Voskhod 1


Voskhod 1

Infobox Space mission
mission_name = Voskhod 1
spacecraft_name =
shuttle =
insignia = voskhod1patch.png insignia_size = 77px
sign = Рубин (Rubin - "Ruby")
crew_members = 3
launch_pad =
launch = October 12, 1964
07:30:01 UTC
Gagarin's Start
begin_spacewalk =
end_spacewalk =
landing = October 13, 1964
07:47:04 UTC
coord|52|2|N|68|8|E|
duration = 1d/00:17:03
orbits = 16 | apogee = 336 km
perigee = 178 km
period = 89.6 min
altitude =
inclination = 64.7°
distance =
mass = 5320 kg
crew_photo =
crew_caption = Vladimir Komarov, Konstantin Feoktistov and Boris Yegorov
previous =
next = |

Voskhod 1 ( _ru. Восход-1) was the first spaceflight to carry more than one person into space, the first flight without space suits, the first to carry a scientist and a physician into space, and also set an altitude record of convert|336|km|abbr=on. The Soviet mission was specifically planned to beat the U.S. Gemini program to this milestone. As a further propaganda coup, the spacecraft was claimed to have carried into orbit a fragment of a communard banner from the Paris Commune of 1871.

Crew

The original prime crew, comprising Boris Volynov, Georgi Katys, and Boris Yegorov were dumped three days before the scheduled launch date due to the State Commission discovering that Volynov's mother was Jewish.cite book | last = French | first = Francis | authorlink = | coauthors = Colin Burgess, Walter Cunningham | title = In the Shadow of the Moon | publisher = University of Nebraska Press | date = 2007 | location = | pages = pp. 253-254 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0803211287]

There was also some controversy between the military, which wanted an all-pilot crew, and Sergey Korolyov, who wanted to send non-military personnel into space. Konstantin Feoktistov, who had been an engineer in the Vostok and Soyuz programs, was the only spacecraft designer to make a spaceflight, while Boris Yegorov, a medical doctor, managed to get selected through his father's Politburo connections.

Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual prior to and including this mission.

*Vladimir Komarov (1) - Commander
*Konstantin Feoktistov (1) - Engineer
*Boris Yegorov (1) - Doctor

Backup crew

*Boris Volynov - Commander
*Vasili Lazarev - Engineer
*Georgi Katys - Doctor

Reserve Crew

*Vasili Lazarev - Doctor

Mission highlights

The Voskhod spacecraft were basically Vostok spacecraft with a backup, solid fuel retro rocket added to the top of the descent module. The ejection seat was removed and three crew couches were added to the interior at a 90 degree angle to that of the Vostok crew position. There was no provision for crew escape in the event of a launch or landing emergency. A solid fuel braking rocket was also added to the parachute lines to provide for a softer landing at touchdown. This was necessary because, unlike the Vostok, no ejection seats were fitted and therefore the crew had to land in the Voskhod descent module.

Much of the mission was devoted to biomedical research and to study of how a multi-disciplinary team could work together in space. Nikita Khrushchev was removed from power during the flight; ground control informed the crew that "there is more in heaven and earth than is dreamt of in your philosophy..." and cut the mission short. The cramped conditions of the capsule has also been suggested as a factor ruling out a longer duration flight.

Coming as it did before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant international impact. NASA Administrator James E. Webb called it a "significant space accomplishment" adding that it was "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige." [Encyclopedia Astronautica, "Voskhod 1"]

Notes

References

*cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Voskhod 1 | work = Encyclopedia Astronautica | publisher = | date = | url = http://www.astronautix.com/flights/voskhod1.htm | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2008-08-10


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