National Army of Colombia
Colombian National Army
Ejército Nacional de Colombia
Colombian Army Emblem
Active August 19, 1819 - Present Country Colombia Role Foreign and Domestic Defense Size 235,538 (2009) Garrison/HQ Colombian Ministry of Defense Colors Red with Army Crest March "Himno del Ejército" Anniversaries August 7 Engagements Independence War against Spain, Thousand Days War (Civil war), War Against Peru, Korean War, Colombian Armed Conflict Commanders Current
Gen. Oscar González Notable
Francisco de Paula Santander,
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla,
Harold Bedoya Pizarro,
Manuel José Bonett
Rafael Reyes Prieto
The National Army of Colombia (Spanish: Ejército Nacional de Colombia) is the land military force of the government of Colombia and the largest service of the Colombian Armed Forces. It has the responsibility for land-based military operations along with the Infanteria de Marina (Naval Infantry) to protect the Colombian state against domestic or foreign threats.
The modern Colombian Army has its roots in the Ejército de los Comuneros or Army of the Commoners which was formed on August 7, 1819, before the establishment of the present day Colombia to meet the demands of the Revolutionary War against the Spanish Empire.
That same day, the Congress of Angostura created the Greater Colombian Army after the triumph over the Spanish, to replace the disbanded Commoners Army. However, the Colombian Army considers itself to be an evolution of the Commoners Army, and thus dates its inception from its origins.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Schools and Courses
- 4 Army Equipment
- 5 Uniforms
- 6 Personnel
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Colombian Army trace its history back to the 1770s and 1780s, when the comuneros (Commoners) (mostly descendants of Spanish and Amerindians) decided to separate from the Spanish Empire to create their own country and initiated a revolutionary war. The Greater Colombian Army is consolidated on August 7, 1819 by defeating the Spaniards at Boyacá in the Battle of Boyacá under the command of Simon Bolivar. Since then the Colombian Army has been the biggest organization in Colombia.
The military reform carried out by General Rafael Reyes Prieto in the year 1907 marked the professionalization of the Colombian Armed Forces.
The Colombian Army is present at war with leftist rebels of the FARC, ELN and EPL, as well as other minor groups. Throughout the war, military personnel have usually maintained a level of professionalism.
Members of the military have been accused or condemned for collaborating with the activities of right wing paramilitaries, such as the AUC and others. The BBC and other sources have reported on cases of corruption in the military, as well as other scandals.
The United States government approved the Plan Colombia initiative. Part of the resources provided by this initiative would be directed to the support of the Colombian Army by strengthening its combat and logistics capabilities.
The Colombian Army is led by the President of Colombia (a civilian) and directed as well by a (four suns) General.
The training of Colombian soldiers is world recognized due to its demanding features. The promotion courses (courses that the candidate has to take in order to be promoted to a higher rank) are usually tough and physically demanding.
A "Lancero" training course in counterinsurgency warfare is held in Tolemaida, 150 miles (240 km) from Bogotá, where temperatures range between 85 and 100 degrees F. (29.5-38 degrees C.) throughout the year. The course, which has been called the toughest in the world, is run by the Colombian army with U.S. military instructors also playing a role. According to Paris Match (no. 2964, March 9–15, 2006) the course lasts 73 days and trains Bolivian, Ecuadorean, and Panamanian troops as well as Colombian soldiers; some French and American soldiers are also trained there. The course, founded in 1955, derives from the Ranger program of the US Army. Reportedly, severe techniques and live ammunition are used. Because of its exceptional nature, the course has gained international prestige.
Military overseas operations
The Colombian National Army deploys soldiers in the Sinai since the United Nations Emergency Force was assembled in 1956 . It has also joined forces many times with different armies around the world under the UN mandate.
Colombian Army Divisions are static Regional Commands
- 1st Division (Santa Marta) - Its jurisdiction covers the Northern Region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Cesar, La Guajira, Magdalena, Sucre, Bolívar and Atlántico. 2nd Mechanized and 10th Armored brigades.
- 2nd Division (Bucaramanga) - Its jurisdiction covers the north eastern Colombia in which there are the departments of Norte de Santander, Santander and Arauca. 5th Infantry, 30th Infantry and 23rd Mobile brigades.
- 3rd Division (Cali) - Its jurisdiction covers the South West of Colombia in which there are the departamntos of Nariño, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Caldas, Quindio, part of Santander and the southern part of the Chocó. 3rd, 8th, 23rd and 29th Infantry brigades.
- 4th Division (Villavicencio) - Its jurisdiction covers the eastern region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Meta, Guaviare, and part of Vaupés. 7th Infantry, 22nd Infantry and 31st Jungle Infantry brigades.
- 5th Division (Bogota) - Its jurisdiction covers the Central Region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Cundinamarca, Boyaca, Huila and Tolima. 1st Infantry, 6th Infantry, 8th Mobile, 9th Infantry and 13th Infantry brigades.
- 6th Division (Florencia) - Its jurisdiction covers the southern region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo and southern Vaupés. 12th Infantry, 13th Mobile, 26th Jungle and 27th Jungle brigades.
- 7th Division (Medellin) - Its jurisdiction covers the western region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Cordoba, Antioquia, and part of the Chocó. 4th, 11th, 14th, 15th and 17th Infantry and 11th Mobile Brigades
- 8th Division (Yopal) - Its jurisdiction covers the northeastern region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Casanare, Arauca, Vichada, Guainía, and the municipalities of Boyaca of Cubará, Pisba, Paya, Labranzagrande and Pajarito. 16th, 18th, 28th, and the 5th Mobile Brigade.
- Mobile Medical Command with 3 Battalions
- Military and Institutes Brigade
- 19th Cadet Brigade with 3 battalions
- Army Aviation with 135 helicopters and aircraft.
- Army Commando Battalion
- Infantería (Infantry)
- Caballería (Cavalry)
- Artillería (Artillery)
- Ingenieros (Engineers)
- Inteligencía (Intelligence)
- Comunicaciones (Communications)
- Cuerpo Logístico y Administrativo (Logistics and Administrative Corps)
- Aviación (Army Aviation)
The Colombian Army has created new programs in order to fight terrorist guerrillas that during the last 40 years have fought a war to overthrow the Colombian government. They are highly trained, specially selected Colombian Army soldiers. They do special recon operations to find and expel Colombian terrorists hideouts.
Rapid Deployment Force
- The Rapid Deployment Force or Fuerza de Despliegue Rápido abr. FUDRA, was created as a modern quick reaction force to deploy to different regions and to all types of weather. Currently, its function is to solely carry out offensive operations against insurgents or outlaws.
- Anti-Narcotics Brigade (Brigada Anti-Narcoticos). This unit was specifically activated for operations against the trafficking of narcotics. It was created on December 8, 2000 and has its main headquarters in the Guaviare Department.
Army Aviation Brigade
- The Army Aviation Brigade or Unidad de Aviación del Ejército, is an aviation branch that works autonomously from the Colombian Air Force. It's part of the Colombian Army Cavalry Corps and its main mission is to support the army's ground operations. The unit has recently focused in the security of the Colombian border and Colombia's sovereignty.
This Unit was created on September 7 of 1916 and it is managed by the Colombian Cavalry.
The Agrupación de Fuerzas Especiales Antiterroristas Urbanas (Urban Counter-Terrorism Special Forces Group, AFEUR) is an elite unit of the Colombian Army, whose primary mission is to perform counter-terrorist operations and hostage rescues based on stealth, surprise and team work.
VIP protection is another task of the unit. For example, they protect the Colombian President when he travels, and provided protection for President Bill Clinton's (Army group) and President George W. Bush's visits to Cartagena, in 2000 and 2004 respectively. They also provided the second security ring to Bush's visit to Bogotá in 2007.
This unit answers directly to the Commando General de las Fuerzas Armadas (Armed Forces Joint Staff), and they are allowed to use any military air transportation to guarantee mobility, and to use any weapon or additional equipment as required to accomplish their missions.
AFEUR won the "Fuerzas Comando 2005" (Commando Forces 2005) contest, that took place in Chile in June 2005 lasting two weeks.
This yearly contest sponsored by the US South Command and the US Special Operations Command with similar teams from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, U.S., Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, Peru and Uruguay.
AFEUR also won the 2006 and 2007 versions of this contest.
Special Forces Brigade
- Colombian National Army Special Forces Brigade
GAULA is an acronym for Grupos de Acción Unificada por la Libertad Personal, i.e. Unified Action Groups for Personal Liberty, specialising in solving hostage-taking. These are elite units established in 1996 exclusively dedicated to the combating of kidnapping and extortion. They are composed of highly qualified personnel who conduct hostage rescues and dismantling of criminal gangs at the root of crimes which compromise the personal freedom of Colombians. There is an inter-institutional element in GAULA guaranteeing self-checking procedures, trained by staff of the Administrative Security Department, the Technical Investigation Corps (CTI) of the Criminal Investigation Bureau ( Fiscalía) and military forces. Currently, the country has 16 GAULA of the Colombian National Army and 2 of the Navy.
Schools and Courses
- Cursos de Capacitación y Especialización de las Armas y Servicios (Arms and Services Capacitation and Specialization Courses)
- Especialidades de Combate (Combat Specialities)
- Paracaidista (airborne)
- Fuerzas Especiales (Special Forces)
- Desempeño Meritorio en Unidades Especiales (Meritorious Conduct in Special Units)
- Others combat specialities:
- Profesorado Militar (Military Professorate)
- Por Acción Contra el Enemigo (For Actions against the Enemy)
- Desempeño Profesional y Deportivo (Sports and Professional Achievements)
IFV / APC
Colombian Army Vehicle Inventory Vehicle/System Firm Number in Service Status Origin Wheeled Armoured Vehicles EE-9 Cascavel 174 In Service Brazil Infantry Transport Vehicles Humvee +400 In Service United States M-1117 39 Entry into service: 2010 United States M-113 120 In Service United States EE-11 Urutu 100 In Service Brazil RG-31 Nyala 4 In Service South Africa M8 Greyhound 8 In Service United States AIL Abir In Service Israel Transport Vehicles M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck In Service United States M3 Half-track In Service United States AIL Abir In Service Israel Willys MB In Service United States Kaiser Jeep M715 In Service United States
- IMI Galil - Standard assault rifle. Produced under license by Indumil Israel Colombia
- IMI Tavor - 30,000 in use. Israel
- Galil ACE - Produced by Indumil Colombia
- HK G3 - Not more in service with the army, replaced with the IMI Galil since 1995. Germany
- M16A2 rifle United States
- M4 Carbine - 1328 M4s and M4A1s (Value $1,534,058.02.) Used by the AFEUR unit and the Special Forces Brigade. United States
- M60 machine gun United States
- FN MAG Belgium
- IMI Negev Israel
- Daewoo K3 South Korea
- FN Minimi - M-249. Belgium United States
- Heckler & Koch MP5 Germany
- M2 Browning machine gun United States
- M1919 Browning machine gun United States
- FN/IMI Uzi Submachine gun Israel Belgium
- M240 machine gun United States
- M116 howitzer - 80, of which 70 in service.
- GIAT LG1 - 20 in the order, Modern lightweight 105 mm howitzer
- M101 howitzer - 100, of which 50 in service.
- Mortier 120mm Rayé Tracté Modèle F1
- Obus GDSB 155/52mm - 15.
- 60mm Mortar
- 81mm Mortar Produced for Indumil
- M30 mortar - 148, of which 80 in service.
- 120mm Mortar - 210, of which 120 in service.
- Milkor MGL - 200 units
- M203 grenade launcher
- Mk 19 grenade launcher
- M79 grenade launcher
- Nimrod Missile
- BGM-71 TOW - 18, mounted on HMMWVs.
- Spike (missile)
- M72 LAW
- M40 recoilless rifle - 80, of which 63 are in service.
- Batteries IMI Nimrod (on vehicle)
Air defense systems and systems and anti-aircraft artillery
- Mistral (missile)
- Baterías AA Eagle Eye
- Sistemas Oerlikon
- bofors M1
- M-55 AAA
Aircraft Origin Type Version(s) In service Notes Gulfstream Turbo Commander United States Transport Commander 1000 1 Beechcraft King Air United States Transport Model 90 1 UH-1 Iroquois United States Utility helicopter UH-1H 31 UH-1N Twin Huey United States Transport helicopter 27 Bell Huey II Convair 580 United States Airliner 1 Kaman K-MAX United States Transport helicopter 5 Mil Mi-17 Russia Transport helicopter 23 Cessna 208 Caravan United States Utility Piper PA-31 Navajo United States Utility 2 Aero Commander 500 United States Utility Rockwell 685 Commander 2 CASA C-212 Aviocar Spain Transport 5 Piper PA-34 Seneca United States Utility 5 Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk United States Transport/ Combat helicopter UH-60L 50 Including the 15 from Plan Colombia
Since 2006 the National Army of Colombia changed its uniform type forest (woodland) by a modern design featuring a new digital camouflage pattern is called a pixel.
There are 2 types of camouflage, camouflage jungle that is used by most of the army and the desert camouflage that is used by troops in the department of La Guajira and the Colombia Battalion in the Sinai peninsula in the International Watching Forces.
The changes provide greater comfort to the troops, while the material used allows even application of repellents to prevent in some cases avoid mosquito bites and a high percentage of the concentration of bacteria and odors.
The design of camouflage texture, color and design is unique to the Colombian army and national manufacturing is only Colombia's military forces can use it.
Ranks & Insignias
Ranks and Insignias - Colombian National Army
NATO code [n 1] OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 Colombia No equivalent (Spanish) - General Teniente General Mayor General Brigadier General Coronel Teniente Coronel Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente Abbr. - GR TG MG BG CR TC MY CT TE ST (English) - General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and Soldiers
NATO code [n 1] OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1 Colombia No Insignia (Spanish) Sargento Mayor de Comando Conjunto Sargento Mayor de Comando Sargento Mayor Sargento Primero Sargento Vice Primero Sargento Segundo Cabo Primero Cabo Segundo Cabo Tercero Dragoneante Soldado Profesional Soldado Abbr. SMCC SMC SM SP SV SS CP CS C3 - - - (English) Joint Command Sergeant Major Command Sergeant Major Sergeant Major First Sergeant Sergeant First Class Second Sergeant First Corporal Second Corporal Third Corporal Private First Class Private (Professional) Private Basic
- ^ LOGROS DE LA POLÍTICA DE CONSOLIDACIÓN DE LA SEGURIDAD DEMOCRÁTICA –PCSD Febrero 2009 page 81
- ^ http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?t=101686&page=46
- ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
- ^ Ejército fortalece su flotilla aérea en la lucha contra las Farc
- ^ Congreso de la República de Colombia (28 July 2010). "Ley 1405 de 2010 Nuevos Grados Militares" (in (Spanish)). http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/senado/basedoc/ley/2010/ley_1405_2010.html. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- ^ Ejército de Colombia (15 March 2011). "Grados y distintivos del Ejército" (in (Spanish)). http://www.ejercito.mil.co/?idcategoria=232931. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Colombian Armed forces official website (available in spanish, english and german)
- Colombian Army official website (available in spanish and english)
- Extense information about Colombian Armed Forces. Colombia Seguridad y Defensa, Pagina no oficial
- UNFFMM página no oficial de las Fuerzas Militares de Colombia
Colombian Armed Conflict
Participants in Colombian armed conflict
• La Violencia (1948-1958)
• Marquetalia Republic
• The National Front
• Dominican embassy (1980)
• Palace of Justice (1985)
• Patriotic Union Party extermination
• Humanitarian exchange
• Mapiripán Massacre (1997)
• Peace process (1999-2002)
• Bojayá massacre (2002)
• Valle del Cauca Deputies
hostage crisis (2002-2009)
• El Nogal Club bombing (2003)
• Parapolitics scandal (2006–7)
• Operation Emmanuel
• Andean diplomatic crisis (2008)
• Operation Jaque
Illegal drug trade
Government aspects Guerrillas Government of Colombia Paramilitaries
- Military of Colombia:
Former government program
• Águilas Negras
• Los Rastrojos
Colombian armed conflict at Wiktionary Colombian armed conflict at Wikibooks Colombian armed conflict at Wikiquote Colombian armed conflict at Wikisource Colombian armed conflict at Commons Colombian armed conflict at Wikinews Military of Colombia Service Branches Army Navy Air Force
Ct. German Molano Air Base · Ct. Luis Gomez Air Base · Maj. Alberto Pauwels Rodríguez Air Base · Lt Col. Luis Pinto Air Base · BG Arturo Lema Posada Air Base · Ct.Ernesto Esguerra Air Base · BG. Camilo Daza Álvarez Air Base · My.Justino Marino Air Base · Cl. Luis Rodriguez Air Base · Lt Col. Benjamín Méndez Rey Air Base · Marco Fidel Suárez Air Base (EMAVI) · Ranks & Insignias
Wars and Conflicts Related dependencies
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