International Security Assistance Force


International Security Assistance Force
"ISAF" redirects here. For the sailing body, see International Sailing Federation. For other uses, see ISAF (disambiguation)
International Security Assistance Force
ISAF-Logo.svg
Logo of ISAF.
Active December 2001 – present
Country UK, Turkey, GE/NL, NATO
Part of Joint Force Command Brunssum, Brunssum, Netherlands
Headquarters Kabul, Afghanistan
Motto Pashto writing: کمک او همکاری (Komak aw Hamkari) means "Help and Cooperation".
Engagements War in Afghanistan (2001-present)
Commanders
Current
commander
General John R. Allen, USMC

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001 by Resolution 1386[1] as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.[2] It is engaged in the War in Afghanistan (2001–present).

ISAF was initially charged with securing Kabul and surrounding areas from the Taliban, al Qaeda and factional warlords, so as to allow for the establishment of the Afghan Transitional Administration headed by Hamid Karzai.[3] In October 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the expansion of the ISAF mission throughout Afghanistan,[4] and ISAF subsequently expanded the mission in four main stages over the whole of the country.[5] Since 2006, ISAF has been involved in more intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan, a tendency which continued in 2007 and 2008. Attacks on ISAF in other parts of Afghanistan are also mounting.

Troop contributors include the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Poland, Romania, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Norway, Bulgaria, South Korea, Azerbaijan, and Singapore. The intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varies greatly, with the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Denmark sustaining substantial casualties in intensive combat operations.

Contents

Jurisdiction

Afghan Defense Ministry spokesman, Zahir Azimi, with German Army Brig. Gen. Josef Blotz in 2010.

For almost two years, the ISAF mandate did not go beyond the boundaries of Kabul. According to General Norbert Van Heyst, such a deployment would require at least an extra ten thousand soldiers. The responsibility for security throughout the whole of Afghanistan was to be given to the newly-reconstituted Afghan armed forces. However, on 13 October 2003, the Security Council voted unanimously to expand the ISAF mission beyond Kabul in Resolution 1510. Shortly thereafter, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien said that Canadian soldiers (nearly half of the entire force at that time) would not deploy outside Kabul.

On 24 October 2003, the German Bundestag voted to send German troops to the region of Kunduz. Around 230 additional soldiers were deployed to that region, marking the first time that ISAF soldiers operated outside of Kabul.

After the Afghan National Assembly and Provincial Council elections in the fall of 2005, the Canadian base Camp Julien at Kabul closed, and remaining Canadian assets moved to Kandahar as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in preparation for a significant deployment in January 2006.

At 31 July 2006, the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force assumed command of the south of the country, ISAF Stage 3, and by 5 October also of the east of Afghanistan, ISAF stage 4.

ISAF is mandated by the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1386, 1413, 1444, 1510, 1563, 1623, S/RES/1659, S/RES/1707, S/RES/1776(2007) (with an abstention from Russia due to the lack of clarity in the wording pertaining to the coalition Force's maritime interception component, which has not appeared in any of the Security Council's previous resolutions.[6]) and Resolution 1917 (2010). The last of these extended the mandate of ISAF to 23 March 2011.

The mandates the different governments give to their forces differ from country to country. Some governments wish to take a full part in counter-insurgency operations; some are in Afghanistan for NATO alliance reasons; some are in the country partially because they wish to maintain their relationship with the United States federal government, and, possibly, some are there for domestic political reasons. This means that ISAF suffers from a certain lack of united aims.

History

Geographic depiction of the four ISAF stages (January 2009).

The initial ISAF headquarters was based on 3rd UK Mechanised Division, led at the time by Major General John McColl. This force arrived in December 2001. Until ISAF expanded beyond Kabul, the Force consisted of a roughly division-level headquarters and one brigade covering this capital, the Kabul Multinational Brigade. The brigade was composed of three battle groups, and was in charge of the tactical command of deployed troops. ISAF headquarters serves as the operational control center of the mission.

ISAF command originally rotated among different nations on a 6-month basis. However, there was tremendous difficulty securing new lead nations. To solve the problem, command was turned over indefinitely to NATO on 11 August 2003. This marked NATO's first deployment outside Europe or North America.

  • Eighteen countries were contributing to the force in February 2002. It was expected to grow to 5,000 soldiers[7]
  • In February 2002 South Korea sent a medical contingent of 99 soldiers.
  • In June 2002: Major General Hilmi Akin Zorlu of Turkey took command. During this period, Turkish troops increased from about 100 to 1,300.
  • Between February and July 2002, Portugal sent a sanitary team and an air team to ISAF.
  • In November 2002 ISAF, consisting of 4,650 troops from over 20 countries, was led by Turkey. Around 1,200 German troops were serving in the force alongside 250 Dutch soldiers operating as part of a German-led battalion.
  • On 10 February 2003 Lieutenant General Norbert van Heyst, on behalf of Germany and the Netherlands took command of ISAF. His Deputy was Brigadier General Bertholee of the Netherlands. The mission HQ was formed from HQ I. German/Dutch Corps (1GNC), including staff from the UK, Italy, Turkey and Norway amongst others.
  • In March 2003 ISAF was composed of 4,700 troops from 28 countries.
  • Service in ISAF by NATO personnel from 1 June 2003 onward earns the right to wear the NATO Medal if a servicemember meets a defined set of tour length requirements.
  • On 7 June 2003 in Kabul, a taxi packed with explosives rammed a bus carrying German ISAF personnel, killing four soldiers and wounding 29 others; one Afghan bystander was killed and 10 Afghan bystanders were wounded. The 33 German soldiers, after months on duty in Kabul, were en route to the Kabul International Airport for their flight home to Germany. At the time, Germans soldiers made up more than 40% of ISAF.
  • A study by Care International in the summer of 2003 reported that Kosovo had one peacekeeper to 48 people, East Timor one for every 86, while Afghanistan has just one for every 5,380 people.

Stage 1: to the north – completed October 2004

  • On 11 August 2003, NATO took command of ISAF. ISAF consisted of 5,000 troops from more than 30 countries. About 90% of the force were contributed by NATO nations. 1,950 were Canadian, by far the largest single contingent. About 2,000 German troops were involved. Romania had about 400 troops at the time.
  • The first ISAF rotation under the command of NATO was led by Lieutenant General Goetz Gliemeroth, Germany, with Canadian Army Major General Andrew Leslie as his deputy. Canada had been originally slated to take over command of ISAF on 11 August.
  • 13 October 2003: Resolution 1510 passed by the UNSC opened the way to a wider role for ISAF to support the Government of Afghanistan beyond Kabul.
  • In December 2003, the North Atlantic Council authorised the Supreme Allied Commander, General James Jones, to initiate the expansion of ISAF by taking over command of the German-led PRT in Kunduz. The other eight PRTs operating in Afghanistan in 2003 remained under the command of Operation Enduring Freedom, the continuing US-led military operation in Afghanistan. On 31 December 2003, the military component of the Kunduz PRT was placed under ISAF command as a pilot project and first step in the expansion of the mission. Six months later, on 28 June 2004, at the Summit meeting of the NATO Heads of State and Government in Istanbul, NATO announced that it would establish four other provincial reconstruction teams in the north of the country: in Mazar-i-Sharif, Meymana, Feyzabad and Baghlan. After the completion of Stage 1 the ISAF's area of operations then covered some 3,600 square kilometres in the north and the mission was able to influence security in nine Northern provinces of the country.[8]
  • As late as November 2003, the entire ISAF force had three helicopters.
  • On 9 February 2004 Lieutenant General Rick Hillier of Canada took command, with Major General Werner Korte of Germany as deputy. During this timeframe, Canada was the largest contributor to the ISAF force, contributing 2,000 troops.
  • In May 2004, Turkey sent three helicopters and 56 flight and maintenance personnel to work in ISAF.
  • In July 2004, Portugal sent 24 soldiers and one C-130 Hercules cargo plane to assist ISAF.
  • On 7 August 2004: General Jean-Louis Py, commander of Eurocorps took command of ISAF. Eurocorps contributors deploying to Afghanistan included France, Germany, Spain, Belgium and Luxembourg. Canada reduced its forces to about 800 personnel.
  • In September 2004, a Spanish battalion (about 800 personnel) arrived to provide the ISAF Quick Reaction Force, and an Italian Army battalion (up to 1,000 troops) arrived to provide the in-theatre Operational Reserve Force. With a force of 100, Georgia became the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to send an operational force to Afghanistan.
  • Stage 1 (North) was completed at October 2004 under the Regional Command of Germany.

Stage 2: to the west – completed September 2005

  • In February 2005: General Ethem Erdagi (Turkey) took command
  • On 10 February 2005, NATO announced that ISAF would be further expanded, into the west of Afghanistan. This process began on 31 May 2006, when ISAF took on command of two additional Provincial Reconstruction Teams, in the provinces of Herat and Farah and of a Forward Support Base (a logistic base) in Herat. At the beginning of September, two further ISAF-led PRTs in the west became operational, one in Chaghcharan, capital of Ghor province, and one in Qala-e-Naw, capital of Baghdis province, completing ISAF's expansion into the west. The extended ISAF mission led a total of nine PRTs, in the north and the west, providing security assistance in 50% of Afghanistan's territory.
  • As the area of responsibility was increased, ISAF also took command of an increasing number of PRTs, with the aim of improving security and facilitating reconstruction outside the capital. The first nine PRTs (and lead nations) were based at Baghlan (Netherlands, then Hungary at October 2006), Chaghcharan (Lithuania), Farah (U.S.), Fayzabad (Germany), Herat (Italy), Kunduz (Germany), Mazar-i-Sharif (UK, then Denmark/Sweden, now Sweden and Finland), Maymana (UK, then Norway), Qala-e Naw (Spain).
  • In May 2005 ISAF Stage 2 took place, doubling the size of the territory ISAF was responsible for. The new area was the former US Regional Command West consisting of Badghis, Farah, Ghor, and Herat Provinces.
  • 5 August 2005: Italian General Mauro del Vecchio assumed command of ISAF. During 2005 Italy commanded four multinational military operations: in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania.
  • September 2005: ISAF Stage 2 was completed under the Regional Command of Italy. In September 2005, the Alliance also temporarily deployed 2,000 additional troops to Afghanistan to support the 18 September provincial and parliamentary elections.[8]
  • On 27 January 2006, it was announced in the British Parliament that ISAF would replace U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom troops in Helmand Province. The British 16th Air Assault Brigade became the core of the force in Helmand Province.
  • In February 2006, the Netherlands decided to expand the troop contribution with an extra 1,400 soldiers.[9]
  • On 22 May 2006, a British Army WAH-64 Apache gunship fired a Hellfire missile to destroy a French armored jeep that had been disabled during a firefight with Taliban forces in North Helmand province the previous day, as it was decided that attempting to recover the vehicle would have been too dangerous. This is the first time UK Apaches have opened fire in a hostile theatre and this would be, in a fashion, the WAH-64's first "combat kill".

Stage 3: to the south – completed July 2006

  • On 8 December 2005, meeting at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, the Allied Foreign Ministers endorsed a plan that paved the way for an expanded ISAF role and presence in Afghanistan. The first element of this plan was the expansion of ISAF to the south in 2006, also known as Stage 3. At the completion of this stage the ISAF assumed command of the southern region of Afghanistan from US-led Coalition forces, expanding its area of operations to cover an additional six provinces – Day Kundi, Helmand, Kandahar, Nimroz, Uruzgan and Zabul – and taking on command of four additional PRTs. The expanded ISAF led a total of 13 PRTs in the north, west and south, covering some three-quarters of Afghanistan's territory. The number of ISAF forces in the country also increased significantly, from about 10,000 prior to the expansion to about 20,000 after.[8]
  • 4 May 2006: United Kingdom General David Richards assumed command of the ISAF IX force in Afghanistan. The mission is led by the Headquarters Allied Rapid Reaction Corps.
  • 31 July 2006, Stage 3 was completed: The NATO-led International Security Assistance Force also assumed command in six provinces of the south. Regional Command South was established at Kandahar. Led by Canada, 8,000 soldiers are now positioned there.
  • With the Taliban regrouping, especially in its birthplace of Kandahar province bordering Pakistan, NATO launched its biggest offensive against the guerrillas at the weekend of 2 September and 3 September 2006 (Operation Medusa). NATO says it has killed more than 250 Taliban fighters, but the Taliban says NATO casualty estimates are exaggerated.
  • On 7 September 2006, a British soldier was killed and six wounded when their patrol strayed into an unmarked minefield in Helmand, the major drug-growing province west of Kandahar.
  • On 28 September 2006, the North Atlantic Council gave final authorization for the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (NATO-ISAF) to expand its area of operations to 14 additional provinces in the east of Afghanistan, boosting NATO's presence and role in the country. With this further expansion, NATO-ISAF will assist the Government of Afghanistan in providing security throughout the whole of the country.[10] The expansion will see the NATO-ISAF controlling 32,000 troops from 37 countries, although the alliance is already struggling to find extra troops to hold off a spiraling Taliban-led insurgency in the volatile south.

Stage 4: ISAF takes responsibility for entire country – completed October 2006

  • On 5 October 2006, ISAF implemented the final stage of its expansion, by taking on command of the international military forces in eastern Afghanistan from the US-led Coalition. In addition to expanding the Alliance's area of operations, the revised operational plan also paved the way for a greater ISAF role in the country. This includes the deployment of ISAF OMLTs to Afghan National Army units at various levels of command.[8]
  • 10,000 more coalition troops moved under NATO command. 31,000 ISAF troops are now in Afghanistan. 8,000 US troops continue training and counter-terrorism separately.
  • 21 October 2006: The Canadian government grew increasingly frustrated over the unwillingness of mainly European NATO members to deploy troops to help fight mounting Taliban resistance in the south.[citation needed]

ISAF Post Stage 4: October 2006 to present

Anaconda Strategy vs the insurgents as of 2010-10-20.
  • November 2006: A study by the Joint Co-ordinating and Monitoring Board, made up of the Afghan government, its key foreign backers and the UN, suggested that more than 3,700 people died from January to November 2006. The majority of the dead appear to be insurgents, but it is estimated that 1,000 civilians have also been killed this year, along with members of the Afghan National Army, ISAF, and U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom forces.[11]
  • 28–29 November 2006: NATO summit at Riga (Latvia). Combat curbs were the most contentious issue at the two-day summit in Latvia, following tension over the reluctance of France, Germany, Spain and Italy to send their troops to southern Afghanistan. Countries agreeing to ease the restrictions on deployment against the Taliban insurgency include the Dutch, Romanians and smaller nations such as Slovenia and Luxembourg. France, Germany, Spain and Italy have said they will now send help to trouble zones outside their areas, but only in emergencies. The summit also saw several countries offer additional troops and training teams. France agreed to send more helicopters and aircraft. NATO commanders say they believe they can move an extra 2,500 troops around the country now some smaller members have relaxed their mission conditions.[12]
  • 15 December 2006: ISAF starts a new offensive, Operation Baaz Tsuka (Falcon's Summit), against the Taliban in the Panjaway Valley in Kandahar province.
  • 4 February: US General Dan K. McNeill replaced British General David Richards as commander of ISAF. He was expected to place a heavier emphasis on fighting than peace deals, analysts said at the time.[13] Meanwhile observers and commanders are expecting a new Taliban "spring offensive", and NATO commanders are asking for more troops.
  • 6 March 2007: NATO-ISAF launched Operation Achilles, an offensive to bring security to northern Helmand and set the conditions for meaningful development that will fundamentally improve the quality of life for Afghans in the area. The operation will eventually involve more than 4,500 Nato troops and nearly 1,000 Afghan soldiers in Helmand province, according to the alliance. It focuses on improving security in areas where Taliban extremists, narco-traffickers and other elements are trying to destabilize the Government of Afghanistan and to intend to empower village elders. The overarching purpose is to assist the government to improve its ability to begin reconstruction and economic development in the area. Strategically, the goal is also to enable the government to begin the Kajaki hydro-energy project.[14]
  • On 2 June 2008, General David D. McKiernan, US Army, assumed command of ISAF.
  • As of January 2009 its troops number around 55,100.[15] There are troops from 26 NATO, 10 partner and 2 non-NATO / non-partner countries,[16]
  • FEbruary 6–7, 2009: UK forces mount Operation Diesel raid in Helmand province.
  • 27 April and 19 May 2009: ISAF launched Operations Zafar and Zafar 2 in the Helmand Province. Operation Zafar lasted one week and Operation Zafar 2 lasted four days. Both operations were preparing for Operation Panther's Claw.
  • 29 May 2009: ISAF launched Operation Mar Lewe around the village of Yatimchay, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) south of Musa Qaleh, Helmand Province. Operation Mar Lewe lasted three-days. "Mar Lewe" is Pashtu for "snake wolf."
SOF 90-Day Accumulated effect (23 Sep 10).
  • 15 June 2009: General Stanley A. McChrystal, US Army, assumed command of NATO forces.
  • 19 June 2009: ISAF launched Operation Panther's Claw to secure control of various canal and river crossings in Helmand Province and to establish a lasting ISAF presence in an area described by Lt Col Richardson as "one of the main Taliban strongholds" ahead of the 2009 Afghan presidential election.
  • 2 July 2009: ISAF launched Operation Strike of the Sword or Operation Khanjar in Helmand Province. This operation is the largest U.S. Marine offensive since the battle of Fallujah, Iraq – Operation Phantom Fury in 2004.
  • 23 June 2010: Lieutenant General Sir Nick Parker, British Army, former deputy commander of ISAF, assumes interim command after the resignation of General McChrystal.
  • 4 July 2010: General David Petraeus, US Army, assumed command of NATO forces; Petraeus was formally approved by the US Senate to replace McChrystal on 30 June 2010.[17]

Colombia had planned to deploy around 100 soldiers in Spring 2009.[18][19] These forces were expected to be demining experts.[20][21] General Freddy Padilla de Leon announced to CBS that operators of Colombia's Special Forces Brigade were scheduled to be deployed to Afghanistan in either August or September 2009.[22] However the Colombians are not listed as part of the force as of June 2011.

Three NATO states have announced withdrawal plans: Canada in 2011,[23] Poland in 2012,[24] and the United Kingdom in 2015.[25]

The United States said it would end combat operations in Afghanistan in mid July 2011. This would not involve a total withdrawal; combat operations in Iraq ended, but sizable advisory forces remained. In any case, the deadline has now been extended to 2014.

Security and reconstruction

Since 2006 the insurgency of the Taliban has been intensifying, especially in the southern Pashtun parts of the country, areas that were the Taliban's original power base in the Afghan Civil War.

In NATO-ISAF took over command of the south on 31 July 2006, British, Dutch, Canadian and Danish ISAF soldiers in the provinces of Helmand, Uruzgan and Kandahar have come under almost daily attack. British commanders say the fighting for them is the fiercest since the Korean War, fifty years ago. BBC reporter Alistair Leithead, embedded with the British forces, called it in an article "Deployed to Afghanistan's hell".[26]

Because of the security situation in the south, NATO-ISAF commanders have asked member countries to send more troops. On 19 October, for example, the Dutch government decided to send more troops, because of the many attacks by suspected Taliban on their Task Force Uruzgan, which makes it very difficult to complete the reconstruction work they came to accomplish.

ISAF and the illegal opium economy

Opium production levels for 2005–2007
Regional security risks of opium poppy cultivation in 2007–2008.

Prior to October 2008, ISAF had only served an indirect role in fighting the illegal opium economy in Afghanistan through shared intelligence with the Afghan government, protection of Afghan poppy crop eradication units and helping in the coordination and the implementation of the country's counter narcotics policy. Dutch ISAF forces have, for example, used military force to protect eradication units that came under attack.

Crop eradication often affects the poorest farmers who have no economic alternatives on which to fall back. Without alternatives, these farmers can no longer feed their families, causing anger, frustration and social protest. Thus, being associated with this counter productive drug policy, the ISAF soldiers on the ground find it difficult to gain the support of the local population.[27]

Though problematic for NATO, this indirect role has allowed NATO to avoid the opposition of the local population who depend on the poppy fields for their livelihood. In October 2008, NATO altered its position in an effort to curb the financing of insurgency by the Taliban. Drug laboratories, and drug traders became the targets, and not the poppy fields themselves.[28]

In order to appease France, Italy and Germany, the deal involved the participation in an anti-drugs campaign only of willing NATO member countries, was to be temporary, and was to involve cooperation of the Afghans.[28]

On 10 October 2008, during a news conference, after an informal meeting of NATO Defence Ministers in Budapest, Hungary, NATO Spokesman James Appathurai said:[29]

[...] with regard to counternarcotics, based on the request of the Afghan government, consistent with the appropriate UN Security Council Resolutions, under the existing operational plan, ISAF can act in concert with the Afghans against facilities and facilitators supporting the insurgency, subject to the authorization of respective nations. [...] The idea of a review is, indeed, envisioned for an upcoming meeting.

Military and civilian casualties

ISAF military casualties, and the civilian casualties caused by the war and Coalition/ISAF friendly fire, have become a major political issue, both in Afghanistan and in the troop contributing nations. Increasing civilian casualties threaten the stability of President Hamid Karzai's government.

ISAF command structure as of 2010

ISAF troops under NATO command (April 2009).

Throughout the four different regional stages of ISAF the number of Provincial Reconstruction Teams began growing. The expansion of ISAF, during October 2006, to all provinces of the country brought the total number of teams to twenty-four (24). The teams are led by different members of the NATO-ISAF mission. Another new PRT at Wardak was installed in November 2006, which is led by Turkey. This brought the number to 25. The overall NATO-ISAF mission is led by the Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, at Brunssum, Netherlands.[30]

The main HQ is located in the capital city of Kabul. There are six (6) Regional Commands, each with subordinate Task Forces and Provincial Reconstruction Teams (as of October 2010):

The lower strength numbers of the ISAF forces are as of 6 October 2008.[31] The numbers also reflect the situation in the country. The north and west are relatively calm, while ISAF and Afghan forces in the south and east are almost under daily attack.

Kabul; Clock wise, Michael Mullen, David Petraeus, James Mattis, John Allen, Marvin Hill and German Army Gen. Wolf Langheld at the ISAF headquarters in Kabul.

The new ISAF structure from August 2009

  • HQ ISAF at Kabul (Composite)
    • Commander ISAF directs three subordinate formations after a 2009 reorganisation. The Intermediate Joint Command (sometimes reported as ISAF Joint Command)[32] has been established to run the tactical battle, on the lines of Multi-National Corps Iraq. Lieutenant General David Rodriguez commands the IJC. V Corps is being deployed from Germany to provide the IJC headquarters. Commander ISAF also supervises the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan and Special Operations Forces.
  • Regional Command Capital (Kabul) (approx. strength: 5,420)
    • The command of this region is rotating among Turkey, France and Italy. At the moment, November 2009, Turkey is the leading nation in this region. The headquarters is in Kabul. On 31 October 2009 the Turkish Brigadier General Levent ÇOLAK took over command from a French Brigadier General. Most of the French forces in Afghanistan are in RC-C. Strength in 2010 appx. 6,150, including three battalions in Kabul. Nearly all of the more than forty contributors have troops deployed to Kabul. The city has been under joint Afghan/coalition control since 2002 but came repeatedly under attacks of insurgent fighters.
    • Kabul International Airport KAIA (Belgium, Hungary, Greece, Hungary as of December 2010)
      • As of October 2009, the Bulgarian Infantry Company, part of the Bulgarian contingent (Herat, Kandahar) provides the security of the outer perimeter of KAIA, is so called Ground Defence Area – GDA. The Bulgarian company is under the command of the Belgium Force Protenction Group.
Construction of Camp Marmal at Mazar-i-Sharif.
  • Regional Command North (approx. 4,400)
    • HQ RC(N), Camp Marmal, HQ Mazar-i-Sharif, Balkh province
    • RC-N is led by Germany. Since 30 November 2009 the German Brigadier General Frank Leidenberger took over command of RC-North. Strength: appx. 5,750, to be raised. Other forces in RC-N include units from the United States of America, Croatia, Norway, Belgium, Sweden and Hungary et al. The situation in RC-N as deteriorated. Hotspots include Kunduz in northern Afghanistan and Faryab in the northwest.
    • Manoeuvre battalions, including QRF
    • Task Force 47 (special forces, see de:Task Force 47)
    • PRT MAZAR-I-SHARIF in Balkh province (Sweden and Finland)
    • PRT FEYZABAD (DEU) in Badakhshan province (Germany)
    • PRT KONDUZ in Kunduz province (Germany)
    • PRT POL-E KHOMRI in Baghlan Province (Hungary)
    • PRT Meymaneh in Faryab Province (Norway)
Meeting of Italian and U.S. commanders at Regional Command West HQ in Herat.
  • Regional Command West (approx. 2,980)
    • HQ RC(W) in HERAT, Herat province (Italy)
    • Commander as of May 2010 Brig.Gen. Claudio Verto (ITA).[33] Strength: appx 4,440
    • Forward Support Base HERAT (Spain)
    • Manoeuvre elements, Task Force 45 (special forces task force see it:Task Force 45)
    • PRT HERAT in Herat province (Italy)
    • Shindand Air Base, Herat province
    • PRT FARAH in Farah province (USA)
    • PRT QALA-E-NOW in Badghis province (Spain)
    • PRT CHAGHCHARAN in Ghor province (Lithuania)
  • Regional Command South (approx. 35,000)
    • HQ RC(S) at Kandahar Airfield in Kandahar Province (rotates Canada, UK)
    • Forward Support Base Kandahar (Multinational)
    • Task Force Kandahar (Canadian Forces in Kandahar City and western Kandahar Province)
    • Task Force Spartan
    • Task Force Thunder
    • Task Force Lightning
    • Combined Team Uruzgan
    • Combined Team Zabul
    • Kandahar PRT in Kandahar City (Canada)[34]
    • Uruzgan PRT in Tarin Kowt, Uruzgan Province (US, Australia)[35]
    • Zabul PRT in Qalat, Zabul Province (USA, Romania)[36]
    • Regional Command South also includes the provinces of Nimruz and Daykundi
  • Regional Command East (HQ Bagram Airfield) (approx. 18,800)
    • Apart from additional manoeuvre elements, RC-E heads 13 Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) in the eastern and central provinces of Afghanistan. The headquarters is located in Bagram. Other forces in RC-E include units from France, Turkey, New Zealand, Poland and the Czech Republic et al. The province has been a staging ground for costly engagements. Hotspots include Kapisa, Nurestan and Konar. Current commander is Maj. Gen. Daniel Allyn (USA). The commander also directs the U.S. national force Combined Joint Task Force 1. Lead nation and main contributor is the United States. Strength: appx. 23,950, to be raised.
    • Task Force White Eagle (Polish forces' brigade in Ghazni Province)
    • Forward Support Base BAGRAM (USA)
    • PRT LOGAR in Logar Province (Czech Republic)
    • PRT SHARANA in Paktika province (USA)
    • PRT KHOST in Khost province (USA)
    • PRT METHER LAM in Laghman province (USA)
    • PRT BAMYAN in Bamyan province (New Zealand)
    • PRT PANJSHIR in Panjshir province (USA)
    • PRT JALALABAD in Nangarhar province (USA)
    • PRT GHAZNI in Ghazni province (Poland, USA)
    • PRT ASADABAD in Kunar province (USA)
    • PRT PARWAN (Republic Of Korea)
    • PRT NURISTAN (USA)
    • PRT WARDAK (Turkey)
    • PRT GARDEZ in Paktia province (USA)
  • Regional Command Southwest (HQ Camp Leatherneck) (approx. 27,000)
    • Regional Command Southwest was established in July 2010.[37] It is responsible for security in the Helmand and Nimroz provinces in southwestern Afghanistan. Along with the Afghan government and security forces, seven other nations contribute to RC (SW) to bring security to the region. Those nations include the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Georgia, The Kingdom of Denmark, and the Republic of Estonia. Marine Major General Richard P. Mills, the commander of RC (SW), made history by being the first U.S. Marine to command a NATO regional command in combat.[38]
    • Task Force Helmand (U.K. forces in central and northeast Helmand Province)
    • Task Force Leatherneck (U.S. Marines in northern, southern, and western Helmand Province)[39]
    • Helmand PRT in Lashkar Gah, Helmand Province (UK, Denmark, Estonia)[40]

Contributing nations

All NATO members have contributed troops to the ISAF, as well as some other partner states of the NATO. The numbers are based in part from the NATO when more recent numbers are available they are given.

NATO nations

All troop figures are as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat, and are current as of 18 October 2011. Source ISAF Website.[41]

A Bulgarian land forces up-armored M1114 patrol in Kabul, July 2009
Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province.
  •  Albania286 The Albanian contribution to ISAF operations in Afghanistan currently consists of 440 soldiers in three locations. The main contingent is composed of a company under Italian command in the province of Herat. Albania also has a squad of soldiers under Turkish command in Kabul and a contribution to a joint medical team with the Czech contribution.[41] The latest contingent is composed of 222 soldiers of the 8th Regiment.[42]
  •  Belgium520 The mission is named BELU ISAF 21. Their main task is to provide security at Kabul International Airport, while detachments (KUNDUZ 16) assist in the northern PRTs of Kunduz and Mazar-i-Sharif. In September 2008, OGF 4 started: four F-16s with about 140 support personnel deployed. They operate from Kandahar Airport.[43] The Belgian Air Force operated close together with the Dutch F-16 fighter jets already deployed there.[44] The Belgians are planning the send four more F-16s, along with 150 more troops and plan to stay at least through 2010. 1 Belgian soldier has been killed in Afghanistan.[citation needed]
  •  Bulgaria597 In December 2009, the Bulgarian Minister of Defence Nikolay Mladenov said that the Bulgarian contingent in Afghanistan, which is divided in two military bases in Kabul and Kandahar, will be consolidated in Kandahar and that it could add up to 100 troops in Afghanistan in 2010.[45] In July 2011, Bulgaria sent 165 more soldiers making the total number of contributing forces to 767.[46]
  •  Croatia317 Troops and 12 civilians are involved in three locations, additional platoon is on its way to bolster this number, bringing total troop numbers to 350 by the end of 2010/11. Croatian parliament voted on extra troop numbers on 7 December with all party supporting troop increase, although parliament did recognize that additional increases in troop numbers might be possible during 2011 and 2012 to help train local army and police units.[48][49][50]
  •  Czech Republic623 Troops are involved in four locations, as of July 2010, 720 awaited in 2011 and 640 in 2012, when the withdrawing will start. The largest unit was deployed as PRT Logar composed of 192 troops and 7 civilians in Logar Province, in place since 19 March 2008. Four BMP-2 IFVs are part of PRT Logar. Field Hospital at Kabul International Airport was deployed in March 2007 and consists of 81 medical and 13 NBC protection personnel. Eight helicopter pilots and technicians are part of the Operational Mentoring and Liaison Team (OMLT). Also, four weather forecast specialists and two air traffic controllers are part of the Czech contingent deployed to Kabul International Airport. A third unit was sent to Afghanistan at the end of April 2007, and involves 35 members of the Czech Military Police Special Operations Group, who are attached to British forces in the Southern Helmand province. Fourth unit was deployed in July 2008 and is composed of 63 troops who are in charge of force protection at Dutch FOB Hadrain in Uruzgan Province. The Czechs also donated 12 helicopters to the Afghan National Army Air corps, fly 3 Mi-17 helicopters in Pakitika Province and announced to deploy one C-295 in 2011. 4 Czech soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.[51]
  •  Denmark750 The major Danish military contribution is a battle group, which is currently operating with British forces in the Green Zone in the central part of Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan. The battle group consists of two mechanized infantry companies, a tank platoon and a flight of light reconnaissance helicopters. The battle group also consists of combat support and support units. In the nearby Kandahar Province, troops from the Royal Danish Air Force take part in manning the Kandahar Airfield Crisis Establishment (KAF CE), which is running the airfield. But Danish troops are also deployed to other parts of Afghanistan. In northern Afghanistan app. twenty troops are serving in the German-led PRT in Feyzabad. In western Afghanistan ten troops are serving in the Lithuanian led PRT in Chagcharan. There is also a small contribution to HQ ISAF in Kabul and to the staffing of Kabul International Airport. There is also a RDAF presence with the NATO AWACS contingent in Mazar-i-Sharif. In Helmand Danish troops are involved in the worst fighting their armed forces have undertaken since the Second Schleswig War of 1864. Denmark has lost 42 soldiers in Afghanistan since 2002. A recent survey[52]] has determined that Denmark by far has the highest count of casualties relative to population. This has sparked controversy whether Denmark should withdraw troops to more safe regions in Afghanistan.[53]
  •  Estonia159 The majority of Estonian troops have been deployed to PRT Lashkar-Gah in the southern province of Helmand, together with the forces of the United Kingdom and Denmark. 9 Estonian soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.
French soldiers
German Army convoy in northern Afghanistan
  •  France3,932 French forces are deployed in the Surobi District and in Kapisa Province under the command of the Lafayette Brigade. Six French Dassault Mirage 2000D fighters and two C-135F refueling aircraft were based at Dushanbe Airport in Dushanbe, Tajikistan but relocated to Kandahar on 26 September 2007; from there they conduct operations in support of ISAF. An assortment of 200 naval, air force and army special forces personnel were withdrawn from Southern Afghanistan in early 2007, but around 50 remained to train Afghan forces. On 26 February 2008 it was reported that Paris would deploy hundreds of troops to eastern Afghanistan to free up American soldiers, who would then be able to assist Canadian forces in the flashpoint southern province of Kandahar.[54] Shortly afterwards, 700 troops were deployed reinforce the French activities in Surobi and Kapissa. The deployment marked a significant change in French policy in Afghanistan. The French Prime Minister, François Fillon, later announced that 100 additional troops and Aérospatiale Gazelle helicopters would be sent to the country. According to the French newspaper Libération, Nicolas Sarkozy is planning to send more several hundred troops. France has decided to send Eurocopter Tiger attack helicopters to Afghanistan in the second quarter of 2009.[55] In April 2010, French president Nicolas Sarkozy ruled out sending additional troops to Afghanistan in the near future. 75 French troops have been killed in Afghanistan.[56] However, in the summer of 2010, 250 reinforcements were announced by the French Chief of the Defense Staff, the admiral Edouard Guillaud.[57] These reinforcments (an additonal OMLT) arrived in October 2010, bringing the number French forces in Afghanistan to 4,000.[58]
  •  Germany5,000 Total makes Germany the third-largest troop contributor to ISAF. Germany leads Regional Command North based in Mazar-i-Sharif. The task of the German forces is to assist the Afghan government with security and reconstruction in the four northern provinces of Kunduz, Takhar, Baghlan and Badakhshan. Germany leads the Provincial Reconstruction Teams in the provinces of Kunduz and Badakhshan. The mandate issued by the Bundestag does not allow the Bundeswehr to take part in combat operations against the Taliban insurgency in the south and east of Afghanistan, other than in exceptional circumstances. However, German troops together with allied forces of Regional Command North have conducted own combat operations in northern and northeast Afghanistan, inflicting as many as 650 casualties upon insurgents. Germany has agreed to send 850 additional troops in 2010, raising the mandate ceiling to 5,350 troops. 53 German troops and 3 police officers have been killed in Afghanistan.[59] 156 service members have been wounded in action.[60] Following the Kunduz airstrike on two captured fuel tankers, which killed over 100 civilians, Germany reclassified the Afghanistan deployment in February 2010 as an "armed conflict within the parameters of international law", allowing German forces to act without risk of prosecution under German law.[61][62]
  •  Greece153 Some of whom were stationed at Kabul International Airport, while others manned various hospitals.[citation needed]
  •  Hungary415 The Hungarian infantry unit was situated in Kabul, however, on 1 October 2006, Hungary requisitioned its forces and took over responsibility, from the Dutch, for the Provincial Reconstruction Team in the town of Pul-e Khumri, the capital of Baghlan province. Since 1 October 2008, one of the tasks of the Hungarians is to provide security at Kabul International Airport.In 2008 Hungarian special forces deployed to South Afghanistan to special reconnaissance and patrol operations. In 2010 Budapest adds 200 soldiers to the 340 troops it already has in Afghanistan working in reconstruction and training. 6 Hungarian soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.[63]
  •  Iceland4, all stationed at ISAF HQ at Kabul International Airport.[64]
Polish forces
Romanian soldiers in southern Afghanistan in 2003.
Visiting politicians of Spain with soldiers of the Spanish army in 2010.
Turkish servicemen and servicewomen at Turkish Army ISAF post Camp Doğan, Kabul, 2008.
British patrol in 2007.
Convoy of U.S. forces passing by in Kapisa Province.
  •  Italy3,952 Italian troops currently lead Regional Command West and the PRT in Herat Province. Although the mandate issued by the Parliament of Italy does not allow Italian forces to take part in the battle against the Taliban insurgency in the south and east of Afghanistan, other than in exceptional circumstances, the current Italian Minister of Defense Ignazio La Russa has officially stated in July 2008 that such combat activities have indeed taken place over the last year in the Farah area.[65] Italian contingent including 9 helicopters Agusta A129 Mangusta, 2 C-27 Spartan, 1 C-130, 3 AB-212,3 CH-47. Additionally, in April 2008, 4 AMX International AMX reconnaissance jets and 3 helicopters AB-412, with corresponding 250 personnel (also included), were deployed to Kabul in support of ISAF combat operations in the country. In February 2009 the Italian government decided to boost its contingent by 800 to help out with police training and economic development.[66] 1000 more soldiers will be sent in Afghanistan in 2010, for 3800 in total. 39 Italian troops have been killed in Afghanistan.
  •  Latvia174 troops divided between Kabul and the PRTs in Mazar-i-Sharif and Meymaneh as of December 2007. 3 Latvian soldiers have been killed in Afghanistan.[41]
  •  Lithuania236 In June 2005, ISAF established in Chaghcharan, the capital of Ghor province, a Lithuanian PRT in which Danish, US and Icelandic troops also serve. 1 Lithuanian soldier has been killed in Afghanistan.[67] Lithuanian special forces were sent south to help the British forces in their spring offensive.
  •  Luxembourg11[68] after December 22, 2009. Luxembourg is working together with Belgium in BELU ISAF 13. The Luxembourgian squad is integrated in a Belgian platoon (two NCOs and seven soldiers) and provides one officer to the staff of the Force Protection group at KAIA.
  •  Norway429 Norwegian ISAF forces are divided between Meymaneh in Faryab province where they lead a Provincial Reconstruction Team and Mazar-i-Sharif, where they operate alongside Swedish forces. Four Royal Norwegian Air Force F-16s operated from Kabul airport alongside Dutch F-16s in support of NATO ISAF forces in southern Afghanistan during 2006.[69] Decisions have been made to reinforce the Norwegian contribution with 150 special forces, three Bell 412 helicopters armed with door-mounted machine guns and around 60 personnel from 339 Squadron – code named Norwegian Aeromedical Detachment (NAD) – to be based at Camp Meymaneh for 18 months from 1 April 2008,[70][71] and 50 troops tasked with training Afghan soldiers.[72][73] As of March 2008 the deployment of the special forces unit has not been confirmed due to internal disagreements in the Norwegian cabinet, with the Socialist Left Party opposed to the mission.[citation needed] After the attack on the Serena Hotel on 14 January 2008, the decision was made to send a team of military explosives experts to Kabul.[74] Building new compounds for ANA has been one way the Norwegian ISAF contribution has supported the modernisation and expansion of the Afghan military.[75] Nine Norwegian soldiers have been killed in action.[76][77][78][79][80]
  •  Poland2,580[81] Polish brigade-level Task Force White Eagle is responsible for the south-eastern province of Ghazni. The task force is based in 5 different locations around the province: FOB Warrior, COP Qarabagh, FB Giro, FB Four Corners and FOB Ghazni. The Polish contingent operates 70 Rosomak wheeled armoured vehicles and 40 Cougars on loan from the US. Additionally, 4 Mil Mi-24 and 4 Mil Mi-17 are in use. In December 2009, the Polish Ministry of Defence announced that as of April 2010 it would dispatch additional 60 Rosomaks, 5 Mi-17 and 600 troops. The contingent will also include 400 backup troops based in Poland who could be deployed in Afghanistan at short notice to bring the total number of Polish soldiers operating under ISAF to almost 3,000. In March 2010, the Polish MoD announced that one battalion of the American 101st Airborne Division would be dispatched to Ghazni and would operate under Polish command. 29 Polish troops have been killed in Afghanistan.
  •  Portugal140 The national participation in operations in Afghanistan began in February 2002. A military health detachment composed of the three branches of the Armed Forces remained in Kabul for 3 months in a British campaign hospital of the ISAF (International Security Assistance Force). Followed by a C-130 Detachment who acted from Karachi (Pakistan), between April and July of that year. NATO took over leadership of ISAF in 2003, and in May 2004, Portugal became involved in this new mission with a C-130 Detachment and supporting staff of the Portuguese Air Force, as meteorologists, firefighters, drivers, based at King Abdulaziz International Airport (KAIA). After finishing this mission for 1 year, in August 2005, the Portuguese Air Force took command of KAIA with several of its services (for a period of 3 months), but now without aircrafts. The Portuguese Army began between June and August 2005 the task of Quick Reaction Force (QRF) of the ISAF Command with a light infantry company (alternated 4 Commandos companies and 2 of Paratroopers), and a TACP Detachment of the Air Force. Officers and sergeants of the three branches have served in the ISAF HQ and other regional structures, more or less discreet. Between late July 2008 and mid-December a detachment of the Portuguese Air Force, incorporating a C-130 and support staff in various specialties, like maintenance and force protection, totaling some 40 soldiers, met the new mission from Kabul. In addition to a serious injured and several light injureds, the Portuguese army have suffered two dead, the Commando Sergeant João Paulo Roma Pereira on November 18, 2005 and the Paratrooper Soldier Sérgio Miguel Vidal Oliveira Pedrosa on November 24, 2007.
  •  Romania1,873 Force consists of a battalion in Qalat, Zabul Province. Additionally, a special forces squad (39 personnel) operates from an unknown location, and a training detachment of 47 personnel is in Kabul under the US-led Operation Enduring Freedom. In January 2010, the Supreme Defense Council of Romania announced to send 600 more troops to Afghanistan, boosting its military presence there to more than 1,600 soldiers. 19 Romanian troops have been killed in Afghanistan.[82]
  •  Slovakia309 In 2007 on request of NATO command Slovak forces were moved from Kabul to operate in southern Afghanistan. Currently there are 165 guard soldiers providing force protection at Kandahar Airbase. 57 personnel of Multirole engineer company located in Kandahar Airport. Responsible for demining, building and repairing the airport.

53 soldiers of mechanized infantry are holding outpost in Tarin Kowt, Uruzgan Province. 5 personnel are in OMLT team, 4 explosives disposal specialists are part of EOD PALADIN-S Team. 2 personnel are part of reconstruction team in Tarim Kowt. 12 officers are members of commanding staff in - HQ ISAF IJC, RC-S, KAF a PALADIN. In 2011 elements of 5th Special Forces Regiment will be deployed to Afghanistan and will take part in special operations.[83]

  •  Slovenia77 troops (including two civilians – CIMIC programme) performing OMLT tasks (mentoring an Infantry Battalion in Shindad and joint mentoring with Italian army of a Combat Support Battalion in Herat) and placing some commanding positions in Regional Command West and ISAF HQ.[84]
  •  Spain1,526 troops. The collective Spanish military contribution to ISAF is known as ASPFOR. Spanish forces are divided between Herat Province, where they form a quick-reaction company, an instructors team for Afghan National Army training and a Combat Search & Rescue unit; Kabul, and Badghis Province, where they lead PRT Qala-i-Naw.[85] The deployment involves engineers, infantry, a transport helicopters unit, and a logistics component. Spanish soldiers are constrained by caveats. The mandate issued by the Spanish Parliament does not allow Spanish forces neither to engage Taliban insurgents unless being directly attacked first, nor to move into the south and east of Afghanistan. Spain has rejected three times to lead the ISAF when its shift to do so has come.[86]
  •  Turkey1,840 troops. Turkey's responsibilities include providing security in Kabul (it currently leads RC Capital), as well as in Wardak Province, where it leads PRT Maidan Shahr. Turkey was once the third largest contingent within the ISAF. Turkey's troops are not engaged in combat operations and Ankara has long resisted pressure from Washington to offer more combat troops. In December 2009, after the US President Obama announced he would deploy 30,000 more U.S. soldiers, and that Washington wants others to follow suit, the Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan, reacted with the message that Turkey would not contribute additional troops to Afghanistan. "Turkey has already done what it can do by boosting its contingent of soldiers there to 1,750 from around 700 without being asked", said Erdogan, who stressed that Turkey would continue its training of Afghan security forces.[87]
  •  United Kingdom9,500 troops deployed in Helmand Province.[88] The Royal Air Force and Army Air Corps have a major presence in and around the country, including BAE Harrier II GR7 and GR9 attack jets, MQ-9 Reaper UAV's, C-130 Hercules cargo planes, CH-47 Chinook transport helicopters, Nimrod surveillance planes, Westland Lynx utility helicopters and Westland WAH-64 Apache attack helicopters. They are officially there to help train Afghan security forces, facilitate reconstruction, and provide security, but in 2006, the situation in the north of Helmand turned increasingly violent, with British troops involved in fierce firefights against the Taliban and anti-coalition militia, particularly in the towns of Sangin, Musa Qala, Kajaki and Nawzad. According to the BBC, on the 30th November 2009 Gordon Brown has announced an increase in British troop numbers, which will bring the total to 10,000 personnel, (500 extra ground troops, and 500 Special Forces) additionally more modified Merlin helicopters will be deployed. The MoD have stated that all the equipment is ready for such a deployment. The deployment would mean British troop levels in the theatre will be the highest since the invasion in 2001.
  •  United States90,000 (ISAF figure). Around 93,780 are currently deployed in Afghanistan: 45,780 under the command of NATO-ISAF as of December 2007 and the remaining 48,000 troops are under U.S. command to train the Afghan National Army and to hunt Taliban leaders and al-Qaeda members. There is also a sizable civilian U.S. presence as part of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. In December 2009 President Obama announced an increase of 34,000 US troops from Spring 2010 onwards.[89][90]

Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) nations

  •  Armenia40, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[91] Sent about 40 troops to serve under German command.[92] Additional 86 troops deployed in summer 2011.
  •  Austria3, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41] They are deployed in Kabul. In 2002, 75 soldiers were temporarily deployed in Kabul and in the year 2005 a contingent of 100 soldiers served in Afghanistan.[93]
  •  Azerbaijan94, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)
  •  Finland156, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41] They are stationed in currently in four provinces of around Mazar-i-Sharif, as all of Finnish troops serve in the PRT Mazar-i-Sharif since early 2009.[94]
  •  Georgia937, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.).[95] On October 13, 2009, Georgia announced that a total amount of 900 Georgian peacekeepers will be deployed by the end of 2010, making the country, to one of the major contributors of peacekeeping and counter insurgency operations in the south-eastern parts of Afghanistan.[96] Further, according to an article of "The Georgian Times", which was released early in December 2009, a deployment of approximately 1,000 Georgian servicemen and servicewomen was expected for January 2010.[97]
  •  Ireland7, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41]
  •  Macedonia163, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41] Macedonia is expected to send 80 reinforcements to back the US surge.[citation needed]
  •  Montenegro36[98] They are currently stationed in two bases, Pol-e-Khomri and Marmal.
  •  Sweden500 (as of latest Source of Swedish Armed Forces Website.) Sweden leads the PRT Mazar-i-Sharif. The main force consists of three mechanized companies operating in Mazar-i-Sharif and also includes helicopters for medical evacuation and an OMLT training Afghan soldiers. Six Swedish Soldiers have been killed in action and 20+ wounded since 2001. The swedish force consists of 891 troops, 9 CV9040, 20 Patria XA-203, 60+ BAE RG32M and 2 Super Puma Medevac helicopters.
  •  Ukraine22, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41][99][100] Military doctors serve in the Lithuanian-led PRT Chagcharan, while one officer works at the ISAF HQ in Kabul.

Non-NATO and non-EAPC nations

An Australian Special Operations Task Group patrol in October 2009
  •  Australia1,550, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.) Department of Defence.[101] Australia is the largest non-NATO contibuter to the War in Afghanistan. Termed Operation Slipper, the core of the Australian contingent is based in the southern province of Uruzgan. Australia has joint command of Uruzgan Province with the United States (Combined Team Uruzgan). Australia provides the majority of combat forces in Uruzgan. This includes an infantry based Battle Group known as the Mentoring Task Force, which also includes cavalry, engineer, artillery and other supporting assets. The Battle Group's main effort are Operational Mentoring and Liasion Teams (OMLT's), which are embedded with Afghan National Army units at remote Combat Outposts and Forward Operating Bases. The OMLT's conduct almost daily patrolling in the Green Zone with the Afghan National Army, and have ben involved in the heaviest combat experienced by regular Australian Defence Force members since the Vietnam War. Australia also contibutes a 300 strong Special Operations Task Group, code named Task Force 66, which is manned by the SAS Regiment and commandos. Task Force 66 operates in Uruzgan, Helmand, Zabul and other surrounding provinces, and has had significant success in both capturing and inflicting large numbers of casualties against the Taliban. Australian Army CH-47D Chinook heavy-lift helicopters serve in Afghanistan as coalition heavy lift transport helicopters, and the Royal Australian Air Force has also committed C-17 Globemaster and C-130 Hercules transport aircraft, P-3 Orion surveillance aircraft, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. 29 Australian soldiers have been Killed in Action in Afghanistan, and another 201 have been Wounded in Action.
  •  Republic of Korea350 (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41] Republic of Korea redeployed its troops to Afghanistan since July 2010, and it is the PRT leading nation in Parwan Province. Korea also dispatched 4 UH-60 Black Hawks, which are under TACON to 3rd Infantry Division (United States).
  •  Malaysia31 (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41]
  •  Mongolia – Mongolia sent 74 troops to back the US surge in country.[102]
  •  New Zealand191, (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41] The majority of the New Zealanders (107) were deployed to Bamian Province in October 2007, where they led the respective Provincial Reconstruction Team. Of the eight remaining personnel, two are instructors are attached to the UK's Afghan National Army Training Team; and six are liaison staff attached to the ISAF, UNAMA, and US-led CJTF-76 HQs, all three of which are located in Kabul. Additionally, twelve logistics personnel are located at Bagram Airfield,[103] and a small number of New Zealand Police instructors have been involved in training local police forces in Bamian since March 2003.[104] From late 2001 to November 2005, three 6-month rotations of between 40 and 65 New Zealand Special Air Service troops were sent to southern Afghanistan,[105][106] returning in 2009[107][108] until March 2011 [109] and now extended to March 2012. [110]
  •  Singapore21 (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41] In May 2007, a five-man medical team was sent to central Afghanistan to set up and run a dental clinic serving local citizens, while training Afghans in dentistry so that they could eventually assume responsibility.[111] Other contributions include a UAV team and a Weapons Locating Radar to provide rocket-launch warnings for Camp Holland.
  •  Tonga55 (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41]
  •  United Arab Emirates35 (as of latest ISAF/NATO Placemat. Source ISAF Website.)[41] – The UAE had 170 soldiers serving in Tarin Kowt province in March 2008 as reported by the BBC.[112]

Returned nations

  •  Republic of Korea – Republic of Korea's 210-strong contingent was withdrawn by 14 December 2007 due to the expiration of its mandate, despite American calls for its continued presence. The withdrawal had been one of the pledges made to the Taliban captors of 21 South Korean Christian missionaries in July 2007, in return for the hostages' release. The deployment consisted of 60 medics comprising the 'Dongeui' unit and 150 military engineers forming the 'Dasan' unit at Bagram Airbase, north of Kabul. They had been sent to Afghanistan in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Since then, Seoul had only taken the role of providing medical and vocational training by assisting the United States and only two dozen volunteers work inside the U.S. Air Force Base in Bagram, north of Kabul. On 30 June 2008, South Korea thus did return as a member of the coalition, operating a small hospital near the airbase in Bagram with military and civilian personnel, according to a statement of the coalition. In December 2009, the South Korean defence ministry announced it would send 350 troops in 2010 to protect South Korean civilian engineers working on reconstruction. These troops would not engage in any fighting except to protect the base of the South Korean Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) and escort and protect the activities of the PRT members. These new troops would be backed by helicopters, armoured vehicles and an unmanned reconnaissance drone to protect the 100 civilian engineers and 40 police. The South Korean contingent would be based in Parwan province, just north of Kabul for 30 months from 1 July 2010.[113] This invoked threats from the side of the Taliban. In a statement e-mailed to international media, Taliban insurgents said Seoul must be ready to face "bad consequences" if the troops were deployed. "On one hand this act is against the Afghanistan independence. On the other hand, it will break their promise they made in 2007 in return to the freedom of 19 of their citizens". The South Korean government said it made no promises to stay out of Afghanistan when it withdrew its troops in 2007.[114]

Withdrawn nations

  •  Switzerland – On 23 February 2008, the Swiss Ministry of Defence announced that its small deployment had concluded two weeks prior. Two officers had worked alongside German troops in the PRT responsible for the northeastern Kunduz province. The stated reason for the withdrawal was the burden placed on other troops for their protection, which had begun to hinder operations. A total of 31 Swiss soldiers were sent to Afghanistan since the beginning of their country's participation in 2003.[115]
  •  Netherlands – As part of Operation Enduring Freedom, the Netherlands deployed aircraft as part of the European Participating Air Force (EPAF) in support of ground operations in Afghanistan as well as Dutch naval frigates to police the waters of the Middle East/Indian Ocean. The Netherlands deployed further troops and helicopters to Afghanistan in 2006 as part of a new ISAF security operation in the south of the country.[116] Dutch ground and air forces totalled almost 2,000 personnel during 2006, taking part in combat operations alongside British and Canadian forces as part of NATO's ISAF force in the south. The Netherlands announced in December 2007 that it would begin withdrawing its Dutch Armed Forces troops from Afghanistan, mainly in the province of Uruzgan, in July 2010. Last minute negotiations in February 2010 after a further NATO request did not change this stance,[117] and there was a handover of command to the United States and Australia on 1 August 2010, formally ending the Dutch military mission, though a redeployment task force would remain for the rest of the year to complete the return of vehicles and other equipment to the Netherlands.[118]
  •  Jordan – Jordanian troops were deployed in December 2001 to establish a 50-bed medical facility in Mazar-i-Sharif. According to the US Department of Defense, the hospital provided care for up to 650 local patients a day, and as of February 2006, over 500,000 people had been treated by the Jordanians.[119]

Contributions of participating nations

Summary of major troop contributions (46 nations, 6 June 2011).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386 S-RES-1386(2001) on 31 May 2001 (retrieved 2007-09-21)
  2. ^ United Nations Security Council Document 1154 Annex I – International Security Force page 9 in 2001
  3. ^ Official Documents System of the United Nations
  4. ^ "UNSC Resolution 1510, October 13, 2003" (PDF). http://www.nato.int/isaf/topics/mandate/unscr/resolution_1510.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-05. 
  5. ^ "ISAF Chronology". Nato.int. http://www.nato.int/isaf/topics/chronology/index.html. Retrieved 2010-07-05. 
  6. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbotim Report meeting 5744 page 2, Mr. Churkin Russia on 19 September 2007 at 17:20 (retrieved 2007-09-21)
  7. ^ ISAF in Afghanistan CDI, Terrorism Project – 14 February 2002.
  8. ^ a b c d NATO's role in Afghanistan NATO ISAF missions – 03 September 2009.
  9. ^ More Dutch troops for Afghanistan BBC – 3 February 2006
  10. ^ "International Security Assistance Force". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2006-09-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20060920105820/http://www.jfcbs.nato.int/ISAF/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-05. [dead link]
  11. ^ Afghan conflict deaths quadruple BBC – Monday, 13 November 2006
  12. ^ Nato hails shift on Afghan combat BBC – 29 November 2006
  13. ^ U.S. general in Afghanistan seen tough on Taliban REUTERS – 5 February 2007
  14. ^ ISAF and Afghan Forces launch major operation in the South NATO Press release – 6 March 2007 and Nato in major anti-Taleban drive BBC – 6 March 2007
  15. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint - JAN0912-Updated ISAF Troops Placemat.ppt" (PDF). http://www.nato.int/isaf/docu/epub/pdf/placemat_archive/isaf_placemat_090112.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  16. ^ NATO
  17. ^ "Petraeus takes command in Afghanistan". CBC News. 4 July 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2010/07/03/petraeus-afghanistan.html. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  18. ^ HumbertoMay 26th, 2009 – 02:58:54 (2009-05-26). "Colombia sends troops to Afghanistan – first Latin American country". Monsters and Critics. http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/americas/news/article_1422071.php/Colombia_sends_troops_to_Afghanistan_-_first_Latin_American_country. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  19. ^ "Tropas colombianas reforzarán a las fuerzas españolas en Afganistán". Elespectador.Com. http://elespectador.com/noticias/judicial/articulo-tropas-colombianas-reforzaran-fuerzas-espanolas-afganistan. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  20. ^ "Colombia to send demining experts to Afghanistan_English_Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. 2008-08-28. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-08/28/content_9726346.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  21. ^ "Colombia sends troops to Afghanistan". Thaindian.com. 2008-08-07. http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/uncategorized/colombia-sends-troops-to-afghanistan_10081067.html. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  22. ^ "Colombia To Aid U.S. In Taliban Fight". CBS. 2009-07-27. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/27/eveningnews/main5192173.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  23. ^ Canada PM: Troops Home From Afghanistan in 2011[dead link]
  24. ^ Dutch Pullout From Afghanistan Leaves Some Nervous
  25. ^ Patrick Wintour in Toronto (2010-06-25). "Afghanistan withdrawal before 2015, says David Cameron". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jun/25/british-soldiers-afghanistan-david-cameron. Retrieved 2010-07-05. 
  26. ^ BBC report Deployed to Afghanistan's 'Hell'
  27. ^ The Washington Quarterly Poppies for Peace: Reforming Afghanistans Opium Industry
  28. ^ a b BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nato to attack Afghan opium labs: BBC News Retrieved on 10 October 2008
  29. ^ NATO, NATO Events: Informal Meeting of NATO Defence Ministers – Budapest, 9–10 October 2008, Retrieved on 10 October 2008
  30. ^ NATO OTAN[dead link] Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum – (ISAF)
  31. ^ ISAF source stored on www.archive.org International Security Assistance Force
  32. ^ "ISAF – International Security Assistance Force – Official Homepage". Nato.int. http://www.nato.int/isaf/structure/comstruc/index.html. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  33. ^ From LaStampa Website
  34. ^ "Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team". Afghanistan.gc.ca. 2009-06-17. http://www.afghanistan.gc.ca/canada-afghanistan/kandahar/kprt-eprk.aspx. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
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Further reading

  • Sean M. Maloney, Enduring The Freedom: A Rogue Historian In Afghanistan.. Dulles: Potomac Books, Incorporated, 2005, ISBN 1-57488-953-2

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