 65, Dr M. R. Singh; Kashmir Affairs, India. Directorate of Public Relations; Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India – 1975, p 231, Dr B. C Law; Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1923, p 258 (Asiatic Society of Bengal); Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p202-03, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 25, S Kirpal Singh; Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, Vol I, Varanasi, 1962, Hindi Trans: Ram Kumar Rai, p 154.] . Dr Jain also observes: "Kamboja Aupamanyava, pupil of Madragara, is mentioned in the Vamsa Brahmana. This points to a possible relationship of the Madras or more probably of the Uttaramasdras with the Kambojas, who probably had Indian as well as Iranian affinities" [ Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 108, Dr Ram Chandra Jain.] . Since both these people were a very close neighbors in the north-western part of ancient India, such connections were but natural [Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India, p 232, Dr B. C. Law; Vedic Index, I, p 84-85, 138; India as Known to Panini, 1953, p 50, Dr V. S. Aggarwal; Geographical Data in Early Puranas, a Critical Study, pp 65, 164, Dr M. R. Singh, Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 202-03, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Maha-Bodhi, p 495, Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta.] .These Madras have been referred to as Uttara Madras in Aitareya Brahmana and are also stated to lie across the Himalaya i.e Hindukush [Aitareya Brahmana, VIII/14.] . According to Dr Jean Przylusky, the Bahlika (Balkh) was a settlement of the Madras who were known as "Bahlika-Uttaramadras". [The Udumbras, Journal Asiatique, 1926, p 11, Jean Przylusky; See also: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p 50, Dr Aggarwala.] .

Aupamanyava Kamboja was a great Nairukta (Etymologist)

Commenting on Yaska's Nirukta (II.2), distinguished Prof Roth as well as another German philosopher Dr J. Muir suggest that this Nirukta (II/2) proves the fact that the ancient Kambojas were also Grammarians and Linguists i.e. Language Specialists [The Literature and History of the Vedas (Zur. Lit.), p 67, Prof Roth; Erläut, pp 17, 18; Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India, Their Religiuon and Institutions, Vol 2, 1871, p 355-56, fn 146, Dr J. Muir.] . Grammarian Aupamanyava, repeatedly quoted by Yaska in his Nirukta, and also mentioned in respect of the "Nisadas and the Panca-janah", is same as Kamboja Aupamanyava of the Vamsa Brahmana [Ref: Cultural Sources from the Veda, 1977, p 22, Sadashiv Ambadas Dange.] [ Dialectics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, pp 59, 133, Bhupendranātha Datta. ] [ Kamboja People and the Country, 1981, pp 204-205, Dr J. L. Kamboj.] [ Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 134, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; etc.] . He was a great Linguist and Grammarian [See: Cultural Sources from the Veda, 1977, p 22, Sadashiv Ambadas Dange; cf: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 134, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Also: Kamboja People and the Country, 1981, pp 204-205, Dr J. L. Kamboj etc .] . Yaska Acharya has quoted his views, with respect, more than a dozen times in his Nirukta. Aupamanyava is also stated to have authored one Nighantu—a collection of Vedic words [For references to Aupamanyava Kamboja in Yaska’s Nirukta, see: Dialectics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, pp 59, Bhupendranātha Datta; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 134, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Also: Kamboja People and the Country, 1981, pp 204-205, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Cultural Sources From the Vedas, 1977, pp 34-35, Sadashiv Ambadas Dange; Cultural Heritage Of India, 1958, pp 292-293, Article contributed by Dr V. D. Aggarwala.] . Pt Bhagva Datta points out that, Dr G. Opart has referred to one Nirukta (etymologist) whose authorship he attributes to one named Upamanyu [ Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts, Part II, p 510, Dr G Opart.] .Scholars like Dr Bishnupda Bhattacharya and Dr J. L. Kamboj etc point out that Nairukta (etymologist) Upamanyu, referred to by Dr G. Opart, is probably the same Aupamanyava who has been repeatedly quoted by Yaska in his Nirukta [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 205, Dr J. L. Kamboj; See also: Yaska’s Nirukta and Science of Etymology, An Historical & Critical Study, p 64, Bishnupda Bhattacharya.] .

The afore-going amply proves that, besides being Vedic teachers, the ancient Kambojas had also distinguished themselves as pre-eminent Grammarians and Language specialists in ancient India [cf: Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, Urdu, Lahore, 1996, p 156, Chaudhury Mohammad Yusaf Hasan Kamboh.] and sage Aupamanyava Kamboja was indeed a distinguished Nairukta (etymologist) of the Sanskrit language.

Ancient Kambojas were Preservers of Vedic Lore

The outstanding fact of the above discussion is that the Hinduised Kambojas were marked by pre-eminence in Vedic learning and their seers and sages had found important place in the list of the great ancient teachers by whom the Vedic lore was kept up and handed on [ Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1975, P 231, Dr B. C. Law; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan); Balocistān: Siyāsī Kashmakash, Muz̤mirāt va Rujḥānāt, 1989, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī - Balochistān (Pakistan).] .

Aupamanyava/Upamanyu Gotra

Prof B. N. Datta comments: "...In the list of Brahmana gotras mentioned in the Matsya-Purana [Matasya Ourana Ch. 195, Sl. 336.] , the name of (Kamboja) Aupamanyava is to be found. It is said to be an offshoot of the Vrigu (Parasara) gotras. This means that a Rishi hailing from the Kamboja tribe was also founder of a Brahmanical class.......Weber says that the appearance of the name of Kamboja (an Indian sounding name in Vedic text) as a Sama theologian (Vedic teacher mentioned in Vamsa Brahmana, 18) is analogous of the discovery of the name of Gautama in Zoroastrian Mithra-Yesht (hymn to Mithra) (Windischmann, Mithra, pp 29, 79) [ Indische Studien, herausg, 1858, p 356, Albrecht Friedrich Weber; Monatsberichte der Königlichen preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1858, p 5101, Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.] . Upamanyu was of Kamboja descent, and Ustaxri was probably of Bactrian origin. Further, the name of prominent Rishi like Atharva sounds like Atharavan or Atharvan, the Persian fire-cult priest. The names of Atharva and Angirasa are connected with the introduction of fire-cult amongst the Vedic people. In this case, we find another infiltration of the foreign element (Kambojas etc) in the ethnic composition of the Vedic Aryas" " [ Dialectics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, p 59, 60, 132, Bhupendranātha Datta.] .

"Upamanyu" also is one of the gotras of Hindu brahmins. The people with Upamanyu gotra live in far western part of Nepal.

Notes

References

*Rig Veda
*Rig Veda (Trans), III.113, Dr Ludwig
*Vamsa Brahmana of Sama Veda
*Altindisches Leben: die Cultur der vedischen Arier nach den Saṁhitā -1879, Page 102, Heinrich Zimmer
*History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar
*The Sanskrit epics' representation of Vedic myths, 2004, P 217 Danielle Feller
*Aspects of Sanskrit Literature - 1976, P 71, Sushil Kumar De - 1976
*The Indian Historical Quarterly - 1963, P 290
*Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations - 1950, P 165, Chandra Chakraberty
*Some Kshatrya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, Dr B. C. Law
*Problems of Ancient India, 2000, K. D. Sethna
*Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, Dr Kamboj etc.
*These Kamboj People, 1979, K. S. Dardi
*Hunas, Yavanas and the Kambojas, Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol XXVi 1-2, 1950, Dr S. B. Chaudhury
*Hindu World, Vol I, Benjamin Walker
*Achaemenids In India, Dr S. Chattopadhyaya
*Indological Studies - 1950, P 7, Bimala Churn Law
*The Racial History of India, 1944, P 810,Chandra Chakraberty
*Janapada State in Ancient India - 1973, P 42, Sudāmā Miśra
*The Indian Historical Quarterly - 1963, P 291
*India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī 1953, P 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
*Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations – 1950, P 165, Chandra Chakraberty
*Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal – 1923, P 258, Asiatic Society of Bengal
*Janapada State in Ancient India -1973, P 42, Sudāmā Miśra
*Ancient India and South Indian History & Culture ...: Papers on Indian History and Culture – 1941, P 87
*Ancient Indian Republics: from the earliest times to the 6th century A.D. 1976, P 90, Shivenandan Misra
*Kashmir Affairs, India. Directorate of Public Relations
*Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, 1958, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Arthur Berriedale Keith

ee also

*Kambojas
*Kamboja
*Upamanyu
*Brahmanism of Ancient Kambojas


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