Borgo (rione of Rome)
Borgo (sometimes called also I Borghi), is the 14th historic district (
rione) of Rome. It lies on the west bank of the Tiber, and has a trapezoidal shape. Its Coat of Armsshows a lion (after the name " Leonine City", which was also given to the district), lying in front of three mounts and a star. These - together with a lion rampant - are also part of the coat of arms of Pope Sixtus Vwho annexed Borgo as fourteenth rione to the city of Rome.
The Borgo borders the
Vatican City( Saint Peter's Square) to the west, the Tiber to the east, Prati to the north, the quartiere"Aurelio" to the southwest and Trastevereto the south.
The territory of the quarter includes a level part, which is made of the alluvial
sands of Tiber, and a hilly zone, which coincides with the clayey slopes of the Vatican hill.
Administratively, the Borgo, unlike Trastevere, does not belong to the Center (I
Municipio), but to the "XVIII Municipio", together with the rione of Prati and the quartieri "Trionfale" and "Della Vittoria" (around "Piazza Mazzini").
The main roads run east-west and (with the noteworthy exception of the modern "
Via della Conciliazione") are not named "Vie", but "Borghi".
Although heavily transformed during the first half of the twentieth century, the Borgo maintains its historical importance as a forecourt to
Saint Peter's Basilicaand the Vatican Palace.
Roman Age: "Ager Vaticanus"
The territory of the Borgo during the Roman age was part of the fourteenth Regio, "Transtiberim", and was named "Ager Vaticanus", [ [http://www.archeoroma.com/itinerari_per_roma.htm itinerari per Roma (from www.archeoroma.com)] ] after the auguries ("vaticinii") which were taken there by the Etruscan "
Augures". Since it lay outside the Pomerium, and was plagued by malaria, this territory was used as a burial place. Some tombs reached notable proportions: among them, the so called "Terebinthus Neronis", which was a round tomb surmounted by a narrow tower; [Borgatti, 5] while the "Meta Romuli" (a pyramidsimilar to that still standing near " Porta San Paolo"), was demolished only in 1499.
At the foot of the
Vatican Hilltwo roads started: the "Via Cornelia", which joined the " Via Aurelia" near Tarquinii [Borgatti, 2] , and the " Via Triumphalis" (Triumphal Road), which met the " Via Cassia" a few kilometers north. [The site where the two "Viae" crossed is at about the middle of the present day "Via della Conciliazione". [http://www2.comune.roma.it/municipio/17/storico.htm Municipio 17 - Profilo storico] ] The latter was so named because, beginning with Titus, the Roman Emperors used it to enter the city when celebrating their Triumphs.
At the beginning of the Imperial Age, magnificent "Villae" and "Horti" (Gardens), such as those owned by
Agrippina the Elder, wife of Germanicusand mother of Gaius("Horti Agrippinae"), and by Domitia Longina, wife of Domitianus("Horti Domitiae"), were built near the slopes of the Gianicoloand Vatican hills.
Gaius(also known as Caligula) built on the Vatican a circus ("Circus Gaianus"), which was then enlarged by Nero("Circus Neronis"). [Borgatti, 3] The obeliskstanding today in St. Peter's Square was erected along its raised median (the "spina"). The circus was connected to the city through an archway ("Porticus"). Nero also substituted the timber bridge of the Via Triumphalis with a stone bridge, (whose ruins can still be seen in the Tiberduring the minimum flow periods) named after him "Pons Neronianus" or "Triumphalis". Emperor Hadrianbuilt near the Tiber his huge Mausoleum, which he connected to the left bank of the river with another Bridge, the "Pons Ælius" (today's Ponte Sant'Angelo)".
But what changed forever the destiny of the zone was the
martyrdomof St. Peterat the foot of the Vatican hill in 67, during the first persecution of the Christians. The saint was buried nearby, and this turned the Vatican into a place of pilgrimage. Above the tomb of the saint, Pope Anacletusbuilt an oratory , which in 324 Emperor Constantine turned into a huge basilicadevoted to the prince of the Apostles. [Borgatti, 11] This church, known today as Old Saint Peter's, soon became (until its destruction in the XVI century, when the new Saint Peter's was erected in its place) one of the centers of Christianity.
Middle Ages: "Civitas Leonina"
During the early
Middle Agesthe bridge of Nero fell into ruins, while the Mausoleum of Hadrian was converted into a stronghold ( Castel Sant'Angelo), the possession of which ensured control of the city.Despite the wars and invasions which plagued Rome during those centuries, the flood of pilgrims to the tomb of the apostle never stopped. Pilgrims of the same nationality gathered together in associations named "Scholae", [Borgatti, 19-21] whose task was to host and to aid men and women of the same nation coming to Rome. The most famous were those of the Franks, Saxons, Frisiansand Lombards. Each "Schola" had its own hospice and church. [The church of the "Schola Frisonum", "San Michele e Magno", still existes at the top of a long staircase in front of the S Colonnade of Saint Peter. Climbing this staircase gives to the pilgrims the same privileges as mounting the " Scala Santa" in Lateran. [http://web.comhem.se/~u13117202/ssmichemagno.htm Santi Michele e Magno] ] One of the first – the " Schola Saxonum" - was built during the VIII century by Ina, king of the Saxons. [Borgatti, 42] That hospice became the core of the future " Hospital of Santo Spirito", one of the oldest and largest in Rome, founded by Pope Innocent IIIin 1198. Near the hospital was erected the church of " Santo Spirito in Sassia". The German pilgrims gave the zone around their Scholae the name "Burg" (fortified town), [Borgatti, 13] which, italianised, became the name of the quarter.
Since it lay outside the
Aurelian's Walls, the Borgo was always exposed to attacks. During the VIII and IX century the quarter – together with the basilica - was plundered several times by the Saracenswho landed in Porto (near Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber), [Borgatti, 14] and devastated by fires (that of 847 was immortaled by Raphaelin the frescopainted in the "stanze vaticane").
Pope Leo IVbuilt the walls, which still bear his name. On June 27, 852 the Pope, accompanied by the clergy and people, started this undertaking walking bare-foot along the circuit of the new walls. Then, in order to augment the population, Pope Leo settled in the Borgo several families of Corsicans.Since that time, the quarter was no longer considered a part of Rome, but a separate town, the Leonine City("Civitas Leonina"), with its own magistrates and governor. It was only in 1586, under Pope Sixtus V, that the Borgo, as fourteenth rione, became again a part of Rome.The Leonine walls, which incorporated an older wall built by Totiladuring the Gothic War, [D'Onofrio, 3rd chapter, "passim"] still exist between the Vatican and the Castle, where they bear the name of Passetto. This constitutes a covered passage, which could be used – and actually has been used several times - by the Pope as an escape route from his residence to the Castle in case of danger.
In the Middle Ages the quarter was not much populated, with sparse houses, some churches and a lot of vegetable gardens. There were also several
brickfurnaces, using the clay abundant in the Vatican and Gianicolohills. A small harbor, the "Porto Leonino", later used to deliver the travertineblocks needed to build the new Saint Peter's, existed south of the castle.
The pilgrims going to St. Peter's and coming from the left bank through Ponte Sant'Angelo, after entering a
gate(later named "Porta Castello") could walk through the "Borgo of the Saxons" (today's "Borgo S. Spirito") or the Porticus or "Portica" (named now "Porticus Sancti Petri"), which was still in place. [The first mention of the existence of the Portica in the Middle Ages comes from Procopius("De bello gothico", Ch. 22); the last from the anonymous author of the life of Cola di Rienzo] Those coming from Trasteverealong the route which would later become "Via della Lungara" used the "Porta Settimiana" (today's "Porta Santo Spirito"), [Borgatti, 15] and, finally, the pilgrims coming from the north ( monte Mario) following the " Via Francigena", entered through "Porta San Pellegrino" (also named "Viridaria" because of its vicinity to the Vatican Gardens).
During the first Jubilee, which took place in 1300 under
Boniface VIII, the Leonine City, as remembered by Dantein its Commedia [Inferno, XVIII,28-33:
"Come i Roman per l'essercito molto,"
"l'anno del giubileo, su per lo ponte"
"hanno a passar la gente modo colto,"
"che da l'un lato tutti hanno la fronte"
"verso 'l castello e vanno a Santo Pietro,"
"da l'altra sponda vanno verso 'l monte."
] was visited by an enormous number of pilgrims.
Avignon Papacythe Borgo, together with Rome, suffered decay. The Portica collapsed, and on its place was built the road of "Borgo Vecchio", [A proof that Borgo Vecchio was built where the Portica was is given by its width, which was constant almost everywhere with a value of 6.90 m. Borgatti, 61] also named "Carriera Martyrum" after the martyrs going to death in the Circus of Nero. During that time only Borgo S. Spirito and "Borgo Vecchio" allowed to reach Saint Peter's from the left bank.
The recovery began with the end of the
Western Schismand the beginning of the Renaissance. By that time, the center of gravity of Rome began to shift from the zone around Campidoglio, where medieval Rome had developed, to the Campo Marzioplain. At the same time, the Popes abandoned finally the Laterancomplex for the Vatican, which now became the new center of power in Rome. [Krautheimer, "Profile", 327 "passim"] The large amount of building activity and above all the rebuilding of Saint Peter, which was the ultimate result of this translocation, attracted several artists to the Borgo, while the renewed flood of pilgrims boosted commerce.
Under Nicholas V,
Bernardo Rossellinoplanned three diverging roads with arcades going to Saint Peter, but the Pontiff's death blocked the project. Sixtus IV opened a new road parallel to the Passetto, named after him "via Sistina" (later "Borgo Sant'Angelo").
Magnificent Buildings were built at the beginning of the XVI Century by high prelates and aristocrats. To enumerate a few: "Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila", designed by
Raphael; the "Palazzo Caprini" by Donato Bramante(a house which Raphael chose to buy, it later became part of the "Palazzo dei Convertendi" [The balcony of Palazzo dei Convertendi, designed by Carlo Fontana, was considered the most beautiful in Rome. Ceccarelli, 21] ); "Palazzo Castellesi", built by Cardinal Adriano Castellesi, [He came from Corneto, and was titular of the Basilica di San Clemente. Ceccarelli, 21] attributed to Andrea Bregnoor Bramante and a small-scale copy of the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and "Palazzo dei Penitenzieri", [This is its modern name. In that time it was named after its first owner, Cardinal Della Rovere. Ceccarelli, 21] the work of Baccio Pontelli. The last three "palazzi" faced a small square, ("Piazza del Cardinale di S. Clemente", later "Piazza Scossacavalli"), which became the most important in the Borgo. Also wealthy bourgeoises, such as "Febo Brigotti" and "Jacopo da Brescia", the doctors respectively of Paul IIIand Leo X, had their elegant houses build in the Borgo.
The Leonine City at that time was also renowned in Rome for its "stufe". These buildings, whose tradition came from
Germany(the name comes from the German word "stube"), were something between a Roman bath and a modern sauna, and were often attended by artists, who could freely sketch nudes there (Raffaello himself was owner of a "stufa" in Borgo, near his palace). [Ceccarelli, 8]
In order to solve the traffic problem, a new road, the "Via Alexandrina" or "Recta", later named "Borgo Nuovo", was opened during the Jubilee of 1500 by Pope
Alexander VI Borgia. [Giovanni Burcardo ( Johannes Burckardtfrom Strassburg, Master of Ceremoniesof the Pope), records thus the opening of the new road in his diary ("Liber Notarum"): "Hodie peracto prandio completa est ruptura vie nove recta a parte Castri Santi Angeli ad portam Palatii Apostolici". Ceccarelli, 6] It should be noted, that after the creation of "Borgo Nuovo" to the north of the already existing road of "Borgo Vecchio", the row of houses between these two roads formed the so called "spina" (named thus on account of its similarity to the dividing line of a Roman Circus). At about its middle, the spina was interrupted by a small square, called "Piazza Scossacavalli". A recurrent theme of Roman city planning, were the various projects contemplating the demolition of the spina: starting with, that of Carlo Fontana in the late 17th century; and ending, in 1936, when, under Mussoliniand Pius XI, this task was finally accomplished.
The golden Age of the Borgo reached its apogee during the reign of the two Florentine Popes,
Leo Xand Clement VII, both Medicis. Under the latter, the quarter had a population of 4,926 inhabitants, almost all bachelors and non-Roman. Nine out of the twenty five Cardinals belonging to the Curia, each of whom maintained a court comprising hundreds of people, were living here. [Ceccarelli, 8] The most important artists (such as Raphael) took or built their houses in the Borgo. The only important female presence was that of the so called "Cortigiane", decent prostitutes, who were the lovers of high prelates and noblemen. [ The most famous "cortigiane" living in Rome in those years were "Fiammetta" (lover of Cesare Borgia), "Giulia Campana", "Penelope" and (some years later) "Tullia d'Aragona". The "House of Fiammetta" can still be seen near "Via de' Coronari", in Ponte. [http://www.romasegreta.it/ponte/s.agostino.htm Roma segreta] ]
All this came to an abrupt end on May 6, 1527, when the soldiers of Charles V entered the Leonine City and mercilessly plundered it, so starting the Sack of Rome. Clement VII barely escaped capture, running through the Passetto in his night dress and locking himself within Castel S. Angelo, while all the
Swiss Guards, except those defending his escape, were killed near the obelisk.
Despite this disaster, the quarter was able to recover quite quickly. Paul III restored the walls, erecting three new ramparts and the still unfinished "Porta Santo Spirito" (the work of
Antonio da Sangallo the younger).The Borgo continued to growth to such an extent, that in 1565 Pius IVstarted the construction of three new roads, all north of the Passetto, named respectively "Borgo Pio" (after himself), "Borgo Vittorio" (after the victory of Lepanto) and "Borgo Angelico" (after "Angelo" his own first name prior to his election). [Ceccarelli, 9] In order to boost the new settlement, he gave tax privileges to the Romans who choose to build their houses here. New Walls, and a new monumental gate ("Porta Angelica"), were built to protect the new area, which in honor of the Pope was named "Civitas Pia".Pius IV also demolished several old churches and monasteries: Among these, in 1564, the old Church of " Santa Maria in Traspontina", ["Traspontina" means "beyond the Bridge", which in this case is Ponte Sant'Angelo] which lies directly next to the Castle. A new church bearing the same name was built in 1587 in the middle of Borgo Nuovo.
XIV Rione of Rome
On December 9, 1586 (the year when
Domenico Fontanaerected in Saint Peter's Square the obeliskonce standing in the Circus of Nero), Pope Sixtus V declared Borgo the fourteenth Rione of the city. [Ceccarelli, 10] Its Coat of Armsrepresents a Lion (representing the Leonine City), and three Mounts and a Star (taken from the coat of arms of Pope Sixtus). [In a first version of the coat of Arms, the Lion protected a treasure chest, alluding to the three millions golden "scudi" which the Pope accumulated in the Castle San Angelo. The coat of Arms bore the motto"Vigilat sacri thesauri custos". Baronio, 2]
At the beginning of the 17th Century
Pope Paul Vrestored the Aqua Traiana, an ancient Roman Aqueduct, and had several fountains built in the Rione (among them, that designed by Carlo Madernoin "Piazza Scossacavalli", [Baronio, 10] now placed in front of the church of Sant'Andrea della Valle). Pope Alexander VII, after the completion of the beautiful colonnade designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (built between 1656 and 1665), [Krautheimer, "Alexander VII", Ch. IV "passim"] ordered the demolition of the first block in front of it. [ The block ("Isola" in Italian) was named "Isola del Priorato" after the Priorship of Malta, held by the Knights of St. John Hospitaller.] He created so the "Piazza Rusticucci", the vestibule to Saint Peter's Square. Among the other buildings, which then went lost, there was Palazzo Branconio.
During the 18th and the early 19th centuries the Borgo continued its peaceful existence, and kept its characteristics. The bourgeoises abandoned the rione for the new settlements in Campo Marzio, and Borgo became a quarter inhabited by simple people (artisans or workers at the Vatican), very devoted yet always open to new ideas, and men of the church, who appreciated the vicinity to the Holy See.
Many sellers of religious goods, named "Paternostrari" or "Coronari" (
rosarymakers) had their shops here. At the edge of the quarter, in "Vicolo degli ombrellari", a small lane near Borgo Pio, were the shops of the Roman umbrellamakers, gathered there because of the bad smell coming from the oiled silk. In Borgo Vecchio several small foundries were active, where artistic objects made of bronze were cast. Particularly characteristic was the making of bells: the last foundry, located in "Vicolo del Farinone", closed around 1995, after an activity lasted about 450 years. [ [http://www.lignarius.net/3/romartig.htm Roma artigiana] ] In the Borgo were also located many famous osterie, where Romans and pilgrims could eat and drink wine. [The pilgrims could recognize an "hostaria" because of the coloured pennon bearing its sign. The most famous during the renaissance were those named "all'elmo", "al sole" (whose innkeeper was Vannozza dei Cattanei, mistress of Alexander VI), "all'angelo", "del bordone", "della donzella". During the XIX Century, the most popular were those named "della vecchietta", "alla rosetta", "alla fontanella", "al lepretto", "della sirena", "del moccio". Ceccarelli, 3]
Another profession peculiar to the men of the Borgo was that of
headsman("boia"). In fact, the executioner was forbidden to live on the left bank, and even to go there ("Boia non passa Ponte", in English: "the headsman cannot cross the bridge", was a Roman proverb), but had to stay in the Leonine City. [The most famous headsman of papal Rome is "Giovanni Battista Bugatti", nicknamed "Mastro Titta", who took up his second profession (officially he was an umbrella painter) in 1796, and cut his last head in 1864. He executed, all in all, 516 persons. His house was in Borgo Nuovo. [http://mp_pollett.tripod.com/romac12i.htm Curiosità romane] ]
The most important yearly event for the rione was the spectacular
processionof Corpus Domini, which started and finished in Saint Peter's, and was led by the Pope himself together with the Cardinal Dean, during which each building was dressed with flags and standards.
Things began to change again for the Borgo during the French occupation under
Napoleon. The Préfetof Rome, Camille de Tournon, started the demolition of the spina, but the project had to be interrupted shortly after it began due to a lack of funds.
During the Italian
Risorgimentothe Borgo, together with Trastevere and Monti, was one of the quarters of Rome where public opinion supported with great enthusiasm the struggle for Italian independence. When, shortly after the September 20, 1870 the Italians offered the Pope full sovereignty over the Leonine City with all its inhabitants, this caused violent demontrations in the Borgo. Luckily, this offer was refused by Pius IX, who preferred to declare himself a prisoner of the Italian State and seclude himself in the vatican complex.
After 1870, the walls of Pius IV which bordered the Rione to the N, were pulled down, together with the Porta Angelica, to ease communication with the new Rione of Prati.Between 1886 and 1911 a new Bridge, "Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II", located slightly North of the ruins of Nero's Bridge, connected the new avenue of "Corso Vittorio Emanuele" with Borgo.
1936-1950: the Destruction of the "Spina"
This situation changed forever in 1936. In that year the project of the demolition of the spina, by the Roman architects
Marcello Piacentiniand Attilio Spaccarelli, was approved by Mussolini and Pius XI and put in execution. An agreement between the two leaders had been possible because of the new climate of collaboration between the State and the Church, which followed the signing of the Lateran Treaties("La Conciliazione" in Italian) in 1929.On October 23, 1936 (the day after the anniversary of the March on Rome), the Ducehimself, standing on a roof, gave the first stroke of the pickaxe. On October 8, 1937 (less than one year later), the "spina" had ceased to exist, and Saint Peter was freely visible from Castel Sant'Angelo. [Ceccarelli, 28]
World War II, the work was interrupted. In the aftermath of the war, although the political and cultural Climate has changed, the government and the Vatican decided to finish the project. Two Propylaea were built in front of Saint Peter's Square (inside that on the south side was enclosed the ancient church [Borgatti, 64] of "San Lorenzo in piscibus"), and two others at the beginning of the road. The road was finished in time for the Jubilee of 1950, by putting along it two rows of obelisks (which the Romans quickly christened "the suppositories").
The result was that almost all the houses of the Rione south of the Passetto were demolished, and a new Grand Avenue, "
Via della Conciliazione" (so named after the Treaty of 1929 between Italy and the Holy See), emerged. A few major buildings (Santa Maria in Traspontina, Palazzo Torlonia, Palazzo dei Penitenzieri) were spared because they were more or less on axis with the new road. structures belonging to Palazzo Caprini. Ceccarelli, 21] and the "houses of Febo Brigotti" and "Jacopo da Brescia", whose façades were assembled again on the new "Via dei Corridori"), or (like the small churches of "San Giacomo a Scossacavalli" and "Sant'Angelo ai Corridori", built respectively on Piazza Scossacavalli and along the Passetto) simply demolished and never rebuilt. [Cambedda, 22]
Besides a few drawings, [In the book of Ceccarelli there are beautiful drawings and surveys of the "spina", by Lucilio Cartocci] no scientific documentation of the old quarter was taken. Most of the inhabitants, whose families have been living and working in Borgo since centuries, were deported to the outskirts in the middle of the Campagna, as
Acilia. That happened because no new apartment houses were built, but only offices, mainly used by the Vatican.
Judgement about the whole undertaking, controversial since the beginning, appears now to be largely negative. In fact, besides the destruction of many ancient edifices and, above all, of a whole social tissue, what was lost forever was the "surprise" (typical of the
Baroque), which everyone experienced when, at the very end of the narrow and dark lanes of the Borgo, the huge Piazza and Basilica suddenly appeared. Now, instead, Saint Peter's appears in the distance, flattened as in a postcard, and the sense of perspective gets lost as well.
During the nineteen thirties extensive demolition affected also the NW part of the rione ("Via di Porta Angelica" e "Via del Mascherino"). These were officially undertaken in order to better define the border between Italy and the new State of the Vatican City.
Since 1950, the remaining "Borghiciani" (the name by which the inhabitants of the Borgo are called in Roman dialect), live north of the Passetto, where the quarter retained until recent times its popular character. Several high prelates live there: among them,
Pope Benedict XVIwho had been living in Borgo Pio for more than twenty years before his election to the Papacy. [In the days after the election, a banner was hung on the façade of Santa Maria in Traspontina. It contained the following sentence in Roman dialect: "Auguri ar Papa borghiciano, nostro parrocchiano" (English: "Greetings to the Pope from Borgo, our parishioner")]
South of the Passetto the quarter shows quite another face: there only now exist, some offices (mainly belonging to the Vatican), an
Auditorium, and the huge complex of the Hospital of Santo Spirito, which after more than 800 years continues its mission. The only link with the past are the souvenir shops which stand on Via della Conciliazione.
Two major events hit the Borgo during the last years. In 2000, the Jubilee caused an invasion of pilgrims and a real estate boom. Several apartments became residences for tourists, while many artisans were forced to leave the rione, and their workrooms were transformed into fast food and souvenir stores.
In 2005, during the weeks between the death of
Pope John Paul IIand the election of Benedict XVI, the rione could bravely stand the impact of millions of pilgrims coming to Rome to give homage to the dead Pontiff.
Noteworthy things in the Rione
* piazza Scossacavalli (destroyed in 1937)
Via della Conciliazione
Vicolo del Campanile
Borgo Santo Spirito
Hospital of Santo Spirito
Palazzo dei Penitenzieri
* Palazzo dei Convertendi
* Palazzo Cesi
* Palazzo Rusticucci
* Palazzo Alicorni
* Palazzo del Commendatore
Santa Maria in Traspontina[http://romanchurches.wikia.com/wiki/Santa_Maria_in_Traspontina]
Santo Spirito in Sassia
San Lorenzo in Piscibus(deconsecrated)
Santi Michele e Magno
San Giacomo a Scossacavalli(destroyed in 1937)
Sant'Angelo ai Corridori(destroyed in 1940)
Porta Santo Spirito
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II
* Passetto (er "Coridore")
* Fountain of the cannonballs, work of
title=Descrizione di Roma moderna
publisher=M.A. and P.A. De Rossi, Roma
title=La portica di S. Pietro ossia Borgo nell’Età di Mezzo
title=Borgo e S. Pietro nel 1300 - 1600 - 1925
publisher=Federico Pustet, Roma
author=Ceccarelli, Giuseppe (Ceccarius)
title=La "Spina" dei Borghi
title=Castel Sant'Angelo e Borgo tra Roma e Papato
publisher=Romana Società Editrice, Roma
title=Rome: Profile of a City, 312-1308
publisher=Princeton University Press, Princeton
title=The Rome of Alexander VII, 1655-1667
publisher=Princeton University Press, Princeton
title=La demolizione della Spina dei Borghi
publisher=Fratelli Palombi Editori, Roma
title=Borgo (Vol. I-V).Guide rionali di Roma
publisher=Fratelli Palombi Editori, Roma
title=Rome and Environs: An Archaeological Guide
publisher=University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=41.904066,12.461629&spn=0.009315,0.018672&t=k&hl=en Borgo at Google Maps]
* [http://www.romeartlover.it/Riborgo.html Artistic Guide of Borgo (from romeartlover.it, in English)]
* [http://www.romasegreta.it/borgo/borgo.htm Rione Borgo (from romasegreta.it, in Italian)]
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