Volci or Vulci is an Etruscan city (in Etruscan, "Velch or "'Velx [Neither form is any more modern than the other, as neither is modern at all. They are ancient spelling or dialectical variants. The Latinized word is in the nominative plural case, undoubtedly reflecting an ancient custom of naming a city after the ethnic unity that lived there, usually organized under a polity and generally designated "tribe".] ) in the
Province of Viterbo, north to Rome, central Italy.
The Vulci were a tribe or people as well as a city. They were one of the legendary twelve peoples of
Etruscan civilization, who formed into the Etruscan League, a confederacy of self-interest.
This league splintered apart when opposed by the central government of the
Roman Republic, and the Etruscans were soon assimilated. Volci was abandoned. Apart from its being a tourist attraction, there is no "modern Volci".
Velch was located near the coast of the
Tyrrhenian Seaabout 80 km northwest of Rome, on the Fiorariver, between Montalto di Castroand Canino. The site is not currently inhabited. The cemeteries and ruins of the city remain.
The circuit of the walls measures about 6.5 km, and scanty traces of them and of Roman buildings within them still exist. The Ponte della Badia [Structurae|id=s0022885|title=Ponte dell'Abbadia] over the Fiora, a bridge with a main arch of 20 m span, 30 m above the stream, is also Roman. An
aqueductpasses over it.
The former wealth of the town is mainly proved by the discoveries made in its extensive
necropolisfrom 1828 onwards - Greek vases, bronzes and other remains - many of which are now in the Vatican. By 1856 over 15,000 tombs had, it was calculated, been opened. These were entirely subterranean, and little is now to be seen on the site but a great tumulus, the Cuccumella, and a few smaller ones. Many of the tombs date from the 8th century BC.
frescoes from the Francois tomb, discovered in 1857, illustrating Greek and Etruscan myths, are now in the Museo Torlonia at Rome.
A derivation of the name from Indo-European *welk- ("wet, damp"), remains unconvincing. It would not be a Hellenization and there is no evidence of an Italic intrusion before the Roman conquest, nor were Indo-Europeans likely to have been in the area before Etruscan civilization. Currently we do not know enough Etruscan to say what the name might mean in Etruscan.
Beginning to expand in the 8th century BC, Vulci reached a floruit in the 6th century BC. It came to command Orbetello, Saturnia, Pescia, Sovana, Castro, Pitigliano and Marsiliana. It was a maritime power, with a geography similar to that of Rome; that is, located some miles up a river, but close enough to the sea to be a major maritime power. Many Greeks came to live there.
The port of Volci was at Regae. The origin of the name is not known. An Indo-European root can be found, but, if valid, it is most likely an Italic name assigned by the Romans who conquered the place. Or, it could be a Latinization of an Etruscan name.
Originally the Etruscans were co-founders of Rome and continued to dominate it. Vulci had some influence on early Rome, as
Servius Tulliusand the Vibenna brothers (Caile and Avle Vipinas) were from Vulci. At Vulci he was a private citizen, Macstarna. Their names and representations appear on a fresco in the Francois Tomb.
After the population of Rome had become predominantly
Italic, the Etruscan kings were overthrown and the Romans fought a long war to reduce Etruriato their dominion. Tiberius Coruncaniustriumphed over the people of Vulsinii and Volci in 280 BC. and the colony of Cosawas founded in their territory. The Romans took the coast from them, cutting the base of their power. This seems to have led to the decline and eventual abandonment of the city.
Volci does not seem to have been of great importance in the remaining Roman period, even though the Romans pushed the
Via Aureliathrough it in 240 BC. A surviving milestone gives the distance to Rome as 70 milia passuum.
Later it became an episcopal see.
The Etruscan goddess Turan was the patroness of Volci.
The area also houses a
* [http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/velch.html Velch]
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/_Periods/Roman/Archaic/Etruscan/_Texts/DENETR*/21.html Vulci]
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Volci — Volci, 1) tyrrhenische Stadt in Etrurien, bald gesunken; j. Piano de Vulci, wo in der alten Nekropole noch viel Alterthümer gefunden werden; nach And. südlicher beim j. Ponte dell Abbadia, zwischen Viterbo u. Toscanella, wo ebenfalls viele… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Volci — (etruskisch Velsu), eine der etrurischen Zwölfstädte, 8 km vom Tyrrhenischen Meere, westlich des Flusses Armenta (heute Fiora) gelegen, in der Geschichte nur genannt aus Anlaß eines 280 v. Chr. von den Römern über V. gefeierten Triumphs. Die… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Volci — Volci, etrurische Stadt, s. Vulci … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
VOLCI — vide Volsci … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
ВОЛЬКИ, (II) — •Volci, Ου̉όλκοι, город Этрурии на севере от Тарквиниев, пользовавшийся когда то значением, н. Пиано ди Вульчи на реке Фиора; в тамошнем древнем некрополе встречается много древностей … Реальный словарь классических древностей
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Vulci — oder Volci, altetrurische Stadt; Ruinen (Piano de Volci) in der ital. Prov. Rom bei Montalto; seit 1827 Ausgrabungen (bes. griech. Vasen) … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
волчица — волчиха, сербохорв. ву̀чица, словен. voɫčica, польск. wilczyca. Родственно лит. vìlke волчица , др. инд. vrkī, др. исл. ylgr, д. в. н. wulpa; см. Розвадовский, Qu. gr. 1, 418; М. – Э. 4, 589; Зубатый, LF 25, 239; Миккола, Ursl. Gr. 120; Траутман … Этимологический словарь русского языка Макса Фасмера
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