9/11 Truth Movement

The 9/11 Truth Movement is the name adopted by organizations and individuals that question the mainstream account of the September 11 attacks against the United States. Movement members communicate primarily through the Internet [cite web| url = http://911blogger.com/|title=Paying Attention to 9/11 Related Alternative News] and regularly convene for local meetings,cite web| url = http://9-11.meetup.com/|title=Concerned Citizens, 9/11 Questions Meetups, events, clubs and groups in your area] [cite web| url =http://wearechange.org/|title=WE ARE CHANGE] cite web| url =http://wearechangela.org/|title=We Are Change LA: News] national and international conferences, [cite web| url = http://www.americanscholarssymposium.org/|title=American Scholars Symposium: 9/11 + The Neo-Con Agenda] and public demonstrations.



Frequently expressed propositions among movement supporters are that the mainstream account of the events of 9/11 is false and that the perceived anomalies in the official account can better be explained by the theory that a "rogue network," [cite web| first=Webster G. |last=Tarpley|date=2005-07-12|authorlink=Webster Tarpley|url=http://www.rense.com/general66/eed.htm|title=The London Bombs, The Rogue Network And Iran|accessdate=2007-10-31] including individuals in the US government, planned, carried out, and covered up the attack or deliberately allowed the attacks to take place. There is a wide range of alternative theories about how and why the attacks were carried out, including belief that US air defenses (NORAD) were deliberately rendered ineffective, [cite web| url = http://911research.wtc7.net/planes/defense/wargames.html| title=War Games on 9/11 Research] that the two World Trade Center Towers and WTC 7 were demolished in a controlled fashion, and that the motives for the attacks were to justify overseas wars and to increase domestic control. [cite web| url=http://911review.com/motive/index.html| title=Motives for the 9/11 Attacks]

Lt. Col Robert M. Bowman, Ph.D. (USAF, ret) expressed the one common belief: "The truth about 9/11 is that we don’t know the truth about 9/11, and we should." [cite web| url= http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,203415,00.html|title='H & C' Update: Supporter Defends Controversial Univ. Lecturer's Theories About 9/11|date=2006-07-12|publisher=Fox News|accessdate=2007-10-25]


Proponents of the 9/11 Truth Movement describe their primary goals as evidence gathering, research and promotion of the proposition that government insiders were complicit in the attacks. Many international, national and local organizations have been created to pursue these goals such as research groups, Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice (STJ911.org).

The group and website [http://www.911truth.org 911truth.org] was formed in June 2004 to coordinate the efforts of the various regional 9/11 Truth Alliances. [cite web| url=http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20061014120445472#about| title=911truth.org: About Us] This organization describes a two-step approach to what it refers to as "9/11 Truth": first, to understand the official account and the numerous objections raised against it, and second, to confront the implications of that understanding. [cite web| url=http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20050204132153814#2step| title=The "Two-Step" Approach] Several other groups and organizations also exist which involve activism, such as [http://truthaction.org truthaction.org] and [http://www.truthmove.org/ truthmove.org] .


The movement is most often discussed on the Internet and in the alternative media, including talk radio hosts like Alex Jones. Some individuals in the movement come together through regional and national meetings, events and demonstrations, but the internet is the main discussion forum.

Movement members have produced such books as Webster Tarpley's "9/11 Synthetic Terror: Made in USA" (2005), David Ray Griffin's "The New Pearl Harbor" (2004), Michael Ruppert's "Crossing the Rubicon", Paul Thompson's "The Terror Timeline," Eric Hufschmid's "Painful Questions" (2002) and Nafeez Ahmed's "The War on Freedom" (2002).

Some of the movement's popular videos have been "The Great Deception" (2002) and "The Great Conspiracy" (2004) by Barrie Zwicker, "9/11 and the American Empire" (2005) by David Ray Griffin, "9/11 Mysteries" (2006), "Loose Change" (first released in 2005), "9/11 Press for Truth" (2006), and "Terrorstorm" (2006).

Films such as Loose Change and others have consistently ranked highly among the most viewed on Google Video. [cite web
title = Most viewed at Google Video
accessdate = 2008-03-24
url = http://video.google.com/videorankings?hl=en&type=viewed&range=m2008-03-24&cr=usa


The 9/11 Families Movement

In the weeks and months that followed the attacks, questions were raised about the official account:

*Why didn't NORAD protect the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, two known terrorist targets?
*Why did the intelligence and security services fail to prevent the attacks from taking place despite numerous apparent warnings?
*Why was President George W. Bush allowed to stay in a Florida school classroom for over 10 minutes after being told that America was under attack?
*No previous steel-framed skyscrapers had ever totally collapsed due to anything except controlled demolition, so why did it happen three times on September 11?

The Bush administration was reluctant to carry out an official investigation. Feeling that the mainstream media were failing to demand answers to these questions, [Film: Press for Truth] some family members of victims of the attacks, most notably the Jersey Girls, along with survivors such as William Rodriguez, agitated through interaction with the media for a full investigation, beginning what became known as the "Families Movement."

In June 2002, the group Unanswered Questions held an event at the Washington National Press Club. [cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060106045529/http://www.unansweredquestions.org/june10.shtml |publisher=UnansweredQuestions.Org |title=Unanswered Questions: Thinking of Ourselves] Various officials and some 9/11 family members used the event to call for an investigation of the events of 9/11. On November 27, 2002, the 9/11 Commission was set up to prepare "a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks." [ [http://www.9-11commission.gov/ 9/11 Commission Report Homepage] ]

The 9/11 Family Steering Committee and 9/11 Citizens Watch were formed to monitor the work of the commission. They submitted hundreds of questions for the public hearings. [cite web|url=http://www.911independentcommission.org/questions.html |publisher=9/11 Independent Commission |title=9/11 Independent Commission: Questions] The 9/11 families were told by the 9/11 Commission that their questions would be used as a "road map" by the Commission, and would be answered in their final report. [ [http://www.commondreams.org/news2004/0322-02.htm 9/11 Watchdog Group Demands End to Stonewalling and Cover-up and Launches D.C. Advertising Campaign Calling for Sworn Public Testimony from President Bush and Clinton and Advisor Rice] March 22, 2004]

The beginnings of the 9/11 Truth Movement

Even before the commission formed, a minority of people took the view that the only reasonable explanation for the supposed anomalies in the official account, and the perceived cover-up, was that (a faction of) the government either deliberately allowed the attacks to take place, or were actively involved in the planning and carrying out of the attacks.

On January 8, 2002, a rally and march on Senator Dianne Feinstein's San Francisco office demanded a Congressional investigation of 9/11. A delegation of activists from peace and human rights organizations met with Feinstein's and Senator Barbara Boxer's staff and raised key questions about 9/11. [cite web|url=http://www.communitycurrency.org/9-11.html |publisher=Community Currency. Org |title=Questioning the War on Terrorism] That month, President Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney asked Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle to limit the investigations to "intelligence failures." [cite news|url=http://archives.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/01/29/inv.terror.probe/ |publisher=CNN |date=2002-01-29 |title= CNN.com - Bush asks Daschle to limit Sept. 11 probes |author=Dana Bash, Jon Karl & John King]

This was the beginning of what has become known as the "9/11 Truth Movement". In 2002, U.S. Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney (D-GA) became closely identified with the movement when she questioned whether Bush had foreknowledge of 9/11. [cite web|url=http://www.rise4news.net/McKinney.html| title=Transcript of appearance of REP. CYNTHIA ANN MCKINNEY (D-Ga.) on KPFA's Flashpoints with Dennis Bernstein. March 25, 2002] Before the 9/11 Commission Report, there were questions about the official account published. Alex Jones claims to have predicted the attacks in July 2001, on his syndicated radio show at infowars.com, even mentioning the World Trade Center as a potential target and that Osama bin Laden might be used as a "scapegoat". [Google video | id = -1222445722544874066 | title = Alex Jones Predicts 9/11-like Terrorist attack in U.S. on his July 25, 2001 Show ] Jones has been referred to as the progenitor of the movement. [cite web|url=http://www.americanscholarssymposium.org |publisher=American Scholars Symposium |title=American Scholars Symposium: 9/11 & The Neo-Con Agenda] Michael Ruppert, Canadian journalist Barrie Zwicker, and President of Voltaire Network Thierry Meyssan all published criticisms or pointed out purported anomalies of the mainstream account of the attacks. French author Jean-Charles Brisard and German authors Mathias Bröckers and Andreas von Bülow published books critical of media reporting and advancing the controlled demolition thesis of the destruction of the World Trade Center towers.

To reach a wider audience, there were a number of campaigns and demonstrations. In September 2002, the first "Bush Did It!" rallies and marches were held in San Francisco and Oakland, California organized by The All People's Coalition. [cite web| url=http://www.communitycurrency.org/historicaloverview.html| title=An Overview of the Truth Movement, Carol Brouillet] In October 2002 an anti-Bush parody of the dollar bill that includes addresses of websites which say they prove that 9/11 was an inside job, began being produced and handed out at protests and rallies.

The 911 Visibility Project was formed in 2003 and in January 2004 they organized a demonstration at Ground Zero; activists stood behind a large banner that read "The Bush Regime Engineered 9/11," and held signs reading "Support the Families: Stop 9/11 Cover-Up" and "Bush Knew". Leaflets were handed out pointing out supposed inconsistencies in the official account. [ [http://septembereleventh.org/newsarchive/2004-01-16-build.php Group Calls For "9/11 Solidarity Actions" Around the World] Jan 16, 2004] On March 20, 2004, more than 100,000 people turned out for an anti-war demonstration in New York. 9/11 truth activists distributed thousands of "Stop the 9-11 Cover-Up" signs and the movement received national press exposure. [ [http://www.septembereleventh.org/newsarchive/2004-03-20-antiwar.php 9/11 Truth Contingent Marches at NYC Antiwar Demo] March 20, 2004]

Truth Movement reaction to the 9/11 Commission Report

To the consternation of the families and the "9/11 skeptics" in general, many of the questions that the Family Steering Committee put to the 9/11 Commission were allegedly not asked in either the hearings or in the Commission Report. [cite web|url=http://justicefor911.org/Appendix4_FSCQuestionRatings_111904.php |publisher=Justice for 9/11 |title=Justice for 9/11: Complaint & Petition] Lorie Van Auken, one of the "Jersey Widows", estimates that only 30% of their questions were answered in the final 9/11 Commission Report, published July 22, 2004. The story of the Families Movement and their monitoring of the commission is documented in the film "" (2006).

The 9/11 Family Steering Committee produced a [http://www.911truth.org/images/resources/Family%20Steering%20Cmte%20review%20of%20Report.pdf 25-page report] summarizing the questions they had raised to the Commission, indicating which they believe had been answered satisfactorily, which they believe had been addressed but not answered satisfactorily, and which they believe had been generally ignored in or omitted from the Report. In addition, the 339-page book "The 9/11 Commission Report: Omissions and Distortions" by David Ray Griffin, claimed that the report had either omitted information or distorted the truth, providing 115 examples. He summarizes his book in the article "The 9/11 Commission Report: A 571-page lie", claiming that "the entire Report is constructed in support of one big lie: that the official story about 9/11 is true." [cite web| url=http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20050523112738404| title=David Ray Griffin's "The 9/11 Commission Report: A 571-page Lie"]

On May 26, 2008 college professor Blair Gadsby began a protest and a hunger strike outside the offices of Senator and Republican Party Nominee for President John McCain's office demanding to see McCain. Arizona Republican State Senator Karen Johnson joined the protest in support. On June 10 Johnson with Gadsby as her guest and other 9/11 truth movement members in the audience spoke before the Arizona State Senate espousing the controlled demolition theory and supporting a reopening of the 9/11 investigation. [ [http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/local/articles/0604johnson0604.html Lawmaker asks McCain to talk with 9/11 theorists Arizona Republic June 3, 2008] ] [ [http://www.azcapitoltimes.com/story.cfm?id=8833 State senator: WTC destroyed by bombs, not just planes Arizona Capital Times June 10, 2008] ] In response to a questioner McCain who wrote the forward to a Popular Mechanics book aimed at debunking the theories [ [http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military_law/3491861.html?page=3 Forward to " Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts" by Senator John McCain] ] said he did not meet Gadsby "Because I don't take well to threats". [ [http://rawstory.com/news/2008/McCain_doesnt_want_to_impeach_Bush_0626.html McCain doesn't want to impeach Bush The Raw Story June 26, 2008] ]

Truth Movement reaction to the NIST Report

Immediately after the collapses of the Towers and Building 7, eyewitness testimony referring to explosions, along with features of the collapses caught on film that resembled footage of controlled demolitions, led many people, including some news anchors and engineers, to suspect that explosives had been pre-planted within the buildings. [cite web| url=http://911research.wtc7.net/disinfo/retractions/romero.html#ref1| title=The opinion of demolition expert Van Romero on September 11 2001] Within hours, the explanation that the impact damage and fires had led to a "progressive collapse" was presented in the mainstream media. And in weeks and months that followed, articles in scientific journals explained that the global collapses of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers were inevitable, with most asserting that the impact damage and intense heat of the fires caused the floor trusses and the vertical columns to weaken and fail, and the "pancake" effect of floors crashing down on top of one another brought down the entire structure. [cite web| url=http://web.archive.org/web/20011031095744/http://www.tam.uiuc.edu/news/200109wtc/| title=Why did the World Trade Center collapse? - A simple analysis] The initial government investigation, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Report (May 2002), reached similar conclusions, but recommended a more thorough investigation. [cite web| url=http://www.fema.gov/rebuild/mat/wtcstudy.shtm| title=World Trade Center Building Performance Study (FEMA)] The full Report into the collapses of the Twin Towers by the official investigators, NIST, was published in June 2005.

Following the [http://wtc.nist.gov/reports_october05.htm NIST Report] , numerous responses were written by members of the 9/11 truth movement. Many of these responses claimed that it ignored key evidence suggesting an explosive demolition, "distorted reality" by using deceptive language and diagrams, and attacked straw man arguments. The popular truth movement article by Jim Hoffman is entitled: "Building a better mirage: NIST's 3-year $20,000,000 Cover Up of the Crime of the Century" (December 2005). [cite web| url=http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/nist/index.html| title=Building a better mirage: NIST's 3-year $20,000,000 Cover Up of the Crime of the Century| author=Jim Hoffman]

In the Fall of 2005, then-Brigham Young University Physics professor Steven Jones announced a paper criticizing the NIST Report and describing his hypothesis that the WTC towers had been intentionally demolished by explosives. This paper garnered a small amount of mainstream media attention, including an appearance by Jones on MSNBC. This was the first such programming on a major cable news station. Jones has to date failed to get his paper published in any established, peer reviewed mainstream science journal, other than publications produced by fellow truth movement members. Although Jones has been criticized by his university for publicizing his claims before vetting them through the approved peer review process and has since been placed on paid leave,cite news |first = Tad |last = Walch|title = BYU places "9/11 truth" professor on paid leave|url = http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,645199800,00.html |work = |publisher = Deseret Morning News|date = 2006-09-08] cite news |first = Will |last = Sullivan|title = BYU takes on a 9/11 conspiracy professor|url = http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/060911/11conspiracy.htm |publisher = US News & World Report |date = 2006-09-11] he continues to remain a focus of public interest for his 9/11 research.

In March 2007, members of [http://911scholars.org Scholars for 9/11 Truth] , Dr. Judy Wood, Dr. Morgan Reynolds, and attorney Jerry V. Leaphart submitted several requests for corrections to the NIST with the Department of Commerce. [cite web| url=http://www.ocio.os.doc.gov/ITPolicyandPrograms/Information_Quality/PROD01_002619| title=FY 2007 Information Quality Request for Corrections ] However, the majority of researchers and activists in the movement have rejected the claims in these submissions and those who submitted them. [cite web |url=http://stj911.org/actions/NIST_DQA_Petition.pdf |title=Scholars and Family Members Submit Request for Correction to 9/11 NIST Report |accessdate=2007-04-14 |author= [http://stj911.org/press_releases/NIST.html Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice] |date=2007-04-10|format=pdf] [cite web |url=http://journalof911studies.com/letters.html |title=Journal of 9/11 Studies |accessdate=2007-04-18] [cite web |url=http://www.911blogger.com/node/6531 |title=9/11 Truth and Disinformation: Definitions and Examples |accessdate=2007-04-18] [cite web |url=http://www.911research.wtc7.net/essays/patriots_question/index.html |title=Discrediting By Association: Undermining the Case for Patriots Who Question 9/11 |accessdate=2007-08-27] Accordingly, in April 2007, some 9/11 victims' family members and some members of the new [http://stj911.org/press_releases/NIST.html Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice] submitted an additional request for correction to NIST, containing their own views on the defects in the report. [cite web| url=http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200704/RFCtoNISTbyMcIlvaineDoyleJonesRyanGageSTJ.pdf| title=Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice request for correction to NIST] NIST responded to this request in September 2007 supporting their original conclusions; [cite web| url=http://www.911proof.com/NIST.pdf| title=NIST response to request for correction] the originators of the request wrote back to them in October 2007, asking them to reconsider their response. [cite web| url=http://journalof911studies.com/volume/2007/AppealLetterToNISTGourleyEtAl.pdf| title=Appeal Letter to NIST]


The movement has attracted the attention of some major mainstream media publications.

On September 3, 2006: "Time Magazine" published a lead article, "Why the 9/11 Conspiracies Won't Go Away", noting that::"The population of world No. 2 [the 9/11 Truth Movement] is larger than you might think. A Scripps-Howard poll of 1,010 adults last month found that 36% of Americans consider it "very likely" or "somewhat likely" that government officials either allowed the attacks to be carried out or carried out the attacks themselves. Thirty-six percent adds up to a lot of people. This is not a fringe phenomenon. It is a mainstream political reality." [Cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1531304,00.html |publisher=Time Magazine |date=2006-09-03 |title=Why the 9/11 Conspiracy Theories Won't Go Away |author=Lev Grossman] The same article concluded that::"The [conspiracy] theories prompt small, reasonable questions that demand answers that are just too large and unreasonable to swallow."The movement receives criticism from a variety of sources. Matt Taibbi of "Rolling Stone" wrote that he has "two basic gripes with the 9/11 Truth Movement"::"The first is that it gives supporters of Bush an excuse to dismiss critics of this administration. I have no doubt that every time one of those Loose Change dickwads opens his mouth, a Republican somewhere picks up five votes.... Secondly, it's bad enough that people in this country think Tim LaHaye is a prophet and Sean Hannity is an objective newsman. But if large numbers of people in this country can swallow 9/11 conspiracy theory without puking, all hope is lost." [cite web| last = Taibbi| first = Matt| authorlink = Matt Taibbi| year = 2006| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/11818067/the_low_post_the_hopeless_stupidity_of_911_conspiracies/1 |title = The Low Post: I, Left Gatekeeper| work = Politics| publisher = Rolling Stone| accessdate = 2006-09-29]

MIT engineering professor Thomas W. Eagar was at first unwilling to acknowledge the concerns of the movement, saying "if (the argument) gets too mainstream, I'll engage in the debate." In response to physicist Steven Jones publishing a hypothesis that the World Trade Center was destroyed by controlled demolition, Eager stated::"These people (in the 9/11 truth movement) use the "reverse scientific method"… they determine what happened, throw out all the data that doesn't fit their conclusion, and then hail their findings as the only possible conclusion." [cite web|last = Walch|first = Tad|year = 2006|url = http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,645200098,00.html|title = Controversy dogs Y.'s Jones|work = Utah news|publisher = Deseret News Publishing Company|accessdate = 2006-09-09]

At a political rally for his wife, Bill Clinton responded to a heckler by saying, "Nine-eleven was NOT an inside job, it was an Osama Bin Laden job with 19 people from Saudi Arabia, they murdered 3,000 Americans and others foreigners including Muslims and we look like idiots, that the people who murdered our fellow citizens did it, when they are continuing to murder other people around the world." [cite web |url=http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/01/bill-clinton-un.html |title=Bill Clinton Undeterred By 9/11 Hecklers date=2008-01-31]

Truth Movement organizations

Since the publication of the official reports, a number of interconnected truth movement organizations have been formed to research the events of the day, to promote the 9/11 truth movement and 9/11 conspiracy theories to the general public, and to try and force a new investigation.


This organization was launched in June 2004 and has become the central portal for all the 9/11 truth movement organizations. It is run by Janice Matthewscite news|url=http://blog.washingtonpost.com/earlywarning/2006/05/911_truth_i_dont_think_so.html |date=2006-05-26 |publisher=The Washington Post |title=9/11 Truth? I Don't Think So |author=William M. Arkin] (Executive Director), David Kubiakcite web|url=http://www.zogby.com/news/ReadNews.dbm?ID=855 |title=Half of New Yorkers Believe US Leaders Had Foreknowledge of Impending 9-11 Attacks and "Consciously Failed" To Act... |publisher=Zogby International |date=2004-08-30] (International Campaign Advisor) and Mike Bergercite news|url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0603/22/sbt.01.html |publisher=CNN |title=Charlie Sheen Questions Official 9/11 Explanations; "Young and Restless" Star Weighs in on Political Topics |date=2006-03-22] (Media Coordinator), among others, and its advisory board includes Steven Jones, Barrie Zwicker and Faiz Khan.cite web| url=http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20061014120445472#about| title=911truth.org "About Us"]

The organization co-sponsored the Zogby Polls that have shown an increasing number of people believing the government has covered-up the real story of 9/11. [cite web|url=http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20040830120349841 |date=2004-08-30 |title=Poll: 50% of NYC Says U.S. Govt Knew |author=Zogby International |publisher=9/11 Truth. Org] [Cite web|url=http://zogby.com/features/features.dbm?ID=231 |publisher=Zogby International |title=American Thinking Toward The 9/11 Terrorist Attacks |date=2006-05-24] [cite web| url=http://www.zogby.com/features/features.dbm?ID=231| title= Zogby Poll (May 2006)] A few of its sister and spin-off organizations include the [http://www.septembereleventh.org/ 9/11 Visibility Project] and [http://justicefor911.org Justice For 9/11] . It also organizes gatherings and events, promotes "scholarly" research, warns about the discrediting effect of extreme alternative theories, and attempts to affect mainstream media coverage.

In October 2004, an alliance of over 114 prominent Americans, and 48 family members of those killed on 9/11, signed the 911Truth.org statement, in which they demand a new and "deeper" investigation into the events of 9/11. [cite web|url=http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20041026093059633 |date=2004-10-26 |title=Respected Leaders and Families Launch 9/11 Truth Statement Demanding Deeper Investigation into the Events of 9/11 |publisher=9/11 Truth. Org]

cholars for 9/11 Truth

The original Scholars for 9/11 Truth (whose website was at http://www.st911.org) was a group of people of varying backgrounds and expertise who rejected the mainstream media and government account of the September 11, 2001 attacks and offered a wide range of alternative hypotheses in its stead.fact|date=September 2008 It was founded by Dr. James H. Fetzer and Dr. Steven Jones on December 15, 2005.

At first, the group invited many ideas and hypotheses to be considered; however, leading members soon came to feel that the inclusion of some theories advocated by Fetzer — such as the use of directed energy weapons or small nuclear bombs to destroy the Twin Towers — were insufficiently supported by evidence and were exposing the group to ridicule.

In December 2006, Jones wrote to all members explaining that he, and several others who shared his opinion, no longer wanted to be associated with Fetzer and intended to help set up a new scholars group with a committee for decision making, which became known as the Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice, whose interest was in the use of the scientific method in analysis. [cite web|url=http://stj911.org/index.html |title=Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice |publisher=Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice] The original group took a vote and members decided on which group to join; out of 226 members, 10 members voted to stay with the original group run by Fetzer, while 168 members voted to move to the new group. [cite web|url=http://stj911.org/faq.html#quest7| title=Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice]

Fetzer remains the head of the original group. During 2007, he has maintained his view that "If we don't consider the full range of possible alternative explanations, we may arrive at false conclusions by eliminating the true hypothesis from serious consideration because it seems farfetched or even absurd." [cite web|url=http://www.scholarsfor911truth.org/OpenLetterToJones.html |date=November 16, 2006 |author=James H. Fetzer |title=An Open Letter about Steven Jones |publisher=9/11 Scholars for Truth] [http://blog.lege.net/content/Steven_E_Jones_And_James_Fetzer_Exchange.html] Judy Wood and Morgan Reynolds, leading proponents of the ideas that directed energy weapons were used to bring down the World Trade Center buildings and that no Boeing 757's nor 767's were used on 9/11, were invited to rejoin the group. [cite web|url=http://www.nomoregames.net/index.php?page=911&subpage1=trouble_with_jones#NPT |publisher=NoMoreGames.Net |title=Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Disintegrate?]

An organization has expressed an interest in staging a protest march at the 2008 Republican National Convention, [ [http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2008/06/25/protestfactions/ Come one, come all, ye Republican protester Minnesota Public Radio June 25, 2008] ] although it is unclear whether it is Fetzer's group or Jones'.

cholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice

[http://www.stj911.org Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice] is the group that formed when a majority of members of the original scholars group chose to leave and form their own group in January 2007. Among its more than 500 current members are: [ [http://stj911.org/members/index.html STH911 Members] ]
American Institute of Architects architect Richard Gage, former physics professor and co-founder of the original group Steven E. Jones, Jim Hoffman, David Ray Griffin, Peter Phillips, chemist Kevin Ryan, Lon Waters and Canadian journalist, writer and political activist Barrie Zwicker.

Many members of Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice believe the evidence suggests the World Trade Center Towers were destroyed through explosive demolition. Members of STJ along with two 9/11 family members submitted a Request for Correction to the NIST in April 2007, citing, "the NIST Final Report violates information quality standards, draws inferences that are inconsistent with its own computer simulations and physical tests, and exhibits a significant bias toward a preordained conclusion while ignoring available evidence contrary to it." [cite web| url=http://stj911.org/press_releases/NIST.html| title=Scholars and Family Members Submit Request for Correction to 9/11 NIST Report] In December of 2007, members Richard Gage, AIA, and attorney James Gourley participated in the NIST/NCST Advisory Committee Meeting Teleconference [cite web| url=http://wtc.nist.gov/media/NCSTACmeetingDec18_2007.htm| title=NCST Advisory Committee Meeting, December 18, 2007] to comment on the ongoing investigation of World Trade Center Building 7. [cite web| url=http://www.911blogger.com/node/13078| title=NIST/NCST Advisory Committee Meeting: video with slides and speaker names]

Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice also emphasize the importance of perception and propaganda in discussions about 9/11. [cite web| url=http://www.stj911.org/perception/index.html| title=Perception and Propaganda] In particular they claim misinformation, straw man arguments, and the label of 'conspiracy theorist' are used to discredit skeptics of the official account. They also have critiqued some theories within the movement as untenable, such as the mini-nuke claims [cite web|url=http://www.scholarsfor911truth.org/MiniNukeHypoth_Jones_300906.html |title=Testing the Hypothesis that Mini-Nukes Were Used on the WTC Towers |date=2006-09-28 |last=Jones |first=Steven E.|authorlink=Steven E. Jones|publisher=9/11 Scholars for Truth] [cite web|url=http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/theories/nuclear.html |publisher=9/11 Research |title=(Debunking) Theories that Nuclear Weapons Destroyed the Twin Towers] and the issue of the directed energy weapon. [cite web|url=http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/theories/energybeam.html |publisher=9/11 Research |title=(Debunking) Theories that Directed Electromagnetic Energy Weapons Destroyed the Twin Towers]

In a detailed letter to NIST on September 15th, 2008, regarding its draft report in Building 7, members of Scholars for 9/11 Truth & Justice challenged NIST's claims underlying the destruction of 7 World Trade Center. [cite web|url=http://stj911.org/blog/?p=42|title=Scientists, Scholars, Architects & Engineers respond to NIST|date=2008-09-15|accessdate=2008-09-17]

9-11 Research

[http://www.911research.wtc7.net/index.html 9-11 Research] is a documentary website of the 9/11/01 attack and its aftermath and body of original analysis based on that evidence, created by Jim Hoffman and supported by a consortium of volunteer researchers. [cite web| url=http://911research.wtc7.net/re911/about.html#who| title=9/11 Research - Who we are] The main site explores the background to the attacks, the evidence of the attacks themselves, perceived anomalies in the official account, mainstream media coverage, and responses from scientific journals.

A related site, [http://911review.com/ 911review.com] , discusses the means of attack, examines motives, and describes historical examples of "false flag" operations. It also identifies misinterpretations of evidence, untenable alternative theories and hoaxes found in research articles and websites. [cite web| url=http://911review.com/errors/index.html| title=Parade of Errors] Another related site, [http://wtc7.net/ wtc7.net] , focuses exclusively on 7 World Trade Center.

9/11 Citizens Watch

9/11 Citizens Watch is a "citizen-led watchdog network established to support independent investigation, research and analysis into the attacks of September 11th and its political and economic aftermath." [ [http://www.911citizenswatch.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=7&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0 About 9/11 CitizensWatch] ] The group was formed in 2002 by John Judge and Kyle Hence and, along with the Family Steering Committee, played an active role in calling for the establishment of the 9/11 Commission, and monitoring the commission closely. [http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0325/p03s01-usgn.htm The Christian Science Monitor - A key force behind the 9/11 commission] ]

Since the 9/11 Commission Report was published in 2004, 9/11 Citizens Watch has produced its own commentary, "The 9/11 Omission Report", and co-sponsored the 9/11 Citizens Commission and Zogby Polls surveying public opinion on the subject. [ [http://www.zogby.com/search/ReadNews.dbm?ID=855 Half of New Yorkers Believe US Leaders Had Foreknowledge of Impending 9-11 Attacks and "Consciously Failed" To Act; 66% Call For New Probe of Unanswered Questions by Congress or New York's Attorney General, New Zogby International Poll Reveals] August 30, 2004]

Hispanic Victims Group

The Hispanic Victims Group is a group created after the 9/11 attacks and headed by William Rodriguez, who is now an outspoken member of the 9/11 truth movement. The group was a key force behind the 9/11 Commission, and was among the Families Advisory Council for the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation.cite web|url=http://www.renewnyc.com/displaynews.aspx?newsid=5a791121-7404-4553-92ec-19c9b64237ad |publisher=Lower Manhattan Development Corporation |date=2002-01-31 |title=Chairman Whitehead Announces LMDC Advisory Councils] The group helped secure an amnesty for Hispanic illegal immigrants who died in the attacks.

We Are Change

We Are Change is a group of citizen activists who characterize the September 11th attacks as false flag events. Started in New York City in 2006, the group's members are known for their street actions and confrontations of allegedly corrupt officials, whom they accuse of lying about the events of 9/11. There are over 20 chapters of the group internationally. [http://www.wearechange.org We Are Change] ]

We Are Change hosted a five-day event for the sixth anniversary of 9/11 on September 11, 2007 in New York City. They raised over $11,000 for sick and dying first responders of the attacksFact|date=May 2008

The organization staged a protest march at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. The group filmed protests in an effort to catch illegal action by protesters or police. [ [http://www.rockymountainnews.com/news/2008/aug/26/afternoon-march-focuses-911-attacks/ Afternoon march focuses on 9/11 attacks Rocky Mountain News August 25, 2008] ]

The NYC 9/11 Ballot Initiative (2009)

The NYC 9/11 Ballot Initiative is an effort undertaken by certain segments of the "911 truth movement" to create a citizens' commission "staffed by competent, professional individuals of the highest caliber" with subpoena powers to re-investigate the 9/11 attacks. [ [http://www.nyc911initiative.org./mission_statement.htm NYC Ballot Initiative Mission Statement] ] The group is currently running a petition drive with the goal putting a referendum to create the commission on the 2009 General Election Ballot. By September 2008 more then 30000 signatures had been collected out of a goal of 75000. The original mission of collecting 30000 signatures and putting the referendum on the 2008 ballot was scrapped when it was felt that the New York City Council would "sit on" the petitions while attempt to invalidate some of the petitions. Also it was felt that the issue would get overshadowed by the Presidential Election. The group hopes to make the initiative an issue in the 2009 race for New York City Mayor and have enough signatures as an insurance against challenges to the petitions. [ [http://www.thevillager.com/villager_280/pileo911.html Pile o’ 9/11 petitions The Villager September 10-16 2008 issue] ] [ [http://www.nyc911initiative.org./index.html NYC Ballot Initiative Home Webpage] ]

The Initiative cites a $10,000,000 annual budget for the citizens' commission, the source of which has not been disclosed but which apparently is not to come from public funds. It further calls for base annual salaries for each of its 15 commissioners (most unnamed to date) of $100,000, plus expenses.

Two former United States Senators Mike Gravel and Lincoln Chafee have been suggested as members of the Commission. [ [http://www.nyc911initiative.org./commissioners.htm NYC Ballot Initiative Commission WebPage] ]

Several have been critical of the groups' claim of "competent, professional individuals of the highest caliber," in part due to the inclusion of Commissioner Edgar Mitchell, a former NASA astronaut, consultant for the science-fiction TV series "The X Files", [ [http://www.drboylan.com/emtchl2.html Yes, Aliens Really Are Out There, Says the Man on the Moon] ] and co-founder of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, who has stated beliefs supporting various UFO Conspiracy Theories [ [http://truthaction.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=3724&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=0 Top reasons why 9/11 Truth activists will NOT support the current ballot initiative] , truthaction.org] [ [http://www.911blogger.com/node/16191#comment-190075 Put Les aside for a moment] , 911blogger forum] [cite web | url = http://www.virtuallystrange.net/ufo/updates/1998/oct/m12-010.shtml | title = Edgar Mitchell On The UFO Cover-Up |work=UFO UpDates | format=subscription fee required | date = 1998-10-11 | accessdate = 2007-02-07 ] [cite web | title = Edgar Mitchell, Ph.D. - UFO Researchers & People | url = http://www.etcontact.net/Researchers/Detail44.htm | publisher = UFOEvidence.org | accessdate = 2007-02-07 ] cite web | url = http://www.sptimes.com/2004/02/18/Neighborhoodtimes/Astronaut__We_ve_had_.shtml | title = Astronaut: We've had visitors | date = 2004-02-18 | accessdate = 2007-10-14 | author = Waveney Ann Moore | work = St. Petersburg Times ] In a July 22, 2008 discussion on the Kerrang Radio Talk Show, [ [http://www.kerrangradio.co.uk/Article.asp?id=804160&spid= Astronaut Says Aliens Are Real] ] a blogger reports that:

:"Mitchell made the startling... claim that the U.S., U.K., and other global governments have been involved in a vast cover-up conspiracy about UFOs... going into details about the intentions of the "aliens" that he claims are from other planets in the galaxy. ..." [ [http://redstarfilms.blogspot.com/2008/07/edgar-mitchells-disclosure-lunacy-truth.html Edgar Mitchell's "Disclosure": Lunacy, Truth, or Advertising?] ]

Activists have also questioned the reliability of individuals charged with overseeing the effort due to a history of disruptions and the repeated inclusion of discrediting speakers at public events. [ [http://truthaction.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=3724 Top reasons why 9/11 Truth activists will NOT support the current ballot initiative] ]

Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth

[http://www.ae911truth.org Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth] is a non-partisan association of architects, engineers, and affiliates, which will be asking the United States Congress to launch an independent investigation with subpoena power to investigate the collapses of the World Trade Center buildings One, Two, and Seven. The organization is running a petition drive toward that end that has gathered the signatures of over five hundred architects and engineers as well as over two thousand affiliates (affiliates are other petition signers, including architect and engineering students). The organization’s website uses various media and technical resources to argue for the controlled demolition hypothesis. The organization was formed in 2007 by Richard Gage, a member of the American Institute of Architects.

Richard Gage, on behalf of AE911Truth, submitted written public comments to the National Construction Safety Team (NCST) Advisory Committee Meeting on December 18, 2007. [cite web|url=http://wtc.nist.gov/media/NCSTACmeetingDec18_2007.htm |title=NIST and the World Trade Center |publisher=Wtc.nist.gov |date= |accessdate=2008-09-05]

In August 2008 NIST released their final report on the collapse of 7 World Trade Center concluding that the collapse was caused by fires originating from burning debris falling from the other towers and rejecting the Controlled Demolition Theory. In reaction to [http://wtc.nist.gov/media/NIST_NCSTAR_1A_for_public_comment.pdf NIST Final Report on WTC7] , Richard Gage stated, “How much longer do we have to endure the coverup of how Building 7 was destroyed?” [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/22/nyregion/22wtccnd.html?_r=2&bl&ex=1219464000&en=920506ca2f959545&ei=5087%0A&oref=slogin&oref=sloginFire, Not Explosives, Felled 3rd Tower on 9/11, Report Says] ]


Members of the 9/11 truth organizations, such as the Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice, regularly hold meetings and conferences to discuss alternative theories about 9/11 and to strategize about how best to achieve their goals. Many of these conferences are organized by 911truth.org and some have been covered by the international media. [http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/news/story.html?id=2bcf9f07-6407-4b2c-9f4e-7d4a15afcb98&k=46273 Canada National Post: A theory that just won't die] ] [ [http://911truth.org/911rtt/ 9/11:Revealing the Truth, Reclaiming Our Future. Chicago, June 2-4, 2006] ]

The 9-11 Citizens Commission and other conferences

The 9-11 Citizens Commission was held in New York on September 9 2004. This was a meeting by a group of United States citizens who were skeptical of the findings of the 9/11 Commission Report, and who purported to launch their own investigation into the attacks.

The event was billed as being modeled after the United States Congressional hearings which were conducted by the 9/11 Commission. A group of citizens heard testimony provided by witnesses, authors, experts and whistle blowers. The witnesses gave their testimony after having been sworn in, and were then questioned by the citizen panel. An audience and representatives from the press were also present.

Panelists included Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney, local Imam Dr. Faiz Khan, and Bob McIlvaine, father of one of the victims of the 9/11 attacks. Other participants included Barry Zelman (who lost his brother in the attack), Mindy Kleinberg, Barrie Zwicker, Paul Thompson, former Diplomat Michael Springmann, Michael Ruppert and former blink-182 guitarist/vocalist Tom DeLonge.

Other conferences have been held throughout the United States and Europe. On July 22, 2005 Cynthia McKinney convened an all-day briefing on Capitol Hill focusing on 9/11. Several members of the 9/11 truth movement took part, including Michael Ruppert, Peter Dale Scott, David Ray Griffin and Barrie Zwicker. US Representative Carolyn C. Kilpatrick also attended. [ [http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/072905_mckinney_911_briefing.shtml Cynthia McKinney Brings 9/11 Back to Congress] 2005-07-29] On the Sixth Anniversary of the 9/11 attacks "Let's Make History 2007" was held in New York City. [ [http://wearechange.org/91107 Let's Make History 2007 Buy Tickets- Online Box Office ] ] On Sept 11 2003, a 9/11 Truth Movement conference was held in Berlin. [ [http://www.communitycurrency.org/historicaloverview.html Historical Overview of 9-11 Truth Movement ] ]

Smaller conferences have taken place in New York, [ [http://www.ny911truth.org/ New York 9/11 Truth Events] ] across America and in Europe. [ [http://www.nineeleven.co.uk British 9/11 Truth Campaign Calendar] ]

Critique within the Truth Movement

While there is general agreement within the movement that individuals within the United States government (but not necessarily the government as a whole) are responsible for the attacks, alternative theories differ about what may have happened. There have been a number of articles and responses written by members critiquing the methods and theories of other members, often in a scholarly format, as in the Journal of 9/11 Studies. There are also website articles reviewing some of the papers, books and films produced by other researchers. Several reviews have been produced including Jeremy Baker's "In Plane Site: A Critical Review", [ [http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/baker1.html In Plane Site: A Critical Review ] ] Michael Green's analysis of Loose Change in 2004 [ [http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/green/loose_change.html 'Loose Change' An analysis, by Michael B. Green ] ] and Eric Salter's examination of conspiracy theories that don't involve any planes in 2006. [ [http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/salter/review.html Critcal Review of WTC "No Plane" Theories ] ]

While Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice advocates the use of the scientific method and engaging in civil research activities over public debate, [ [http://stj911.org/about.html STJ911 - About Page] ] Jim Fetzer's group, Scholars for 9/11 Truth, has said that the scientific method is unnecessary and that any imaginable event is worthy of advocating to the public as a potential cause for the attacks. Reporting on a conference involving Fetzer's group, a "Madison Times" article stated: "By Sunday the conference had covered weather control, weapons from space, and the idea that the planes that struck the towers never existed at all." [ [http://www.madison.com/tct/news/stories/204531 9/11 doubters doubt each other,too] by Ben Popper, Madison Times] Members of Scholars for 9/11 Truth have written papers on topics such as the idea that mininukes were used to destroy the WTC towers, or that energy weapons from space may have been used. [ [http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/reynolds/index.html Morgan Reynolds' Encumbered Case for Controlled Demolition ] ] [http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200702]

Major media


One of the best known authors of 9/11 truth movement literature is theologian David Ray Griffin. His two books, "" (March 2004), which outlined a methodical, deductive framework for researching 9/11, and "The 9/11 Commission Report: Omissions and Distortions" (October 2004), became best-sellers. His most recent work "Debunking 9/11 Debunking" (May 2007) looks at the way magazines such as "Popular Mechanics" have sought to debunk the alternative 9/11 theories.

In September 2004, the interactive " [http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/project.jsp?project=911_project Complete 9/11 Timeline] " website by Paul Thompson, which is a collection of mainstream media reports presented chronologically, was made into the book "The Terror Timeline".
Michael Ruppert's "Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil" (October 2004) identified potential key insider suspects in the 9/11 attacks and provide an examination of their context: petroleum, geopolitics, narco-traffic, intelligence and militarism. Webster Tarpley's "Synthetic Terror: Made in USA" (2005) described a link between 9/11 and previous accusations of false flag state-sponsored terrorism such as Gladio or the Red Brigades.

Barrie Zwicker's "Towers of Deception" (October 2006) provides twenty-six "exhibits" of evidence proving "beyond a reasonable doubt" that 9/11 was an inside job. Zwicker also presents case histories of de facto censorship by mainstream media and examines the psychological phenomenon of denial, false flag operations, psychological warfare, and an "invisible government" that secretly manipulates events.


Popular films made by the 9/11 truth movement include:"" (2007) by Korey Rowe,"Martial Law 9/11: Rise of the Police State" (2005) by Alex Jones,"911 Mysteries: Demolitions" (2006),"The Great Conspiracy: The 9/11 News Special You Never Saw" (2004) by Barrie Zwicker,and "9/11: Blueprint for Truth" (2007) by Richard Gage.

These documentaries present a range of alternate theories about how the attacks might have been carried out. In some cases, these theories have been rejected by other movement members. [ [http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/green/loose_change.html "Loose Change" An analysis] August 3, 2005] In this case most objections raised against the movie were taken into consideration while creating the "Final Cut" version.

"9/11 Press for Truth" (2006) documents the struggle by the Jersey Widows to open a full investigation of the events, and their frustration while monitoring the 9/11 Commission as part of the Family Steering Committee. The film, partly based on "The Terror Timeline" by Paul Thompson, also looks at warnings received by the US government prior to September 11 and instances during the US invasion of Afghanistan where Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda managed to escape from US forces and flee into Pakistan.

Alex Jones has made a number of films about perceived historical instances of false flag terrorism and points out similarities between them and the 9/11 attack. He also promotes the view that the US government has used 9/11 to increase domestic control via the Patriot Act, Homeland Security Bill and militarization of police forces.

Mainstream media coverage

*2002 September 15 — "New York Magazine" [cite news|url=http://newyorkmetro.com/nymetro/news/sept11/features/n_7691/index1.html |author=Jennifer Senior |title=The Memorial Warriors |date=2006-09-15 |publisher=New York Magazine]
*2004 March 25 — "The Christian Science Monitor"
*2006 July 28 — "National Post" (Toronto, Canada)
*2006 August — "Vanity Fair" [cite news|url=http://www.vanityfair.com/ontheweb/features/2006/08/loosechange200608 |author=Nancy Jo Sales |title=Click Here for Conpiracy |date=August, 2006 |publisher=Vanity Fair]
*2006 September 3 — "San Francisco Chronicle", [cite news|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/09/03/INGR0KRCBA1.DTL |publisher=San Francisco Gate |author=Jonathan Curiel |title=The Conspiracy To Rewrite 9/11 |date=2006-09-03]
*2006 September 5 — "The Guardian" (United Kingdom) [cite news|url=http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/worldwide/story/0,,1864657,00.html |date=2006-09-05 |title=Who really blew up the twin towers? |publisher=The Guardian]
*2006 September 6 — "Daily Mail" (United Kingdom) [cite news|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=403757&in_page_id=1770 |author=Jaya Narain |title=Fury as academics claim 9/11 was "inside job" |publisher=Daily Mail |date=2006-09-06]
*2008 June 7 — "Financial Times Magazine" [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/a3e2879e-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fa3e2879e-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac.html&_i_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.ft.com%2Fsearch%3FqueryText%3D9%252F11%2Btruth%26x%3D0%26y%3D0%26aje%3Dtrue%26dse%3D%26dsz%3D The Truth Is Out There - Part I Financial Times Magazine June 7, 2008] ] [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/e46f11d8-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fe46f11d8-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac.html&_i_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.ft.com%2Fsearch%3FqueryText%3D9%252F11%2Btruth%26x%3D0%26y%3D0%26aje%3Dtrue%26dse%3D%26dsz%3D The Truth Is Out There - Part II Financial Times Magazine June 7, 2008] ] [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/8a580372-342b-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac.html The Truth Is Out There - Part III Financial Times Magazine June 7, 2008] ]
*2008 September 11 — "The Daily Texan" [ [ cite news|url=http://www.dailytexanonline.com/skeptics_debate_9_11_events |author=Rachel Meador |title=Skeptics debate 9/11 events |publisher=The Daily Texan |date=2008-09-11] ]

ee also

* Amateur investigators researching the 2001 anthrax attacks
* Casualties of the September 11, 2001 attacks
* Collapse of the World Trade Center
* Controlled demolition hypothesis for the collapse of the World Trade Center
* Criticisms of the 9/11 Commission Report
* Cults and governments
* Health effects arising from the September 11, 2001 attacks
* Project for a New American Century
* War games in progress on September 11, 2001
* World Trade Center bombing (1993)


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