Criticism of the Latter Day Saint movement

Criticism of the Latter Day Saint movement encompasses criticism of the doctrines, practices, and histories of the denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement, including the largest denomination, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

The movement has been the subject of criticism since its early years due to the doctrines taught by Joseph Smith, Jr., the movement's founder. Early criticism culminated in the 1838 Mormon War in Missouri. After Mormons were forced to leave Missouri due to the Mormon extermination order issued by Governor Boggs, [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Extermination_Order_%28Mormonism%29] they relocated to Illinois where a mob, fearing a Mormon takeover, murdered Joseph Smith in 1844. [Marvin S. Hill, "Carthage Conspiracy Reconsidered: A Second Look at the Murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith" Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society Summer 2004 [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3945/is_200407/ai_n9408752/pg_1] ] After Smith's death, the Succession Crisis ensued, and various movement denominations struggled for leadership levying criticisms against each prospective leader primarily regarding authority or doctrine.cite web
title = The Succession Crisis of 1844
author = Michael D. Quinn
url = http://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/pdfSRC/16.2Quinn.pdf
format = pdf
accessdate = 2008-02-21
] In the late 1800s, critics disapproved of the LDS Church's practice of polygamy. Federal legislators actively began passing laws designed to weaken the church.

Throughout the history of the movement, critics have questioned the legitimacy of Smith as a prophet and the historicity of the Book of Mormon and the Pearl of Great Price. In modern times, criticism focuses on claims of historical revisionism, homophobia, racism [ "Skin Color in Mormon Scripture and Theology" http://irr.org/mit/pdfs/Skin-Color-&-LDS-Church.pdf] , sexist policies, and inadequate financial disclosure.

Notable 20th century critics include Jerald and Sandra Tanner, who published " [http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/changecontents.htm The Changing World of Mormonism] ", and Fawn Brodie, who published the first comprehensive biography of Joseph Smith, "No Man Knows My History". In recent years, the internet has provided a new forum for critics, including sites such as " [http://exmormon.org Exmormon.org] ". [cite news
title = Religion Journal; Spiritual Issues Lead Many to the Net
author = Mindy Sink
publisher = New York Times
date = September 6, 2003
url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B04E3DB1F38F935A3575AC0A9659C8B63
accessdate = 2008-02-21
]

Notable apologists include Hugh Nibley, B.H. Roberts, the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), and the Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research (FAIR).

Movement-wide criticisms

Criticism of sacred texts

Book of Mormon

Archaeology

The Book of Mormon contains an account of peoples who, in succeeding groups between 2500 BC [Sacred Sites: Searching for Book of Mormon Lands. by Joseph L. Allen Published: October 2003 p.8] and 600 BC, traveled from the Middle East and settled in the Americas. Evangelical lecturer and journalist Richard Abanes and author David Persuitte argue that aspects of the Book of Mormon narrative (such as the existence of horses, steel, and chariots in pre-Columbian America) are not supported by mainstream archaeology. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=74-77] [cite book
title=Having Visions: The Book of Mormon : Translated and Exposed in Plain English
last=Wolverton|first=Susan
year=2004
pages=84-85
publisher=Algora
isbn=0875863108
] [Harvnb|Persuitte|2000|pp=102] Apologist Michael R. Ash, of FAIR, counters that obtaining archaeological evidence to prove or disprove specific ancient events is difficult.Ash, Michael R. "Archaeological Evidence and the Book of Mormon". www.fairlds.org. [http://www.fairlds.org/Book_of_Mormon/Archaeological_Evidence_and_the_Book_of_Mormon.html] . Accessed 7 December 2007.] Dr. Joseph Allen along with other LDS scholars have found sites in Meso-America that they believe may represent ancient Book of Mormon cities [Sacred Sites: Searching for Book of Mormon Lands. by Joseph L. Allen Published: October 2003] . John L. Sorenson does not dispute that other peoples may have been present in the Americas concurrent with Book of Mormon peoples (see Limited geography model). [John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and F.A.R.M.S., 1985).]

Genetics

A traditional Mormon hypothesis of the origin of Native Americans is that they are descended soley from Hebrews in Jerusalem. Scientist Yaakov Kleiman, Mormon anthropologist Thomas W. Murphy, and ex-Mormon molecular biologist Simon G. Southerton argue that this hypothesis is inconsistent with recent genetic findings, [cite book
title=DNA and Tradition: The Genetic Link to the Ancient Hebrews
year=2004
isbn=1932687130
first=Yaakov
last=Kleiman
publisher=Devora
pages=88
] [cite book
title=Losing a Lost Tribe: Native Americans, DNA, and the Mormon Church
year=2004
isbn=1560851813
first=Simon G.
last=Southerton
publisher=Signature Books
] [Murphy, Thomas W. " [http://mormonscripturestudies.com/bomor/twm/lamgen.asp Lamanite Genesis, Genealogy, and Genetics] ." In Vogel, Dan and Brent Metcalfe, eds. "American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon" Salt Lake City: Signature, 2002: 47-77. ISBN 1-56085-151-1] which show the genetic origins of Native Americans to be in Asia, possibly near the Altay Mountains. FARMS counters that testing and drawing generalizations from this hypothesis alone is an overly simplistic approach, and that the resulting conclusions would not stand up under peer review. [Whiting, Michael F (2003), [http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/display.php?table=jbms&id=311 DNA and the Book of Mormon: A Phylogenetic Perspective] , Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, at 24–35.] In addition, the traditional Mormon hypothesis under test may itself be based on assumptions unsupported by the Book of Mormon narrative (see Limited geography model).

In an in depth review, David A. McClellan concludes it is not probable that "the genetic signature of a small migrating family from 2,600 years ago" can be recovered. [McClellan, David A., [http://farms.byu.edu/display.php?table=review&id=504] , Detecting Lehi's Genetic Signature: Possible, Probable, or Not? Farms Review, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pp. 35–90, Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, 2003.]

Linguistics

Critics Jerald and Sandra Tanner and Marvin W. Cowan contend that the Book of Mormon's use of certain linguistic anachronisms (such as the Americanized name "Sam" [1 Nephi 2:5,17] and the French word "adieu" [Jacob 7:27] ) provide evidence that the book was fabricated by Joseph Smith, rather than divinely inspired. [cite book
title=The New Mormon Challenge
publisher=Zondervan
year=2002
isbn=0310231949
first=Francis|last=Beckwith
page=367-396
] [cite book
title=Mormon Claims Answered
publisher=
year=1997
isbn=
first=Marvin|last=Cowan
page=
] In addition, Richard Abanes argues that because the first edition of the Book of Mormon contained hundreds of grammatical errors (removed in later editions), the book was therefore fabricated by J. Smith and not divinely inspired. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=73]

Plagiarism

Abanes, the Tanners, et al. claim that Joseph Smith plagiarized the Book of Mormon, and that it is therefore not divinely inspired. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=67-75] [Harvnb|Tanner|1987|pp=84-85] [Harvnb|Persuitte|2000|pp=155-172] Alleged sources include "View of the Hebrews" by Ethan Smith (published 1823, seven years before the Book of Mormon); "The Wonders of Nature" by Josiah Priest (published in 1825, five years before the Book of Mormon); The Bible; and the Apocrypha. LDS church authorities Bruce R. McConkie and Spencer W. Kimball counter that repetition from previous texts validates the Book of Mormon because it shows God's consistency and equal revelation to all peoples and fulfills prophecy. Moreover, they argue that warnings need be repeated in the face of ageless problems. [McConkie, B.R. (1966). Mormon Doctrine. Deseret Book: Salt Lake City.] [Kimball, S.W. (Apr., 1976). Ensign, p. 6] [Kimball, S.W. (1981). President Kimball Speaks Out, p. 89.]

Credibility of witnesses

A set of three and eight witnesses testified as having seen the golden plates, the record from which the Book of Mormon was translated. Critics, including Jerald and Sandra Tanner, and the Institute for Religious Research note several pieces of evidence that they argue call into question the authenticity of the experience, including letters and affidavits in which Martin Harris stated that the Eight Witnesses never saw the plates, and that his own witness was more spiritual than physical. Additionally, each of the Three Witnesses (Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery, and David Whitmer) left the church during Joseph Smith's lifetime and considered Smith to have been a fallen prophet. Harris [Millennial Star, 6 Feb. 1882, p. 87] and Cowdery [ [http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/display.php?table=transcripts&id=50#Anchor-58442 The Return of Oliver Cowdery - Maxwell Institute Papers ] ] later returned to the church. However, the Institute for Religious Research disputes the sincerity of their conversion and return. [ [http://www.irr.org/mit/bomwit1.html Facts on the Book of Mormon Witnesses - Part 1: credibility and relevancy of witnesses to the Book of Mormon ] ]

Apologists note that the witnesses in most cases affirmed their witness until their death, and claim that the aforementioned affidavits and letters are either fraudulent, or otherwise not reliable. In 1881 Whitmer, the one witness who never returned to the church, issued an affidavit reaffirming his testimony of the experience. ["An Address," 27, in "EMD", 5: 194.]

Book of Abraham

The Institute for Religious Research and the Tanners claim that Joseph Smith fraudulently represented the Book of Abraham, part of the church's scriptural canon, as a divine document. [cite book
title=His Own Hand Upon Papyrus: A New Look at the Joseph Smith Papyri
isbn=0802412343
first=Charles M.| last=Larson
publisher=Institute for Religious Research
year=1992
] [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=329-363] Richard and Joan Ostling note that non-LDS scholars have concluded that translations of surviving papyri which they believe are portions of the source of the Book of Abraham are unrelated to the content of the book's text. [Ostling, Richard and Joan "Mormon America", pp.278-85] Joseph Smith states he came into the possession of several Egyptian papyri, from which he claimed to translate the Book of Abraham, [Joseph Smith stated in his History of the Church, "...with W.W. Phelps and Oliver Cowdery as scribes, I commenced the translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics, and much to our joy found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Joseph of Egypt, etc. — a more full account of which will appear in its place, as I proceed to examine or unfold them..." History of the Church, Vol. 2, Ch. 17, p. 236.] [Smith additionally stated that he, "...was continually engaged in translating an alphabet to the Book of Abraham, and arranging a grammar of the Egyptian language as practiced by the ancients."History of the Church, Vol. 2, Ch. 17, p. 238] part of the modern Pearl of Great Price. The papyri were lost for many years, but in the late 1960s, portions of the papyri were discovered. The extant papyri, as well as the facsimiles preserved by Smith in the Pearl of Great Price, have been translated by modern Egyptologists, and have been conclusively shown to be common Egyptian funerary documents unrelated to the content of the Book of Abraham. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=329-362] Mormon scholars Michael D. Rhodes and John Gee came to the same conclusion, but argue that Smith may have been using the papyri as inspiration. [Michael D. Rhodes and John Gee, "Interview on KSL Radio on January 29, 2006" and Michael D. Rhodes, "The Ensign", July 1988, pp. 52-53.]

Criticisms of Joseph Smith

Critics allege that Joseph Smith invented Mormonism in order to gain money, women, and power.cite book
title=The History of the Saints: Or An Exposé of Joe Smith and Mormonism
publisher=University of Illinois Press
year=2000
pages=40-49, 72-78, 155-171
first=John C.|last=Bennett
isbn=025202589X
] [Harvnb|Brodie|1995] Page numbercite book
title=Revelation Plain And Simple
publisher=Xulon Press
year=2006
pages=494
first=Jonathan|last=MacKinney
isbn=1600342809
] [http://www.bibletopics.com/biblestudy/162-4.htm Joseph Smith And Money-digging; Oliver Cowdery And Divining Rods ] ] cite web
url=http://www.slate.com/id/2155902
accessdate=2007-12-04
title=Weisberg, Jacob: article in Slate
] [Harvnb|Brodie|1995]

Allegations of Smith's Slander of Women Who Refused Plural Marriage

Joseph Smith has been critcized for slandering the reputations of women who refused to become his polygamous wives.Published allegations of adultery against Sarah Pratt and Bennett appeared in local and church publications ["Nauvoo Wasp" 1 [October 15, 1842] : 2] with signed affidavits from her neighbors Stephen and Zeruiah Goddard and others. Dr. Robert D. Foster made the following allegation against Bennett and Pratt: cquote|Alas, none but the seduced join the seducer [Dr. Bennett] ; those only who have been arraigned before a just tribunal for the same unhallowed conduct can be found to give countenance to any of his black hearted lies, and they, too, detest him for his seduction, these are the ladies to whom he refers his hearers to substantiate his assertions. Mrs. White, Mrs. Pratt, Niemans, Miller, Brotherton, and others. ["Nauvoo Wasp" 1 [October 15, 1842] : 2] Pratt later claimed that Zeruiah Goddard told her these testimonies were made under threat from Joseph's brother Hyrum Smith: cquote|It is not my fault; Hyrum Smith [Joseph's brother] came to our house, with the affidavits all written out, and forced us to sign them. Joseph and the Church must be saved, said he. We saw that resistance was useless, they would have ruined us; so we signed the papers. [Harvnb|Smith|1971, Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986] The author Richard S. Van Wagoner concluded that the adultery charges against Sarah Pratt are "highly improbable" and could "be dismissed as slander."Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986] In addition to Sarah Pratt, Van Wagoner states that Nancy Rigdon and Martha Brotherton, "also suffered slanderous attacks because they exposed the Church's private polygamy posture." [Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986|pp=76–77] Orson Pratt stood by his wife Sarah in preference to the denials of Smith, who told his disciple Orson that "If [Orson] did believe his wife and follow her suggestions he would go to hell". [Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986|pp=77] Wilford Woodruff stated that "Dr. John Cook Bennett was the ruin of Orson Pratt". [Watson, E.J. (1975) "The Orson Pratt Journals", Salt Lake City: 180] Van Wagoner and Walker note that, on August 20, 1842, "after four days of fruitless efforts at reconciliation, the Twelve excommunicated Pratt for 'insubordination' and Sarah for 'adultery'". [Van Wagoner, R.S. & Walker, S.C. (1982) "A Book of Mormons", Salt Lake City: Signature Books ISBN 0-941214-06-0, at 212]

Sidney Rigdon wrote a letter to the "Messenger and Advocate" in 1844 condemning the church's Quorum of the Twelve and their alleged connection to polygamy, cquote|It is a fact so well known that the Twelve and their adherents have endeavored to carry on this spiritual wife business … and have gone to the most shameful and desperate lengths to keep from the public. First, insulting innocent females, and when they resented the insult, these monsters in human shape would assail their characters by lying, and perjuries, with a multitude of desperate men to help them effect the ruin of those whom they insulted, and all this to enable them to keep these corrupt practices from the world.Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986|pp=83]

Allegations that Smith Allowed Abortions for Plural Wives

Smith was accused by Sarah Pratt in an 1886 interview with "vitriolic anti-Mormon journalist W. Wyl" [ [http://farms.byu.edu/display.php?table=review&id=290 "The Prophet Joseph Smith and His Plural Wives"] , Anderson, R.L. & Faulring, S.H., FARMS Review of Books 10:2] of allowing John C. Bennett, a medical doctor, to perform abortions on polygamous wives who were officially single, which she alleged limited Smith's progeny from these wives.Harvnb|Smith|1971|pp=113 [http://books.google.com/books?id=BWM7yHuIyAUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Saintly+Scoundrel:+The+Life+and+Times+of+Dr.+John+Cook+Bennett&sig=ACfU3U0tTatRfP_jwPSfVULPEv2XP-8lBw#PPA113,M1 link] ] She based this on statements made to her by Bennett. [ [http://olivercowdery.com/smithhome/1886WWyl.htm#pg060a "JOSEPH SMITH THE PROPHET: HIS FAMILY AND HIS FRIENDS"] , copy of Wilhelm Ritter von Wymetal's 1886 book] Harvnb|Wymetal|1886|pp=60–61 [http://olivercowdery.com/smithhome/1886WWyl.htm#pg061a link] ] Orson Pratt, Sarah Pratt's husband, considered Bennett a liar cquote|J.C. Bennett has published lies concerning myself & family & the people with which I am connected....His book I have read with the greatest disgust. No candid honest man can or will believe it. He has disgraced himself in eyes of all civilized society who will despise his very name," [Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986] whereas Sarah Pratt herself said, " [I] know that the principle statements in John C. Bennett's book on Mormonism are true," [Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986|pp=83]

Different accounts of the First Vision

Richard Abanes and the Tanners note that ten differing accounts of the First Vision have been recorded, which they claim contain contradictory information about what beings were present and what they said. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=14-18] [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=148-171] Grant H. Palmer points out evidence that Joseph Smith did not speak about the First Vision until a decade after it was said to have occurred.Palmer, Grant H. (2002), An Insider's View of Mormon Origins, Signature Books, ISBN 156085157: "The earliest allusion, oral or written, to the first vision is the brief mention that was transcribed in June 1830 and originally printed in the Book of Commandments." Palmer, 235.] Furthermore, the first published account came 22 years after it was said to have occurred, in 1842, shortly before Smith's death. Some of the accounts only mention a visitation by an angel, while others detail a visit by God the Father and Jesus Christ as separate beings, as in Smith's 1838 account, which Palmer notes is coincidental with a crisis which then developed around the Book of Mormon. The 1838 version is the account which is officially accepted by the LDS church. [In the Pearl of Great Price: Joseph Smith—History 1:16-17] The earliest known account written by Joseph Smith himself indicates a visitation by Jesus Christ, but does not mention God the Father. Other details of this account differ from the official version.Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=148-171]

Criticism that Prophecies of Joseph Smith have Failed

Abanes, the Tanners, and the Institute for Religious Research contend that Joseph Smith could not be a genuine prophet because certain statements he allegedly made that they interpret as prophecies did not come true.cite book
title=One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church
publisher=Thunder's Mouth Press
year=2003
isbn=1568582838
pages=461-467
first=Richard|last=Abanes
] [ [http://www.irr.org/mit/jsfalpro.html Failed Prophecies of Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith: Evidence Joseph a false prophet ] ] [cite web
url=http://www.utlm.org/onlineresources/falseprophecies.htm
title=UTLM list of failed J. Smith prophecies
accessDate=2007-12-11
] See Prophecies of Joseph Smith, Jr. for list of prophecies.

"Money Digging" activities

Dan Vogel claims that Joseph Smith's treasure hunting activities in his youth [Vogel, Dan (1994), "The Locations of Joseph Smith's Early Treasure Quests", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 27 (3): 197–231, [http://content.lib.utah.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/dialogue&CISOPTR=17325&CISOSHOW=17 195] ] (couched by critics as "money digging") lend support to the theory that he fabricated the Book of Mormon. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=67-91] Smith was employed to find treasure using a variety of methods, including scrying [Bushman, Richard Lyman. "Joseph Smith:Rough Stone Rolling". New York. 2006. pg. 131] and use of divining rods. In 1826, after a former business partner accused him of not coming through on a promise to find treasure, Smith was arrested, tried, and found guilty by a justice of the peace in Bainbridge, New York. [As detailed in The Salt Lake City Messenger, August, 1971. See also http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/changech4.htm]

The Encyclopedia of Mormonism asserts that treasure hunting and divining practices associated with it were common during the life of Joseph Smith; and that it was a necessary part of his development in discerning good from evil. [Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Vol.2, in the article "History of the Church" as quoted by Jeff Lindsay at http://www.jefflindsay.com/LDSFAQ/FQ_prophets.shtml#convict] Additionally, apologist Jeff Lindsay claims that the account of the arrest and conviction was either fabricated or mischaracterized in order to defame Smith. [ [http://www.jefflindsay.com/LDSFAQ/FQ_prophets.shtml#convict Mormon/LDS Answers: Questions about LDS Prophets and the Mormons ] ]

Kinderhook Plates

Critics, including Fawn Brodie, [Harvnb|Brodie|1995] the Tanners, and the Institute for Religious Research [ [http://www.irr.org/mit/kinderhook-plates.html Joseph Smith and the Kinderhook Plates: Overview and Current Perspectives ] ] call Smith's ability to translate into question by pointing to a hoax involving the Kinderhook plates, artifacts planted in 1843 in an Indian mound near Kinderhook, Illinois. Designed to appear ancient, the plates were a forgery created by certain men from Kinderhook who were hoping to trick their Mormon neighbors in Nauvoo. These critics cite the following statement to demonstrate that Smith attempted to translate the plates: page 372 of the History of the Church (DHC) reads: "I [Joseph Smith] have translated a portion of them, and find they contain the history of the person with whom they were found. He was a descendant of Ham, through the loins of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and that he received his kingdom from the Ruler of heaven and earth". [DHC 5:372]

Diane Wirth argues that the relevant portion of the History of the Church may have been ghost-written by William Clayton, Smith's scribe, despite being in Smith's voice, and cannot be fully attributed to Smith. [Diane Wirth, writing in Review of Books on the Book of Mormon (4: 210), discredits the DHC account by writing: “Joseph Smith’s supposed statement that the Kinderhook plates were authentic and that they were the ‘records of the descendants of Ham,’ came from the journal of William Clayton, who wrote in the first person, as though from the mouth of Joseph Smith. A first-person narrative was apparently a common practice of this time period when a biographical work was being compiled. Since such words were never penned by the Prophet, they cannot be uncritically accepted as his words or his opinion.”]

Criticisms related to Christianity

Mormonism claimed to be a cult

Richard Abanes and Walter Martin refer to Mormonism as a cult. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=391-399] [cite book
page=193-260
year=2003
isbn=0764228218
publisher=Bethany House
first=Walter Ralston|last=Martin
title=Kingdom of the Cults
] Abanes claims the church employs what he defines as cult-like practices, such as an "us vs. them" mentality; authoritarian leadership; expulsion of dissenters; rigid controls over personal life; dismissal of all criticisms as persecution; withholding information contrary to church teachings; and deceptive recruitment techniques. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=391-399] Martin cites the Mountain Meadows massacre as evidence the church is a cult. [cite book
page=205-206
year=2003
isbn=0764228218
publisher=Bethany House
first=Walter Ralston |last=Martin
title=Kingdom of the Cults
]

Kim Siever with FAIR argues that critics use subjective definitions of the term "cult"cite web |url=http://www.fairlds.org/pubs/LDSCult.pdf |title=Is Mormonism a Cult? |accessdate=2008-03-11 |format=PDF |work=FAIR Publications ] and that "many, if not all objective cult definitions" could be applied to Christianity as a whole, not just Mormonism, depending on how one approached the subject. Gene Sessions with FAIR acknowledges that the Mountain Meadows Massacre was "cold-blooded murder of innocent people" with "no justification" but argues that it does not reflect on the church as a whole but instead "was a bad decision made by local leaders." [cite web |url=http://www.fairlds.org/FAIR_Conferences/2003_Shining_New_Light_on_the_Mountain_Meadows_Massacre.html |title=Shining New Light on the Mountain Meadows Massacre |accessdate=2008-03-13 |accessmonthday= |accessdaymonth= |accessyear= |author= |last=Sessions |first=Gene |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format= |work= |publisher= |pages= |language= |doi= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=...looking at incriminating statements, corroborating those incriminating statements the participants made for years afterwards, looking at other evidence that is incontrovertible--this was a bad decision made by local leaders. One bad decision followed by another. ] One recent Pew Research poll shows 52 percent of Americans say Mormonism is a Christian religion. Among non-Mormon Christians polled, only 57 respondents out of 1,461, or 3.9%, associated Mormonism with the word "cult." [Pew Research Center, [http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=358 "Public Expresses Mixed Views of Islam, Mormonism"] , 2007-09-25.] ["Poll: Americans More Negative on Islam". The Associated Press, 25 September 2007. Pulled from Google News. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-09-25-2828128831_x.htm.]

Bible corrupted and incomplete

The Institute for Religious Research argues that Mormonism is not a legitimate Christian faith, because it incorporates other sacred texts in addition to the Old Testament and New Testament. [cite web
url=http://www.irr.org/mit/bompage.html
title=Mormons in Transition site about Book of Mormon
accessDate=2007-12-12
] They also claim that Mormons treat the Bible as incomplete and inaccurate, [cite web
url=http://www.irr.org/mit/Is-Mormonism-Christian.html
title=Mormons in Transition site about Mormonism and Christianity
accessDate=2007-12-12
] citing the fact that Joseph Smith called the Bible "corrupted" and produced his own version of the King James Bible, altering several thousand verses. [cite book
title=Having Visions: The Book of Mormon : Translated and Exposed in Plain English
last=Wolverton|first=Susan
year=2004
pages=51-53
publisher=Algora
isbn=0875863108
] The Latter Day Saints believe that the Book of Mormon, the Pearl of Great Price and the Doctrine and Covenants are sacred texts with the same divine authority as the Bible. Mormons also believe that current and past leaders of their denominations are prophets,Fact|date=February 2008 and that their prophecies are the word of God.Fact|date=February 2008

Authority

Mormonism Research Ministry claims that Mormons are wrong to deny the priestly authority of other Christian denominations. [cite web
url=http://www.mrm.org/topics/rebuttals-rejoinders/response-latter-day-saints-who-say-we-never-criticize-christian-churches
title=Mormon Research Ministries article on authority
accessDate=2007-12-09
] Joseph Smith claimed that other Christian denominations do not have authority to act in God's name because of apostasy, which the church teaches occurred not long after the deaths of the original apostles, and that this was prophesied in the Bible (see sourcetext|source=Bible|version=King James|book=2 Thessalonians|chapter=2|verse=3 and Great Apostasy). To demonstrate that "Mormons leaders have long criticized Christians, and oftentimes very harshly," MRM citesFact|date=March 2008 comments like those by church leader Bruce R. McConkie who wrote, "The gods of Christendom, for instance, are gods who were created by men in the creeds of an apostate people. There is little profit or peace in serving them, and certainly there is no salvation available through them." ["A New Witness for the Articles of Faith" by Bruce McConkie, pg.545]

Nature of God

:"Main article:" Nature of God

The Trinity

Mormons have been criticized for adopting an interpretation of the Trinity that is not recognized by most other Christian faithscite web|url=http://www.carm.org/lds/compare.htm|accessdate=2006-06-18|title=A Comparison Between Christian Doctrine and Mormon Doctrine] cite book
title=The New Mormon Challenge
publisher=Zondervan
year=2002
isbn=0310231949
first=Francis|last=Beckwith
page=268-333
]
and claim that Mormons believe that God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are three different beings united in purpose, love, and perfection (See Godhead (Latter Day Saints).) In contrast, Trinitarian theology teaches that God is one eternal spirit subsisting in three aspects

God is flesh-and blood and was once a man

:"Main article:" Plan of Salvation
Richard Abanes. the Tanners, Susan Wolverton, and CARM criticize the church because they claim it believes god(s) are an exalted man with a body of flesh and bone [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=382] [cite book
title=Having Visions: The Book of Mormon : Translated and Exposed in Plain English
last=Wolverton|first=Susan
year=2004
pages=106
publisher=Algora
isbn=0875863108
] cite web|title=UTLM|url=http://www.utlm.org/onlineresources/ldsviewcontradictsbible.htm] cite web|url=http://www.carm.org/lds/compare.htm|accessdate=2006-06-18|title=A Comparison Between Christian Doctrine and Mormon Doctrine] (citing "Doctrine and Covenants" 130:22, and citing "The Mormon Doctrine of Deity" by B. H. Roberts) which they claim is contrary to Christian doctrine.
Richard Abanes, the Tanners, and CARM criticize the church because they claim it believes God was once as we are now [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=382] cite web|title=UTLM|url=http://www.utlm.org/onlineresources/ldsviewcontradictsbible.htm] cite web|url=http://www.carm.org/lds/compare.htm|accessdate=2006-06-18|title=A Comparison Between Christian Doctrine and Mormon Doctrine] (citing "Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith", p. 345) which they claim is contrary to Christian doctrine.

alvation requires obedience

Richard Abanes and CARM criticize the church because they claim it believes that salvation can be obtained only by those who obey all of god's laws [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=382] cite web|url=http://www.carm.org/lds/compare.htm|accessdate=2006-06-18|title=A Comparison Between Christian Doctrine and Mormon Doctrine] (citing "Articles of Faith" by James Talmage, p. 78-79) which they claim is contrary to Christian doctrine.

View of heaven

Other ChristiansWho|date=March 2008 criticize the faith's conception of heaven and immortality, arguing that the Bible only permits heaven and hell, and does not support the 3-kingdom system described by LDS teachings (the Celestial Kingdom, the Terrestrial Kingdom, and the Telestial Kingdom).

See Degrees of glory.

Criticisms specific to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Criticisms of doctrinal changes

Jerald and Sandra Tanner claim that the LDS church changed some of its core doctrines for political, rather than spiritual purposes. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979]

Priesthood policy

The Tanners claim that the church's 1978 policy allowing all worthy male members, which included blacks, to hold the priesthood was not divinely inspired as the church claimed, but simply a matter of political convenience. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=319-328] Richard and Joan Ostling point out that this reversal of policy occurred as the LDS church began to expand outside the United States into countries such as Brazil that have large, ethnically mixed populations and as the church prepared to open a new temple in São Paulo, Brazil. [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
page=95
]

Polygamy discontinued in 1890

The Tanners argue that the church's 1890 reversal of its policy on polygamy was done for political, not divine, reasons, citing the fact that it happened in the midst of a lengthy battle with the federal government over property seizures and statehood. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=258-285] The Ostlings further point to the fact that soon after the church received the revelation that polygamy was prohibited, Utah again applied for statehood, and this time the federal government did not object to starting the statehood process. Six years later, the process completed and Utah became a state in 1896.cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=78-79
] The Ostlings also point out that soon after the church renounced polygamy, the federal government reduced its legal efforts to seize church property.

Mormons Ron Wood and Linda Thatcher do not dispute that the change was a direct result of federal intervention and respond that the church was left with no choice. The 1887 Edmunds–Tucker Act was crippling the church and "something dramatic had to be done to reverse [the] trend." [Rood, Ron and Thatcher, Linda. "Statehood". "Brief History of Utah". historytogo.utah.gov. [http://historytogo.utah.gov/facts/brief_history/statehood.html] .] After the church appealed its case to the U.S. Supreme Court and lost, church president Wilford Woodruff issued the Manifesto. Woodruff noted in his journal that he was "acting for the temporal salvation of the Church". [Wilford Woodruff Diary, 1890-09-25.]

God was once a person

Critics such as Richard Abanes and the Institute for Religious Research criticize the church for changing the principle asserting that God was once a man, citing changes to the LDS publication "Gospel Principles" between the 1978 [cite book
title=Gospel Principles
publisher=The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
year=1978
] and 1997 [cite book
title=Gospel Principles
publisher=The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
year=1997
] editions, where "We can become Gods like our Heavenly Father" was changed to "We can become like our Heavenly Father" and " [O] ur Heavenly Father became a God" was changed to " [O] ur Heavenly Father became God". [cite web
url = http://www.irr.org/MIT/finessing-god-once-a-man.html
title =IRR site "Finessing an Off-Putting Mormon Doctrine"
] [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=385]

Criticisms of past teachings

Polygamy used to justify immoral behavior

Sarah Pratt, first wife of Mormon Apostle Orson Pratt, in an outspoken critique of Mormon polygamy said that cquote| [polygamy] completely demoralizes good men and makes bad men correspondingly worse. As for the women—well, God help them! First wives it renders desperate, or else heart-broken, mean-spirited creatures. [Harvnb|Eskridge|2002|pp=291] Pratt ended her marriage to husband Orson Pratt in 1868 because his "obsession with marrying younger women"; at age 57, Orson Pratt married a sixteen year old girl, his tenth wife, younger than his daughter Celestia,Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986] and lashed out at Orson in an 1877 interview, cquote|Here was my husband, gray headed, taking to his bed young girls in mockery of marriage. Of course there could be no joy for him in such an intercourse except for the indulgence of his fanaticism and of something else, perhaps, which I hesitate to mention. [Harvnb|Van Wagoner|1986|pp=92]

The Tanners argue that early church leaders established the practice of polygamy in order to justify behavior that would otherwise be regarded as immoral. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=226-257] The Ostlings criticize Joseph Smith for marrying at least 32 women during his lifetime, including several under the age of 16, a fact acknowledged by Mormon historian Todd Compton. [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=60-63
] [Harvnb|Compton|1997] Compton also acknowledge that Smith entered into polyandrous marriages (that is, he married women who were already married to other men) [] and that he warned some potential spouses of eternal damnation if they did not consent to be his wife, [Harvnb|Compton|1997|pp=486-534, 457-472, 342-363] and furthermore that, in at least two cases, he married orphan girls that had come to live at his home. []

However, Bushman notes that evidence of sexual relations in Smith's plural marriages is sparse or unreliable,cite book |last=Bushman |first=Richard Lyman |authorlink=Richard Lyman Bushman |title=Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling|year=2006 |publisher= Alfred A Knoff|location=New York, NY |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=439|chapter= |chapterurl= |quote=There is no certain evidence that Joseph had sexual relations with any of the wives who were married to other men. They married because Joseph's kingdom grew with the size of his family, and those bonded to that family would be exalted with him.] and Compton argues that some were likely dynastic in nature. [cite web |url=http://www.lds-mormon.com/compton.shtml |title=Todd Compton responds to the Jerald and Sandra Tanner's 'review' of his book on Joseph Smith's plural marriages |accessdate=2007-12-07] Compton also points out that Protestant denominations contemporary with early Mormonism also practiced polygamy, for example the early Anabaptists, and that Martin Luther himself sanctioned the practice. [Harvnb|Compton|1997|pp=640]

ome Church leaders, after 1890 polygamy cessation, continue to condone marriages

Richard Abanes, Richard and Joan Ostling, and D. Michael Quinn note that after the 1890 Manifesto, church leaders authorized over 200 polygamous marriages and lied about the continuing practice. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=336-342] [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=73-74
] cite book
first=Michael|last=Quinn
title=The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power
publisher=Signature Books
year=1997
pages=182-183; 790-810
isbn=1560850604
]

Joseph F. Smith acknowledged reports that church leaders didn't fully adhere to the 1890 prohibition. After the Second Manifesto in 1904, anyone entering into a new plural marriage was excommunicated. [http://search.ldslibrary.com/article/view/274597 "Conference Report"] , April 1904, p. 97.]

Adam and God are the same

The Ostlings criticize Brigham Young's teachings that God and Adam are the same being. [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan|pages=331
] [Young, Brigham (April 9, 1852), "Self-Government—Mysteries—Recreation and Amusements, not in Themselves Sinful—Tithing—Adam, Our Father and Our God", in Watt, G.D., Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, vol. 1, Liverpool: F.D. & S.W. Richards, 1854, pp. 46–53, ] One apostle, Franklin D. Richards, also accepted the doctrine as taught by Young, stating in a Conference held in June 1854 that "the Prophet and Apostle Brigham has declared it, and that it is the word of the Lord" (emphasis in original). [Millennial Star 16:534, 28 August 1854.] However, at the time of its first introduction, several leaders disagreed with the doctrine, including Apostle Orson Pratt, who expressed that disagreement publicly. [Journal of Thomas Evans Jeremy Sr., September 30, 1852 Harvnb|Bergera|1980.] The church never formally adopted the doctrine, and has since officially repudiated it. [Charles W. Penrose, "Our Father Adam", Improvement Era (September 1902): 873. GospeLink (http://gospelink.com/library/browse?cat_id=6) reprinted in Charles W. Penrose, "Our Father Adam", Millennial Star (11 December 1902): 785–90. (this paragraph from p. 789).] [Conference Report, p. 115 (October 1-3, 1976)]

ome sins not atonable

Brigham Young introduced the doctrine that there are some sins that cannot be atoned for through Jesus Christ. [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
page=332
] Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol 4 p. 53] He taught that the only way to atone for such sins, a person would have to give up his or her life. [cite book| last=Snow| first=Lowell M| title=Blood Atonement| journal=Encyclopedia of Mormonism| url=http://ldsfaq.byu.edu/emmain.asp?number=31| accessdate=2007-03-08] Bruce McConkie has asserted that "this doctrine can only operate in a day when there is no separation of Church and State and when the power to take life is vested in the ruling theocracy as was the case in the day of Moses." [Harvnb|McConkie|1978]

Criticism of temple ceremonies

Critics find fault with the church's temple policies and ceremonies, which include an endowment ceremony, weddings, and proxy baptism for the dead, .

Temple admission restricted

Richard and Joan Ostling, and Hugh F. Pyle claim that the LDS's policy on temple admission is unreasonable, noting that even relatives cannot attend a temple marriage unless they are members of the church in good standing. [cite book
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
title=Mormon America
pages=164-165
] [cite book
last=Pyle|first=Hugh F.
title=The Truth about Mormonism
pages=7-8
publisher=Sword of the Lord
year=2000
isbn=0873988450
] The Ostlings, the Institute for Religious Research and Jerald and Sandra Tanner claim that the attendance rules are unreasonable because part of being a member in good standing includes declaring oneself a "full-tithe payer" (one who pays a tithe to the church). [cite web
url=http://www.irr.org/mit/temple-marriage-perspective.html
title=Evangelical Christian article on temple marriage rules
accessDate=2007-12-11
] [cite web
url=http://www.utlm.org/newsletters/no104.htm
title=UTLM web site on LDS weddings
accessDate=2007-12-11
] [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=178
] Mormonism Research Ministry calls this "coerced tithing" because admission to the Celestial Kingdom requires receipt of the ordinances administered in the endowment and marriage ceremonies, which are performed only within a temple. [cite web
url=http://www.mrm.org/topics/miscellaneous/tithing-coercion
accessDate=2007-12-08
title=Mormon Research Ministry criticism of tithing
] [cite web
url=http://www.mormoncurtain.com/topic_tithing.html
title=The Mormon Curtain article on tithing
accessDate=2007-12-08
] For a list of requirements for entering the temple, see Requirements for entering LDS Church temples.

Baptism for the dead

The church teaches that a living person, acting as proxy, can be baptized by immersion on behalf of a deceased person, citing 1 Corinthians 15:29; ["29 Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?" (1 Corinthians 15:29)] Malachi 4:5–6; John 5:25; and 1 Peter 4:6 for doctrinal support. [ [http://lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=bbd508f54922d010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&sourceId=1ec52f2324d98010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____ See "Baptism for the Dead" at lds.org] .] These baptisms for the dead are performed in temples. Critics challenge this doctrine and the manner in which the church puts it into practice.

Doctrinal criticism

Floyd C. McElveen and the Institute for Religious Research claim that verses to support Baptism for the Dead are not justified by contextual exegesis of the Bible. [cite book
title=The Mormon Illusion: What the Bible Says About the Latter-Day Saints
publisher=Kregel Publications
year=1997
pages=110-112
last=McElveen|first=Floyd C.
isbn=0825431921
] [ [http://www.irr.org/mit/baptdead.html Did Jesus Establish Baptism for the Dead? ] ] In 2008 The Vatican issued a statement calling the practice "erroneous" and directing its dioceses to keep parish records from Mormons performing genealogical research. [cite web |url=http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0802443.htm |title=Vatican letter directs bishops to keep parish records from Mormons |accessdate=2008-05-05 |accessmonthday= |accessdaymonth= |accessyear= |author= |last=Muth |first=Chad |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=2008-05-02 |year= |month= |format= |work= |publisher= |pages= |language= |doi= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= ]

Baptism of Holocaust victims

:"See also: ."

Holocaust survivors and other Jewish groups criticized the LDS church in 1995, after discovering that the church had baptized more than 300,000 Jewish holocaust victims. [cite web
title=New York Times: Again, Jews Fault Mormons Over Posthumous Baptisms
url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D06E2D7123FF932A15751C1A9659C8B63
] [Harvnb|Bushman|2006|pp=86] After that criticism, church leaders put a policy in place to stop the practice, with an exception for baptisms specifically requested or approved by victims' relatives. [ [http://www.jewishgen.org/InfoFiles/ldsagree.html Agreement with the LDS Church] ] Jewish organizations again criticized the church in 2002 and 2004, claiming that the church failed to honor the 1995 agreement. [ [http://www.jewishgen.org/InfoFiles/ldsagree.html Summary of Jewish concerns about LDS baptisms] ]

Endowment ceremony allegedly copied

Jerald and Sandra Tanner allege that Joseph Smith copied parts of the Mormon temple endowment ceremony from Masonic rituals (such as secret handshakes, clothing, and passwords), and that this undermines the church's claimFact|date=April 2008 that the rituals were divinely inspired. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=534-547] The Tanners also point to the fact that Joseph Smith was himself a Freemason [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=535] Verify source|date=March 2008 prior to introducing the endowment rituals into Mormonism.

Endowment ceremony changed

The Tanners criticize the church's revision of the temple endowment ceremony over the years, claiming revisions were made to obscure provocative practices of the early church. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979] [Buerger, David John (2002), The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (2nd ed.), Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1560851767, pp. 139-40]

The Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research acknowledges changes to the endowment ceremony and points out that (according to Joseph Fielding Smith) Joseph Smith told Brigham Young the ceremony was "not arranged perfectly", and challenged him to organize and systemize it, which Young continued to do throughout his presidency. [cite web
url=http://www.fairlds.org/apol/ai132.html
accessdate=2007-12-06
title=FAIR Topical Guide: Changes in Ceremony.
]

Finances

Excessive secrecy

The Ostlings and the Tanners fault the church for being overly secretive about finances, such as not revealing salaries of leaders, and not publicly releasing financial statements [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=113-129
] [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=36] [Harvnb|Tanner|1987|pp=516-528] which it has not done in the United States since 1959. [Stack, Peggy Fletcher. "Order to release financial data has LDS Church, courts on collision course". "Salt Lake Tribune". July 13, 2007. http://www.sltrib.com/themix/ci_6364841. Accessed 13 July 2007.]

The church does disclose financials in the United Kingdom, where it is required to by law. [ [http://www.charity-commission.gov.uk/registeredcharities/AccountListing.asp?charitynumber=242451 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Great Britain Financial Statements] - provided by the Charity Commission based on the Charities Act] In addition, the church employs an internal audit department that provides its certification at each annual general conference that church contributions are collected and spent in accordance with church policy. [cite journal |last=Cantwell |first=Robert W. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2007 |month=May |title=Church Auditing Department Report, 2006 |journal=Ensign |volume=37 |issue=5 |pages=6 |id= |url=http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=48fdb5658af22110VgnVCM100000176f620a____&hideNav=1 |accessdate=2008-02-22 |quote=The Church Auditing Department has been granted access to all records and systems necessary to evaluate the adequacy of controls over receipts of funds, expenditures, and safeguarding of Church assets. The Church Auditing Department is independent of all other Church departments and operations, and the staff consists of certified public accountants, certified internal auditors, certified information systems auditors, and other credentialed professionals. Based upon audits performed, the Church Auditing Department is of the opinion that, in all material respects, contributions received, expenditures made, and assets of the Church for the year 2006 have been recorded and administered in accordance with appropriate accounting practices, approved budgets, and Church policies and procedures.] Moreover, the church engages a public accounting firm (currently Deloitte & Touche in the United States; PricewaterhouseCoopers in the United Kingdom) to perform annual audits of its not-for-profit, ["Why Deseret Trust Company?" http://www.lds.org/deserettrust/why.html. Accessed 15 May 2007.] for-profit, [Belo Corp Form 8-K. http://sec.edgar-online.com/1995/04/10/00/0000950134-95-000692/Section3.asp. Accessed 16 May 2007.] and educational ["Financial Planning". finserve.byu.edu. http://finserve.byu.edu/files/archives/Handouts/November%202005/Finance%20Section%20Draft%207-Without%20Requirements.doc. Accessed 16 May 2007.] ["Finance". accredit.byu.edu. See page 9 of pdf document available at http://accredit.byu.edu/resources/selfstudy/Standard_7.pdf?lms=30. Accessed 16 May 2007.] entities.

Excessive focus on wealth

The Tanners and the Ostlings criticize the church for being overly greedy and materialistic, citing the large amount of wealth accumulated by the church, and citing the strong emphasis on tithingcite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
year=1999
pages=178
publisher=Harper Collins
isbn=0060663715
] , and suggest that the church is more like a business than a spiritual endeavor. [Harvnb|Tanner|1987|pp=516-528] [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
year=1999
pages=395-400
publisher=Harper Collins
isbn=0060663715
]

Access to historical documents

The Tanners claim that throughout the 20th century the church denied scholars access to many key church documents, and in 1979 claimed that to date it had refused to publish Joseph Smith's diary. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=37] Apologists point out that "The Joseph Smith Papers" project will provide access to Smith's journals. [cite web |url=http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,600123721,00.html |title=Miller funding Joseph Smith project |accessdate=2007-12-06 |author=Tad Walch |date=2005-04-04 |work="Deseret Morning News" |publisher=]

uppression of dissent

The Ostlings claim that the LDS church retaliates against members that publish information that undermines church policies,cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=351-370
] citing excommunications of scientist Simon Southerton [cite web
url=http://www.affirmation.org/news/2005_35.shtml
title=Critical website discusses excommunication of Southerton
accessdate=2007-12-07
] and biographer Fawn Brodie. [cite book
title=Having Visions: The Book of Mormon : Translated and Exposed in Plain English
last=Wolverton|first=Susan
year=2004
pages=321
publisher=Algora
isbn=0875863108
] They further claim that the church suppresses intellectual freedom, citing the 1993 excommunication of "The September Six", including gay LDS historian D. Michael Quinn, and author Lavina Anderson. The Ostlings write that Anderson was the first to reveal the LDS church keeps files on LDS scholars, documenting questionable activities, and the Ostlings claim that "No other sizable religion in America monitors its followers in this way.

The American Association of University Professors, since 1998, has put LDS-owned Brigham Young University on its list of universities that do not allow tenured professors sufficient freedom in teaching and research. [ cite web
url=http://www.aaup.org/NR/rdonlyres/27EB0A08-8D25-4415-9E55-8081CC874AC5/0/Brigham.pdf
title=AAUP report|format=PDF
] Richard Abanes lists the following as church members excommunicated or censured for views unnaccepable to the church hierarchy: [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=418]
*Journalist Deborah Laake, for her book" Secret Ceremonies: A Mormon Woman's Intimate Diary of Marriage and Beyond"
*BYU English teacher Cecilia Konchar-Farr, for her views on abortion laws
*Writer Janice Merrill Allred
*English Professor Gail Houston
*Anthropologist David Knowlton

Church monitors members' critical publications

Richard Abanes and the Ostlings criticize the LDS church for maintaining a group called the Strengthening Church Members Committee, led by two church apostles. [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=418] According to the Ostlings, the purpose of this committee is to collect and file "letters to the editor, other writings, quotes in the media, and public activities" of church members that may be publishing views contrary to those of the church leadership. ["Sunstone", 16:2, no.88 (August 1992), p. 63. As quoted in Ostling and Ostling, p. 354.]

Distortion of history

Jerald and Sandra Tanner contend that the church distorts its history in order to portray itself in a more favorable light. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979] Specifically they allege that when B. H. Roberts' work History of the Church is compared to the original manuscripts from which it is drawn, "more than 62,000 words" can be identified that were either added or deleted, [Jerald & Sandra Tanner, Changes in Joseph Smith's History, Salt Lake City: Utah Lighthouse Ministry, 1965.] including systematic removal of events that portray Joseph Smith in a negative light. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=29-34]

D. Michael Quinn responded to these charges by pointing out that methods by B. H. Roberts used in creating "History of the Church"—while flawed by today's standards—were not uncommon practices in the nineteenth century, even by reputable historians. [D. Michael Quinn, [http://www.lightplanet.com/response/shadow.htm "Jerald and Sandra Tanner's Distorted View of Mormonism: A Response to "Mormonism—Shadow or Reality?" "] .] (See article History of the Church.)

Jerald and Sandra Tanner cite the selective use of Brigham Young's statements, presented in a manner to give the illusion that he was in favor of blacks joining the priesthood. [cite book
title=Curse of Cain? Racism in the Mormon Church
first=Jerald and Sandra| last=Tanner
publisher=Utah Lighthouse Ministry
year=2004
page=Chapter 10, part 2, p. 311
] The Tanners also claim that the church attempted to discredit evidence that Joseph Smith was arrested, tried, and found guilty by a justice of the peace in Bainbridge, New York, in 1826. [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=67-72] They highlight changes such as the title page of the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon that described Joseph Smith as "Author and Proprietor" of the book, which was revised in subsequent editions to be "Translator", [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=129] and the description of Oliver Cowdery's skill at using the divining rod found in the 1829 edition of the "Book of Commandments", which does not appear in the corresponding section of the 1835 edition of the " Doctrine and Covenants". [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=86-87]

FARMS responds to the "author and proprietor" charge by arguing this title conformed to the governing copyright laws in 1830. [ [http://farms.byu.edu/display.php?table=review&id=44 Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon - FARMS Review ] ]

The Ostlings consider other omissions to be distortion, noting that the widely distributed church manual "Teachings of the Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young", omits any mention of Young's polygamy, and that the book's chronological summary of Young's life includes the date of his first marriage, the date of the first wife's death, and the date of the second legal marriage, but omits mention of Young's dozens of other marriages. [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
page=248
]

In 1842 Willard Richards compiled a number of records in order to produce a history of the church. Among the records examined were the various accounts related to Zelph. In the process of combining the accounts, Richards crossed out Woodruff's references to "hill Cumorah," and Heber C. Kimball's reference to the "last" great struggle with the Lamanites" [Harvnb|Godfrey|1994 "Zelph was a white Lamanite, a man of God who was a warrior and chieftain under the great prophet Onandagus who was known from the [hill Cumorah is crossed out in the manuscript] eastern Sea, to the Rocky Mountains. He was killed in battle, by the arrow found among his ribs, during a [last crossed out] great struggle with the Lamanites" [and Nephites crossed out] ."] casting him as a generic Lamanite, rather than one who was involved in the final battle at the Hill Cumorah, which is in line with Joseph Smith's statements.

LDS historian D. Michael Quinn accuses LDS leaders of urging historians to hide "controversies and difficulties of the Mormon past". [D. Michael Quinn "On Being A Mormon Historian" p. 21: Lecture to BYU Student History Association, Fall 1981] Mormon scholar Allen Robers says LDS leaders "attempt to control depictions of the Mormon past". [Allen, Roberts. "Private Eye Weekly", October 20, 1993, p. 12. Quoted by Tanners at http://wee.utlm.org/newsletters/no88.htm] Non-LDS professor John Hallwas of Western Illinois University says of LDS historians: " [they] do not mention Mormon intimidation, deception, repression, theft, and violence, or any other matters that might call into question the sacred nature of the Mormon experience." [cite book
title=Cultures in Conflict: A Documentary History of the Mormon War in Illinois
last=Hallwas|first=John
year=1995
page=2-3
publisher=Utah State University Press
isbn=0874212723
]

Columbia University professor Richard Bushman, a member of "The Joseph Smith Papers" advisory board, responds to critics that those on the project "work on the assumption that the closer you get to Joseph Smith in the sources, the stronger he will appear, rather than the reverse, as is so often assumed by critics." [cite web |url=http://www.lds.org/churchhistory/content/0,15757,4610-1-2336%20,00.html |title=The Joseph Smith Papers: Quotes About the Project |accessdate=2008-02-22 |format= |work= |quote= We work on the assumption that the closer you get to Joseph Smith in the sources, the stronger he will appear, rather than the reverse, as is so often assumed by critics. His warmth, his sincerity, and his absolute devotion to the cause come through page after page.]

In 1969, the Western History Association published Jewish historian Moses Rischin's observation of a new trend among Mormons historians to report objectively. [Rischin, Moses. “The New Mormon History.” "The American West" (Mar. 1969): 49.] Quinn cites this as the origin of the term "New Mormon History", while citing previous efforts towards objectivity such as Juanita Brooks’ 1950 publication of "The Mountain Meadows Massacre" by Stanford University Press. [ "The New Mormon History". Ed. D. Michael Quinn. Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1992. (vii). ]

FARMS scholarship questioned

The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) is a research institute within church-owned Brigham Young University that publishes Mormon scholarship. Critic Matthew Paulsen faults FARMS for limiting peer review to members of the LDS church. He claims that FARMS's primary goal is to defend the LDS faith rather than to promote truthful scholarship. [cite book
title=Breaking the Mormon Code: A Critique of Mormon Scholarship
last=Paulson|first=Matthew A.
pages=27-29
year=2000
publisher=Wingspan Press
isbn=1595940677
] Molecular biologist Simon Southerton, a former LDS bishop and author of "Losing a Lost Tribe: Native Americans, DNA, and the Mormon Church" said, "I was amazed at the lengths that FARMS went to in order to prop up faith in the Book of Mormon. I felt that the only way I could be satisfied with FARMS explanations was to stop thinking.... The explanations of the FARMS researchers stretched the bounds of credibility to breaking point on almost every critical issue". [cite book
title=What Every Mormon (and Non-Mormon) Should Know
last=Gruss|first=Edmond C.
page=119
year=2006
publisher=Xulon Press
isbn=1600341632
]

FARMS supports and sponsors what it considers to be 'faithful scholarship', which includes academic study and research in support of Christianity and Mormonism, and in particular, where possible, the official position of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. [ [http://religion.byu.edu/rsc_about.php BYU College of Religious Education ] ]

Critic and ex-Mormon Steve Benson (grandson of Ezra Taft Benson) quoted church apostle Neal A. Maxwell as telling him that "one of the purposes of F.A.R.M.S. was to prevent the General Authorities from being outflanked by the Church's critics." [Web post by Steve Benson at www.exmormon.org - see subsection "Neal A. Maxwell" - [http://www.exmormon.org/mormon/mormon275.htm] ]

Parallelomania

Critics of Book of Mormon linguistic studies often reject the claims of Mormon scholars on the grounds that the parallels they draw between Book of Mormon and other sources amounts to "parallelomania", which is defined as the "over use or improper use of parallels in the exposition of a text."

In the independent journal , one scholar, Douglas F. Salmon, alleged that Mormon scholarship in drawing parallels between the Book of Mormon and other sources fits this classification. [Salmon, Douglas F., "Parallelomania and the Study of Latter-day Saint Scripture: Confirmation, Coincidence, or the Collective Unconscious?", , Volume 33, Number 2, Summer 2000, pg. 131 - online version available [http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=%2Fdialogue&CISOPTR=11018&REC=3&CISOBOX=names here] ] Salmon notes:

There has been an exegetical trend during the last several decades to draw endless parallels to text from the ancient Near East and beyond in an attempt to validate the writings in the Book of Mormon and Pearl of Great Price. The pioneer and leader in this effort has been the great LDS scholar Hugh Nibley. In recent years the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) has continued this legacy. The number of parallels that Nibley has been able to uncover from amazingly disparate and arcane sources is truly staggering. Unfortunately, there seems to be a neglect of any methodological reflection or articulation in this endeavor. [Salmon, Douglas F., "Parallelomania and the Study of Latter-day Saint Scripture: Confirmation, Coincidence, or the Collective Unconscious?", , Volume 33, Number 2, Summer 2000, pg. 129 - online version available [http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=%2Fdialogue&CISOPTR=11018&REC=3&CISOBOX=names here] ]

exual repression

Deborah Laake and Colleen McDannell claim that the church takes a repressive stance towards sexuality and that this may be psychologically unhealthy. [cite book
isbn=0688093043
last=Laake|first=Deborah
title=Secret Ceremonies: A Mormon Woman's Intimate Diary of Marriage and Beyond
publisher=Dell Publishing
year=1994
] [cite book
isbn=0300074999
last=McDannell|first=Colleen
title=Material Christianity: Religion and Popular Culture in America
pages=214-218
publisher=Yale University Press
year=1995
] , a Gay & Lesbian organization, and Ed Decker, a critic of the LDS church, both claim that the repressive attitude of the church may - in extreme cases - lead to suicide, as in the case of 16-year old Kip Eliason, who committed suicide because of the stresses that resulted when his LDS bishop told him that masturbation was sinful. [cite web
url=http://www.affirmation.org/suicide_info/sin_and_death_in_mormon_country.shtml
title=Affirmation article in Kip Eliason suicide
accessDate=2007-12-08
] [cite video
people=Ed Decker
title=The God Makers
medium=VHS
publisher=Jeremiah Films
year=1982
] has particularly criticized sexual repression of gays, both inside and outside of the church. Under no condition is homosexual sex ever acceptable. [cite web |url=http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=e1fa5f74db46c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=3e05c8322e1b3110VgnVCM100000176f620a____ |title=God Loveth His Children |accessdate=2007-12-07] A letter dated June 20, 2008, sent to Mormon bishops and signed by church president Thomas S. Monson and his two top counselors, calls on Mormons to donate "means and time" to a California ballot measure designed to defeat the state's May ruling allowing gay marriage. Richard and Joan Ostling point out that the LDS church actively campaigns against same-sex marriage statutes, including donating $500,000 in 1998 towards a campaign to defeat such a referendum in Alaska. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is asking California members to join the effort to amend that state's constitution to define marriage as being between a man and a woman. [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=172
] The church view this as "tough love", and believe that "failing to teach and to warn and to discipline is to destroy." [Boyd K. Packer, [http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=67d1a1615ac0c010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____&hideNav=1 “‘Ye Are the Temple of God’,”] Ensign, Nov 2000, 72–74]

In January 1982 the church presidency issued a letter to local leaders saying "The First Presidency has interpreted oral sex as constituting an unnatural, impure, or unholy practice." The letter was not distributed to the general membership. [Letter of January 5, 1982 to all Stake Presidents and Bishops. BYU Library Special Collections.] This letter also instructed local leaders not to inquire into the specifics of married members' sex lives. However, this portion of the letter was often ignored, and in response to letters of protest from members, another letter was issued to local leaders in October reiterating the prohibition on inquiring into specific sexual practices. [Letter of October 15, 1982 to all Stake Presidents and Bishops. BYU Library Special Collections.]

Apologists note that other faiths have similar proscriptions, such as the Roman Catholic Church, [http://www.kofc.org/publications/cis/catechism/search.cfm] , [http://www.kofc.org/un/publications/cis/catechism/getsection.cfm?partnum=3&SecNum=2&ChapNum=2&articlenum=6&ParSecNum=0&subSecNum=2&headernum=4&ParNum=2351&ParType=7] , [http://www.kofc.org/un/publications/cis/catechism/getsection.cfm?partnum=3&SecNum=2&ChapNum=2&articlenum=6&ParSecNum=0&subSecNum=4&headernum=1&ParNum=2380&ParType=7] Eastern Orthodoxy [http://www.bible.ca/cr-Orthodox.htm#catechism] as well as Judaism [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/homo.html] [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/premarital_sex.html] and Islam. [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503548032] [http://www.jamaat.org/qa/homo.html] [http://www.islamicweb.com/resources/masturbation.htm]

Homophobia

Scott Thumma and contend that the LDS church is homophobic. [cite book
title=Gay Religion
last=Thumma|first=Scott
year=2004
pages=99-113
publisher=Rowman Altamira
isbn=0759103267
] [cite web
url=http://www.affirmation.org/media/2006_08.shtml
title=Affirmation: a Gay and Lesbian Mormon organization
accessdate=2007-12-06
] cites a faithful, celibate, gay Latter-day Saint who shortly before his suicide wrote: "Straight members have absolutely no idea what it is like to grow up gay in this church. It is a life of constant torment, self-hatred and internalized homophobia." [Matis, Stuart [http://www.affirmation.org/suicide_info/letter_to_a_cousin.shtml Letter to a Cousin] ] Church leaders have agreed to meet with Affirmation to discuss these concerns. [cite web
url=http://www.sltrib.com/lds/ci_8839066
title=Gay Mormon group to meet with church officials
date=04/07/2008
last=Dobner
first=Jennifer
publisher=Salt Lake Tribune
]

God Loveth His Children, a pamphlet produced by the LDS Church, acknowledges that many gays "have felt rejected because members of the Church did not always show love." It criticizes those members, and challenges gays to show love and kindness so the members can "change their attitudes and follow Christ more fully." [cite web |url=http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=e1fa5f74db46c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=3e05c8322e1b3110VgnVCM100000176f620a____ |title=God Loveth His Children |accessdate=2007-12-07]

Olin Thomas, Executive Director of , criticized the church's opposition to gay marriage, saying "We are deeply dismayed that the Church ignored our request that they not meddle in California politics. This initiative will hurt so many people. Without marriage, a couple who have been together 30 years could be torn apart at the doorway to the emergency room." [cite web
url =http://www.affirmation.org/media/2008_06_23.shtml
title = Affirmation Press Release
] However, the purposed initiative will not affect domestic partnership in California, which already affords all the same rights, protections, and benefits as marriage. [ [http://law.onecle.com/california/family/297.5.html California Family Code Section 297.5] ] The church claims hospitalization rights are included in the phrase "all the same rights" and has stated they do not oppose hospitalization rights of same-sex couples. [ [http://www.newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/commentary/the-divine-institution-of-marriage] ]

Views on homosexuality

Gay historian D. Michael Quinn has hypothesized that early church leaders had a more tolerant view of homosexuality, and that several early church leaders and prominent members, including Louise B. Felt, May Anderson, Evan Stephens, and Joseph Fielding Smith (1899-1964), may have either had homosexual tendencies or were involved in homosexual relationships. [cite book
title=Same-Sex Dynamics Among Nineteenth-Century Americans: A Mormon Example
last=Quinn|first=D. Michael
year=2001
pages=195-264
publisher=University of Illinois Press
isbn=0252069587
] George Mitton and Rhett James do not dispute that some early members may have had homosexual tendencies, but they call Quinn's claim of tolerance a distortion of church history and it has little support from other historians. They deny any acceptance from previous leaders of homosexual behavior, and state the current leadership of the church “is entirely consistent with the teachings of past leaders and with the scriptures.”George L. Mitton, Rhett S. James [http://farms.byu.edu/display.php?table=review&id=280 A Response to D. Michael Quinn's Homosexual Distortion of Latter-day Saint History] Review of "Same-Sex Dynamics among Nineteenth-Century Americans: A Mormon Example" by D. Michael Quinn Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, 1998. Pp. 141–263 ]

In the early 1970s, Ford McBride did research in electro-shock therapy while a student at Brigham Young University on volunteer homosexual students to help cure them of ego-dystonic homosexuality.cite web | url =http://www.salamandersociety.com/sexuality/torture | title=Shock Therapy Interview ] [cite web| url=http://www.affirmation.org/learning/fourteen.shtml|title=Affirmation Shock Therapy article] This was a standard type of aversion therapy used to treat homosexuality, [Seligman, Martin E.P., What You Can Change and What You Can't: The Complete Guide to Self Improvement Knopf, 1993; ISBN 0-679-41024-4] which was considered a mental illness at the time. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb264/is_200411/ai_n13131104 Homosexuality not a disease to be cured.] Reproductive Health Matters, November 2004] Brigham Young University is owned by the church, but conducts research independently of the church. Church critics and The Salamander Society claim that the church was involved in these research initiatives.

Gordon B. Hinckley encouraged church members to reach out to homosexuals with love and understanding. [cite journal
last = Oaks
first = Dallin H.
authorlink = Dallin H. Oaks
date = October
month = 1995
title = Same-Gender Attraction
journal = Ensign
volume = 25
issue = 10
pages = 7
url = http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=43786e9ce9b1c010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____
] This sparked criticism and protests from the Westboro Baptist Church at Hinckley's funeral. [cite news
url=http://www.deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,695248839,00.html
title=Church group plans protest at Pres. Hinckley's funeral
first=Jared
last=Page
date=2008-01-31
publisher=Deseret Morning News
] [cite news
url=http://www.sltrib.com/ci_8210106
title=Kirby: My surprise at finding that I belong to a gay church
first=Robert
last=Kirby
publisher=Salt Lake Tribune
date=2008-02-02
]

Racism

Richard and Joan Ostling point out the church's former practice of denying the priesthood to blacks of African descent, which ended in 1978, as evidence that past LDS church policies were racist in nature. Before the change in policy, most other adult males in the LDS Church were given the priesthood and denying the priesthood to blacks prevented them from officiating in ordinances and from participating in LDS temple ceremonies. [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=94-108
] Jerald and Sandra Tanner cite quotes from church leaders such as Brigham Young who said, "You must not think, from what I say, that I am opposed to slavery. No! The negro is damned, and is to serve his master till God chooses to remove the curse of Ham...". [Harvnb|Tanner|1979|pp=304 (New York Herald, May 4, 1855, as cited in Dialogue, Spring 1973, p.56)] The Tanners also illustrate church racism by quoting sections of the Book of Mormon which describe dark skin as a sign of a curse and a mark from God to distinguish a more righteous group of people from a less righteous group, and by citing passages describing white skin as "delightsome" while dark skin is portrayed as un-enticing (2 Nephi 30:6). Joseph F. Smith, president of the church, published his views that people with dark skin were less faithful in the pre-existence, and as such, did not warrant the blessings of the priesthood.cite book
title=Curse of Cain? Racism in the Mormon Church
first=Jerald and Sandra| last=Tanner
publisher=Utah Lighthouse Ministry
year=2004
] [cite web
url=http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/curseofcain_part2.htm#Seed
title=Web site with detailed documentation of racist acts in LDS history
accessdate=2007-12-05
] The Tanners also cite other church leaders, historical and modern who have spoken in favor of segregation and restrictions of the priesthood for men of African descent. [cite web
url=http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/curseofcain_part3.htm#Twentieth
title=Web site with detailed documentation of recent racist LDS polices
accessdate=2007-12-05
]

Although the current LDS church policy now admits blacks to the priesthood, the church has not issued a written repudiation of racist doctrines, [cite book
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
pages=103-105
] although Bruce R. McConkie told members "Forget everything that I have said, or what President Brigham Young or President George Q. Cannon or whomsoever has said [about Blacks and the priesthood] ... We spoke with a limited understanding." [Bruce R. McConkie, 1978 (All Are Alike Unto God, A SYMPOSIUM ON THE BOOK OF MORMON, The Second Annual Church Educational System Religious Educator’s Symposium, August 17-19, 1978] Some black members have made formal requests to the church to issue a statement, while other black members have argued against that effort. [cite news
first=Bill
last=Broadway
publisher=Washington Post
date=1998-05-30
url=http://www.ldshistory.net/1990/mhablack.htm
title=Black Mormons Resist Apology Talk
] One critical black church member contends that the church "refuses to acknowledge and undo its racist past, and until it does that, members continue to suffer psychological damage from it" and that "the church has not done enough to rectify its racist past". [cite book
first=Darron|last=Smith
title=Black and Mormon
year=2004
page=7
pulbisher=University of Illinois Press
isbn=025202947X
] However, the large majority of black Mormons say they are willing to look beyond the racist teachings and cleave to the church. [cite news
url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-blackmormons,1,708682.story?page=1&ctrack=1&cset=true
title=Mormon past steeped in racism: Some black members want church to denounce racist doctrines
first=Margaret
last=Ramirez
date=2005-07-26
publisher=Chicago Tribune
] Gordon B. Hinckley has sermonized against racism. He has taught that no one who utters denigrating remarks can consider himself a true disciple of Christ, and noted the irony of racial claims to the Melchizedek Priesthood. [Gordon B. Hinckley, [http://www.lds.org/conference/talk/display/0,5232,23-1-602-20,00.html "The Need for Greater Kindness"] , 2006-04-01.]

Richard Abanes contends that the church tries to hide past racial practices, citing the 1981 change in the wording of the Book of Mormon from "white and delightsome" to "pure and delightsome" (2 Nephi 30:6). [Harvnb|Abanes|2003|pp=420]

Gregory A. Prince and William Robert Wright state that these leaders were a product of their time and locale and that many leaders, including Joseph Smith, David O. McKay, and even initially Brigham Young, were not opposed to blacks receiving the priesthood. [cite book |title=David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism |coauthors=Prince, Gregory A. and Wright, Wm. Robert |year=2005 |publisher=University of Utah Press |location=Salt Lake City, Utah |isbn=0780874808223 | pages=60] Verify source|date=February 2008 They further state that the policy was a practice supported by scriptural arguments, not a doctrine, [cite book |title=David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism |last=Prince |first=Gregory A. |coauthors=Wright, Wm. Robert |year=2005 |publisher=University of Utah Press |location=Salt Lake City, Utah |isbn=0780874808223 | pages=79-80] and despite several church leaders throughout the 1950s and 1960s supporting its reversal, the policy was kept in place through 1978 because the Quorum of the Twelve felt a revelation was needed to change it. [cite book |title=David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism |last=Prince |first=Gregory A. |coauthors=Wright, Wm. Robert |year=2005 |publisher=University of Utah Press |location=Salt Lake City, Utah |isbn=0780874808223 | pages=80]

exism

Richard and Joan Ostling argue that the LDS Church treats women as inferior to men. [cite book
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan
title=Mormon America
pages=159-172
] Claudia L. Bushman cites the absence of women in leadership roles, sexual abuse, lack of career opportunities, and poor family planning policies as evidence of sexism. [] She further claims that, rather than increasing the responsibilities of women, the LDS church has recently decreased the autonomy that Mormon women had in areas such as welfare, leadership, training, publishing, and policy setting. [] The Cult Awareness and Information Centre also point to comments such as those made by LDS leader Bruce R. McConkie, who wrote that a "woman's primary place is in the home, where she is to rear children and abide by the righteous counsel of her husband". [ [http://www.caic.org.au/lds/mormwomn.htm The Role of Women in Mormonism ] ] The First Presidency and the Council of Twelve Apostles espouse a complementarian view of gender roles. [ [http://www.lds.org/languages/proclamations/family/start_here_0.pdf "The Family: A Proclamation to the World"] ]

Jerald and Sandra Tanner point to comments by certain church leaders as evidence that women are subject to different rules regarding entry into heaven. They claim that 19th-century leader Erastus Snow preached: "No woman will get into the celestial kingdom, except her husband receives her, if she is worthy to have a husband; and if not, somebody will receive her as a servant". [cite web
url=http://www.utlm.org/onlineresources/resurrectwife.htm
title=UTLM web site describing LDS treatment of women
accessdate=2007-12-04
]

The position that LDS Church takes towards women, i.e. not ordaining them to the priesthood and believing their primary role is to be a mother and wife, is also reflected by the majority of Christianity; specifically the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, and Protestant churches such as the Southern Baptists.


=Criticisms specific to denominations other than LDS=

See Criticisms of Fundamentalist branch.

Footnotes

References

* Citation
title=One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church
publisher=Thunder's Mouth Press
year=2003
isbn=1568582838
first=Richard
last=Abanes
authorlink=Richard Abanes

* Citation
title=The New Mormon Challenge
publisher=Zondervan
year=2002
isbn=0310231949
first=Francis|last=Beckwith

*Citation
title = The History of the Saints; or An Exposé of Joe Smith and Mormonism
last = Bennett
first = John C.
authorlink = John C. Bennett
publisher = Leland & Whiting
location = Boston
year = 1842
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=bAnMckqrfeoC&dq=The+History+of+the+Saints%3B+or+An+Expos%C3%A9+of+Joe+Smith+and+Mormonism&pg=PP1&ots=_46O82jCgG&sig=2YbAmC3Aei8kWNSu2wwYbZGINXg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPP1,M1
.
* Citation
title=No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith
link=No Man Knows My History
last=Brodie
first=Fawn M.
authorlink=Fawn Brodie
year=1995
publisher=Vintage
isbn=0679730540

*Citation
title=Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-Day Saints in Modern America
last=Bushman
first=Claudia L.
authorlink=Claudia Lauper Bushman
publisher=Greenwood Press
year=2006
.
* Citation
title=
last=Compton|first=Todd
authorlink=Todd Compton
publisher=Signature Books
year=1997
isbn=156085085X

*Citation
last1 = Eskridge
first1 = William N.
last2 = Eskridge, Jr.
first2 = William N.
title = Gaylaw: Challenging the Apartheid of the Closet
publisher = Harvard University Press
location = Cambridge, MA
year = 2002
date = 2002
pages = 291
id=ISBN 0674008049
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=BZTnDgeygHkC&pg=PA291&vq=Sarah+Pratt&dq=%22Sarah+Pratt%22+critic+polygamy&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U1V5C38xqWN7nBP73wdquNc4-CIYg
.
* Citation
title= [Mormonism unvailed [sic] or, A faithful account of that singular imposition and delusion, from its rise to the present time]
last=Howe
first=Eber D.
authorlink=Eber Dudley Howe
year=1834
[http://solomonspalding.com/docs/1834howd.htm Online copy]
* Citation
title=
last=Krakauer
first=John
authorlink=John Krakauer
year=2003
publisher=Doubleday
isbn=0385509510

*Citation
last = Newell
first = Linda King
authorlink = Linda King Newell
title =
edition = 2d
publisher = University of Illinois Press
year = 1994
date = 1994
pages = 89, 132
id=ISBN 0252062914
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=UjHEhhqVu1UC&pg=PA139&vq=Lucy+Walker&dq=Mormon+Enigma:+Emma+Hale+smith&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U2NewRaM2zHb7RSO3XKF3zHgplZJA
.
* Citation
title=Mormon America
last=Ostling|first=Richard and Joan|authorlink=Richard Ostling
year=1999
publisher=Harper Collins
isbn=0060663715

* Citation
title=Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon
last=Persuitte|first=David
year=2000
publisher=McFarland & Company
isbn=078640826X
edition=2nd

* Citation
first=D. Michael
last=Quinn
authorlink=D. Michael Quinn
title=
publisher=Signature Books
year=1994
isbn=1560850566

* Citation
first=D. Michael
last=Quinn
authorlink=D. Michael Quinn
title=
publisher=Signature Books
year=1997
isbn=1560850604

*Citation
last1 = Sillito
first1 = John R.
last2 = Staker
first2 = Susan
title = Mormon Mavericks: Essays on Dissenters
publisher = Signature Books
year = 2002
date = 2002
id=ISBN 1560851546
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=FaFAAAAACAAJ&dq=%22mormon+mavericks%22&output=html
.
*Citation
last = Smith
first = Andrew F.
title = The Saintly Scoundrel: The Life and Times of Dr. John Cook Bennett
year = 1971
publisher = University of Illinois Press
location = Urbana and Chicago
page=141
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=BWM7yHuIyAUC&pg=PA113&vq=abortion&dq=The+Saintly+Scoundrel:+The+Life+and+Times+of+Dr.+John+Cook+Bennett&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U3qUtlPuIP5sHXY_i7FhEiBLQDBbA
.
* Citation
title=The Changing World of Mormonism
isbn=0802412343
first=Jerald and Sandra
last=Tanner
authorlink=Jerald and Sandra Tanner
publisher=Moody Press
year=1979
link=http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/changecontents.htm

* Citation
title=Mormonism - Shadow or Reality?
isbn=9993074438
first=Jerald and Sandra
last=Tanner
authorlink=Jerald and Sandra Tanner
publisher=Utah Lighthouse Ministry
year=1987

* Citation
title=Origin, rise, and progress of Mormonism: biography of its founders and history of its church
last=Tucker|first=Pomeroy
year=1867
publisher=Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library
isbn=1425531520
[http://www.solomonspalding.com/docs1/1867TucA.htm Online copy]
* Citation
title=Having Visions: The Book of Mormon: Translated and Exposed in Plain English
last=Wolverton|first=Susan
year=2004
publisher=Algora
isbn=0875863108

*Citation
last = Van Wagoner
first = Richard A.
authorlink = Richard Von Wagoner
title = Sarah Pratt: The Shaping of an Apostate
journal =
volume = 19
number = 2
pages = 79
year = 1986
url = http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=%2Fdialogue&CISOPTR=19553&REC=12&CISOBOX=Sarah+Pratt+Bennett+Goddards+highly+improbable
.
*Citation
last = Wymetal
first = Wilhelm Ritter von
title = Joseph Smith, the Prophet, His Family, and His Friends: A Study Based on Facts and Documents
year = 1886
publisher = Tribune Printing and Publishing Company
location = Salt Lake City, UT
page = 60–61
url = http://olivercowdery.com/smithhome/1886WWyl.htm#pg061a
.

Web sites

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  • List of publications critical of the Latter Day Saint movement — Publications in this section may range from anti Mormon to simply critical of the Latter Day Saint movement. These works are not recognized by the LDS Church as authoritative as to their doctrinal content and accuracy.Historical books*cite book | …   Wikipedia

  • Latter Day Saint movement — This article is about this religious movement s origins and general makeup. For treatments of component sects, see List of sects in the Latter Day Saint movement. Part of a series on Christianity …   Wikipedia

  • Latter Day Saint historians — are a diverse group of historians writing about Mormonism. They range from faith promoting historians to anti mormon historians, but also include scholars who make an honest effort at objectivity. Historians devoted to the History of the Latter… …   Wikipedia

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