- Treaty of Paris (1763)
The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on
February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, Franceand Spain, with Portugalin agreement. Together with the Treaty of Hubertusburg, it ended the French and Indian War/ Seven Years' War. [cite book|title=The French-Indian War 1754-176|last=Marston|first=Daniel|pages=pp.84|id=The French-Indian War 1754-1760|publisher=Osprey Publishing|year=2002] The treaties marked the beginning of an extensive period of British dominance outside of Europe. [cite web|title=Wars and Battles:Treaty of Paris (1763)|url=http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h754.html|quote=In a nutshell, Britain emerged as the world’s leading colonial empire.]
While the bulk of conquered territories were restored to their pre-war owners, the British made some substantial overseas gains at the expense of France and, to a lesser extent, Spain. [cite web|title=The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War|url=http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/USA/TreatyParis.html] Preferring to keep
Guadeloupe, France gave up Canada and all of its claims to the territory east of the Mississippi Riverto Britain ["his Most Christian Majesty cedes and guaranties to his said Britannick Majesty, in full right, Canada, with all its dependencies, as well as the island of Cape Breton, and all the other islands and coasts in the gulph and river of St. Lawrence, and in general, every thing that depends on the said countries, lands, islands, and coasts, with the sovereignty, property, possession, and all rights acquired by treaty, or otherwise, which the Most Christian King and the Crown of France have had till now over the said countries, lands, islands, places, coasts, and their inhabitants" – [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_%281763%29 "Treaty of Paris"] , 1763] . Spain ceded Floridato the British, but later received New Orleans and French Louisiana from France; Manilaand Cubawere restored to Spain. France retained Saint Pierre and Miquelonand recovered Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint Luciain exchange for Dominica, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Tobagogoing to the British. In India, the French lost out to the British, receiving back its "factories" (trading posts), but agreeing to support the British client governments, as well as returning Sumatraand agreeing not to base troops in Bengal. The British garrison on the Mediterranean island of Minorcawas returned to her control, having been captured by the French at the outbreak of hostilities in Europe.
Britain returned the slave station on the isle of
Goréeto the French, but gained the Senegal Riverand its settlements. Britain agreed to demolish its fortifications in British Honduras(Belize), but received permission from Spain to keep a logwood-cutting colony there. Britain confirmed in the treaty the rights of its new subjects to practice the Roman Catholicreligion [cite book|title=Extracts from the Treaty of Paris of 1763|quote=His Britannick Majesty, on his side, agrees to grant the liberty of the Roman Catholic religion to the inhabitants of Canada.|publisher=A. Lovell & Co.|date=1892|pages=pp.6] and received confirmation of the continuation of the British king's Hanoverian right as a Prince-electorof the Holy Roman Empire.
It is sometimes claimed that the British King George III renounced his claim to be King of France by the treaty. However, this is a historical myth, and it is also falsely attributed to some of the treaties of the
French Revolutionary Wars. Such a renunciation is nowhere in the text of the treaty, and, in fact, George III continued to be styled "King of France" and used the fleurs-de-lisas part of his arms until 1801, when Britain and Irelandunited. It was dropped then because the claim was regarded as anachronistic.
The Treaty of Paris is frequently stated as the point at which France conveyed Louisiana Territory to Spain. However the transfer actually occurred in 1762 in the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) (which was not publicly announced until 1764).
The Treaty of Paris was to give Britain the east side of the Mississippi (including
Baton Rouge, Louisianawhich was to be part of the British territory of West Florida). New Orleans on the east side remained in French hands (albeit temporarily). The Mississippi River corridor in what is modern day Louisiana was to be reunited following the Louisiana Purchasein 1803 and the Adams-Onís Treatyin 1819.
The 1763 treaty states in Article VII:
Article IV of the treaty provided protections for Catholics in Canada and has been cited as the basis for
Quebecoften having its unique set of laws that are different from the rest of Canada.
The article also provided for unrestrained emigration for 18 months from Canada. As a result many of the emigrants called
Cajunswere to move to Louisiana to a region now called Acadianawhich they thought was going to remain part of France -- only to find out after they had moved that Louisiana had become part of Spain.
The article states:
List of treaties
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/paris763.htm Treaty of Paris]
* [http://www.frontenac-ameriques.org/traite-de-paris.php The Treaty of Paris and its Consequences (in French)]
* [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0006083 Treaty of Paris from "The Canadian Encyclopedia"]
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