caption=From top to bottom — "Gumstick", AA, and AAA NiCd batteries.
EtoW = 40–60 Wh/
EtoS = 50–150 Wh/L
PtoW = 150W/kg
CtoDE= 70%–90% [ [http://www.batteryuniversity.com/partone-11.htm Charging nickel-based batteries ] ]
EtoCP= ? US$ per Wh
SDR = 10%/month
CD = 2000 cycles
NomV = 1.24 VThe nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and pronEng|ˈnɑɪˌkæd, "nye-cad") is a type of
rechargeable batteryusing nickel oxide hydroxideand metallic cadmiumas electrodes.
The abbreviation "NiCad" is a registered trademark of SAFT Corporation and should not be used to refer generically to nickel-cadmium batteries, although this brand-name is commonly used to describe all nickel-cadmium batteries. On the other hand, the abbreviation "NiCd" is derived from the
chemical symbols of nickel(Ni) and cadmium(Cd), though it is not to be confused with a chemical formula.
There are two types of NiCd batteries: sealed and vented. This article mainly deals with sealed cells.
The principal advantages of NiCd over other rechargeable types is lower weight for a given quantity of stored energy, good charging efficiency, small variation in terminal voltage during discharge, low internal resistance, and non-critical charging conditions. They can be used in place of regular batteries in most applications.
Sealed NiCd cells may be used individually, or assembled into battery packs containing two or more cells. Small NiCd dry cells are used for portable
electronicsand toys, often using cells manufactured in the same sizes as primary cells. When NiCds are substituted for primary cells, the lower terminal voltage and smaller amperehour capacity may reduce performance as compared to primary cells.
Specialty NiCd batteries have a niche market in the area of cordless and wireless
telephones, emergency lighting, model airplanes, as well as power tools.
With a relatively low
internal resistance, a NiCd battery can supply high surge currents. This makes them a favourable choice for remote controlled electric model aeroplanes, boats, and cars, as well as cordless power tools and camera flash units.
Larger flooded cells are used for aircraft starting batteries, electric vehicles, and standby power. `
Nickel-cadmium cells have a nominal cell potential of 1.2 V. This is lower than the 1.5 V of many popular primary cells, and consequently they are not appropriate as a replacement in all applications. Unlike common primary cells, a NiCd cell's terminal voltage only changes a little as it discharges. Because many electronic devices are designed to work with primary cells that may discharge to as low as 0.90 to 1.0 V per cell, the relatively steady 1.2 V of a NiCd is enough to allow operation. Some would consider the near constant voltage a drawback as it makes it difficult to detect when the battery charge is low.
NiCd batteries used to replace nominally 9-V "transistor radio" batteries usually only have six cells, for a terminal voltage of 7.2 volts. While most pocket radios will operate satisfactorily at this voltage, some manufacturers such as
Vartamade 8.4 volt batteries with seven cells, for more critical applications.
12 V NiCd batteries are made up of 10 cells connected in series
The first nickel-cadmium battery was created by
Waldemar Jungnerof Swedenin 1899. At that time, the only direct competitor was the lead-acid batterywhich was less physically and chemically robust. With minor improvements to the first prototypes, energy density rapidly increased to about half of that of primary batteries, and significantly greater than lead-acid batteries. Jungner experimented with substituting iron for the cadmium in varying quantities, but found the iron formulations to be wanting. Jungner's work was largely unknown in the United States allowing Thomas Edison to steal the battery design where he introduced the Nickel Iron battery to the US two years after Jungner had built one. In 1906, Jungner established a factory in Sweden to produce flooded design nickel-cadmium batteries.
Production in the United States
The first production in the
United Statesbegan in 1946. Up to this point, the batteries were "pocket type," constructed of nickel-plated steelpockets containing nickeland cadmiumactive materials. Around the middle of the twentieth century, sintered plate nickel-cadmium batteries became increasingly popular. Fusing nickel powder at a temperature well below its melting point, using high pressures creates sintered plates. The plates thus formed are highly porous, about 80 percent by volume. Positive and negative plates are produced by soaking the nickel plates in nickel and cadmium active materials, respectively. Sintered plates are usually much thinner than the pocket type, resulting in greater surface area per volume, and higher currents. In general, the greater amount of reactive material surface area in a battery, the lower its internal resistance.
In the past few decades, the nickel-cadmium batteries now have internal resistance as low as alkaline batteries. Today, all consumer nickel-cadmium batteries use the "jelly-roll" design. This design incorporates several layers of anode and cathode material rolled into a cylindrical shape.
Advances in battery manufacturing technologies throughout the second half of the twentieth century have made batteries increasingly cheaper to produce. Battery-powered devices in general have increased in popularity. As of 2000, about 1.5 billion nickel-cadmium batteries were produced annually. [Cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2006_Oct_19/ai_n27033828 |title=Solucorp Unveils Pollution Preventing, Self-Remediating Ni-Cd Battery to International Markets |date=2006-10-19 |publisher="Business Wire" |accessdate=2008-08-01] While Ni-Cd never became widely used as a replacement for lead-acid batteries in the areas where those batteries dominate, up until the mid 1990s, Ni-Cds had an overwhelming majority of the market share for rechargeable batteries in consumer electronics.
Hydride(Ni-MH) and lithium ion batteries (Li-ion) have become more commercially available and cheaper, the former type now rivalling Ni-Cds in cost. Where energy density is important, Ni-Cds batteries are now at a distinct disadvantage over Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries. This and environmental considerations have largely relegated the Ni-Cd construction to history. However, the Ni-Cd battery is still very useful in applications requiring very high discharge rates because the Ni-Cd can endure such discharge with no damage or loss of capacity.
Comparison to Other Batteries
When compared to other forms of rechargeable battery, the nickel cadmium battery has a number of distinct advantages.
*The batteries are more difficult to damage than other batteries, tolerating
deep dischargefor long periods. In fact, NiCd batteries in long-term storage are typically stored fully discharged. This is in contrast, for example, to lithium ion batteries, which are highly volatileand will be permanently damaged if discharged below a minimum voltage. In addition, NiCd batteries typically last longer, in terms of number of charge/discharge cycles, than other rechargeable batteries, and have faster charge and discharge rates than lead-acid batteries, with minimal loss of capacity even at high discharge rates.
*The most common alternative to NiCd batteries are lead-acid batteries. Compared to these, NiCd batteries have a much higher
energy density. This means that, for a given battery capacity, a NiCd battery is smaller and lighter than a comparable lead-acid battery. In cases where size and weight are important considerations (for example, some transportation applications), NiCd batteries are preferred over the cheaper lead-acid batteries.
*In consumer applications, NiCd batteries compete directly with alkaline batteries. A NiCd cell has a lower capacity than that of an equivalent alkaline cell, and costs slightly more. However, since the alkaline battery's chemical reaction is typically not reversible, a reusable NiCd battery has a significantly longer total lifetime. There have been attempts to create rechargeable alkaline batteries, such as
Rayovac's rechargeable alkaline, "Renewal", or specialized alkaline battery chargers, but none that has seen wide usage. In addition, a NiCd battery maintains a constant voltage as it discharges. Since an alkaline battery's voltage drops as the charge drops, most consumer applications are well equipped to deal with the slightly lower NiCd voltage with no noticeable loss of performance.
hydride( NiMH) batteries are the newest, and most similar, competitor to NiCd batteries. Compared to NiCd, NiMH batteries have a higher capacity and are less toxic, and are now more cost effective. In addition, a NiCd battery has a lower self-dischargerate (for example, 20% per month for a NiCd, versus 30% per month for a NiMH under identical conditions). This results in a preference for NiCd over NiMH in applications where the current draw on the battery is lower than the battery's own self-discharge rate (for example, television remote controls) In both types of cell, the self-discharge rate is highest for a full charge state and drops off somewhat for lower charge states. In addition, like alkaline batteries, NiMH batteries experience a voltage drop as it nears full discharge, which a NiCd does not. Finally, a similarly-sized NiCd battery has a slightly lower internal resistance, and thus can achieve a higher maximum discharge rate (which can be important for applications such as power tools).
The primary trade-off with NiCd batteries is their higher cost and the extreme toxicity. They require extra labour to manufacture, and thus, are typically more costly than lead-acid batteries. Typically nickel and cadmium are more costly materials than those used for lead-acid cells. Specifically, if the battery is consistently discharged to the same level, then fully recharged, the battery will eventually stop discharging on its own upon reaching this threshold. (See Memory and lazy battery effects below for more details on this effect).
One of the Nickel-Cadmium's biggest disadvantages was that the battery exhibited a very marked negative temperature coefficient. This meant that as the cell temperature rose, the internal resistance fell. This could pose considerable charging problems particularly with the relatively simple charging systems employed for lead-acid type batteries. Whilst lead-acid batteries could be charged by simply connecting a dynamo to it, with a simple electromagnetic cut out system for when the dynamo is stationary, or an over current occurs, the nickel-cadmium under a similar charging scheme would exhibit thermal runaway, where the charging current would continue to rise until the over current cut out operated or the battery destroyed itself. This was the principal factor that prevented its use for engine starting batteries. Today with alternator based charging systems with solid state regulators, the construction of a suitable charging system would be relatively simple, but the car manufacturers are reluctant to abandon tried and tested technology. In any event, nickel-cadmium technology is falling out of favour.
NiCd cells are available in the same general purpose physical sizes as
alkaline batteries, from AAA through D, as well as several multi-cell sizes, including the equivalent of a 9 volt battery. Each cell has a nominal potential of 1.2 volts, compared to the nominal 1.5 volt potential for alkaline batteries. More specifically, a fully charged single NiCd cell, under no load, carries a potential difference of between 1.25 and 1.35 volts, which stays relatively constant as the battery is discharged. Since an alkaline battery near fully discharged may see its voltage drop to as low as 0.9 volts, NiCd cells and alkaline cells are typically interchangeable for most applications.
Miniature button cells are sometimes used in photographic equipment, hand held lamps (flashlight or torch), computer memory standby, toys, and novelties.
In addition to single cells, batteries exist that contain up to 300 cells (nominally 360 volts, actual voltage under no load between 380 and 420 volts). This many cells are mostly used in automotive and heavy duty industrial applications. For portable applications, the number of cells is normally below 18 cells (24 V). Industrial-sized flooded batteries are available with capacities ranging from 12.5Ah up to several hundred Ah.
The maximum discharge rate for a NiCd battery varies by size. For a common AA-size cell, the maximum discharge rate is approximately 18 amps; for a D size battery the discharge rate can be as high as 35 amps.
Model aircraft or boat builders often take much larger currents of up to a hundred amps or so from specially constructed small batteries, which are used to drive main motors. 5-6 minutes of model operation is easily achievable from quite small batteries, so a reasonably high power-to-weight figure is achieved, comparable to
internal combustionmotors, though of lesser duration.
NiCd batteries can charge at several different rates, depending on how the cell was manufactured. The
charge rateis measured based on the percentage of the amp-hourcapacity the battery is fed as a current over the duration of the charge. Regardless of the charge speed, more energy must be supplied to the battery than its actual capacity, to account for energy loss during charging, with faster charges being more efficient. For example, the typical "overnight" charge, called a C/10 charge, is accomplished by applying 10% of the batteries total capacity for a period of 14 hours; that is, a 100 mAh battery takes 140 mAh of energy to charge at this rate. At the "fast charge" rate, done at 100% of the rated capacity, the battery holds roughly 80% of the charge, so a 100 mAh battery takes 120 mAh of energy to charge (that is, approximately 1 hour and fifteen minutes) The downside to faster charging is the higher risk of overcharging, which can damage the battery. [ [http://www.powerstream.com/NiCd.htm NiCad Battery Charging Basics] ]
The safe temperature range for a NiCd battery in use is between −20 °C and 45 °C. During charging, the battery temperature typically stays low, around 0°C (the charging reaction absorbs heat), but as the battery nears full charge the temperature will rise to 45–50 °C. Some battery chargers detect this temperature increase to cut off charging and prevent over-charging.
When not under load or charge, a NiCd battery will self-discharge approximately 10% per month at 20 °C, ranging up to 20% per month at higher temperatures. It is possible to perform a "trickle charge" at current levels just high enough to offset this discharge rate; to keep a battery fully charged. However, if the battery is going to be stored unused for a long period of time, it should be discharged down to at most 40% of capacity (some manufacturers recommend fully discharging, or even short-circuiting), and stored in a cool, dry environment.
The battery should have no external damage and depending on the number of cells it should have 1.3V - 1.4V per cell when fully charged and about 0.8–1V when discharged.
High quality NiCd’s have a thermal cut-off so if the battery gets too hot the charger stops. If a NiCd is still warm from discharging and been put on charge, it will not get the full charge possible. In that case, let the battery cool to room temperature then charge. Watch for the correct polarity. Leave charger in a cool place or room temperature when charging to get best results.
A NiCd battery requires a charger with a slightly different
voltage charge levelthan a lead-acid battery, especially if the NiCd has 11 or 12 cells. In addition, the charger requires a more intelligent charge termination method if a fast charger is used. Often NiCd battery packs have a thermal cut-offinside that feeds back to the charger telling it to stop the charging once the battery has heated up and/or a voltage peaking sensing circuit. At room temperature during normal charge conditions the cell voltage increases from an initial 1.2 V to an end-point of about 1.45 V. The rate of rise increases markedly as the cell approaches full charge. The end-point voltage decreases slightly with increasing temperature.
A fully charged NiCd cell contains:
nickel hydroxidepositive electrode plate.
cadmiumnegative electrode plate.
* and an
alkaline electrolyte( potassium hydroxide).
NiCd batteries usually have a metal case with a sealing plate equipped with a self-sealing
safety valve. The positive and negative electrode plates, isolated from each other by the separator, are rolled in a spiral shape inside the case.
chemical reactions in a NiCd battery during discharge are:
:at the cadmium electrode, and:at the nickel electrode. The net reaction during discharge is:During recharge, the reactions go from right to left. The alkaline electrolyte (commonly KOH) is not consumed in this reaction and therefore its Specific Gravity, unlike in Lead- Acid batteries, is not a guide to its state of charge.
When Jungner built the first nickel-cadmium batteries, he used nickel oxide in the cathode and
ironand cadmium materials in the anode. It was not until later that pure cadmium metal and nickel hydroxidewere used. Until about 1960, the reaction in nickel-cadmium batteries was not completely understood. There were several speculations as to the reaction products. The debate was finally resolved by spectrometry, which revealed cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide.
Another historically important variation on the basic nickel-cadmium cell is the addition of
lithiumhydroxide to the potassium hydroxide electrolyte. This was believed to prolong the service life by making the cell more resistant to electrical abuse. The nickel-cadmium battery in its modern form is extremely resistant to electrical abuse anyway, so this practice has been discontinued.
Problems with NiCd
Overchargingmust be considered in the design of most rechargeable batteries. In the case of NiCds, there are two possible results of overcharging:
* If the
anodeis overcharged, hydrogengas is produced
* If the
cathodeis overcharged, oxygengas is produced.
For this reason, the anode is always designed for a higher capacity than the cathode, to avoid releasing hydrogen gas. There is still the problem of eliminating oxygen gas, to avoid rupture of the cell casing. NiCd cells are
vented, with seals that fail at high internal gas pressures. The sealing mechanism must allow gas to escape from inside the cell, and seal again properly when the gas is expelled. This complex mechanism, unnecessary in alkaline batteries, contributes to their higher cost.
NiCd cells dealt with in this article are of the
sealedtype (see also vented type). Cells of this type consist of a pressure vessel that is supposed to contain any generation of oxygen and hydrogen gasses until they can recombine back to water. Such generation typically occurs during rapid charge and discharge and exceedingly at overcharge condition. If the pressure exceeds the limit of the safety valve, water in the form of gas is lost. Since the vessel is designed to contain an exact amount of electrolyte this loss will rapidly affect the capacity of the cell and its ability to receive and deliver current. To detect all conditions of overcharge demands great sophistication from the charging circuit and a cheap charger will eventually damage even the best quality cells. [http://www.gpbatteries.co.uk/downloads/technical_handbooks/GP_NiCd_Technical.pdf GP Nickel Cadmium Technical Handbook ] ]
Another potential problem is
reverse charging. This can occur due to an error by the user, or more commonly, when a battery of several cells is fully discharged. Because there is a slight variation in the capacity of cells in a battery, one of the cells will usually be fully discharged before the others, at which point reverse charging begins seriously damaging that cell, reducing battery life. The by-product of reverse charging is hydrogen gas, which can in some circumstances be dangerous. Some commentators advise that one should never discharge multi-cell nickel-cadmium batteries to zero voltage; for example, torches (BrE)/flashlights (AmE) should be turned off when they are yellow; before they go out completely.
Individual cells may be fully discharged to zero volts and some of the battery manufacturers recommend this if the cells are to be stored for lengthy intervals. At least one manufacturer even recommends short-circuiting each cell for storage. However, it is normally recommended that NiCd Batteries be charged to around 40% capacity for long-term storage.
A common form of this
depricationoccurs when cells connected in series develop unequal voltages and discharge near zero voltage. The first cell that reaches zero is pushed beyond to negative voltage and gasses generated open the seal and dry the cell.
In modern cells an excess of "
anti-polar material" (basically active material ballast at positive electrode) is inserted to allow for moderate negative charge without damage to the cell. This excess material slows down the start of oxygen generation at the negative plate. This means a cell can survive a negative voltage of about -0.2 to -0.4 volts. However if discharge is continued even further, this excess ballast is used up and both electrodes change polarity, causing destructive gassing(gas generation). Battery packs with multiple cells in series should be operated well above 1 volt per cell to avoid placing the lowest capacity cell in danger of going negative. Battery packs that can be disassembled into cells should be periodically zeroed and charged individually to equalize the voltages. However, this does not help if old and new cells are mixed, since their different capacities will result in different discharge times and voltages.
Memory and lazy battery effects
It is sometimes claimed that NiCd batteries suffer from a "
memory effect" if they are recharged before they have been fully discharged. The apparent symptom is that the battery "remembers" the point in its charge cycle where recharging began and during subsequent use suffers a sudden drop in voltage at that point, as if the battery had been discharged. The capacity of the battery is not actually reduced substantially. Some electronics designed to be powered by NiCds are able to withstand this reduced voltage long enough for the voltage to return to normal. However, if the device is unable to operate through this period of decreased voltage, the device will be unable to get as much energy out of the battery, and for all practical purposes, the battery has a reduced capacity.
There is controversy about whether the memory effect actually exists, or whether it is as serious a problem as is sometimes believed. Some critics claim it is used to promote competing
NiMHbatteries, which apparently suffer this effect to a lesser extent. Many nickel-cadmium battery manufacturers either deny the effect exists or are silent on the matter.
It has been sugested that the memory effect story originated from orbiting satellites, where they were typically charging for twelve hours out of twenty-four for several years. After this time, it was found that the capacities of the batteries had declined significantly, but were still perfectly fit for use. It is thought unlikely that this precise repetitive charging (e.g. 1000 charges / discharges with less than 2% variability) would ever be reproduced by consumers using electrical goods.
An effect with similar symptoms to the memory effect is the so-called "voltage depression" or "lazy battery effect". (Some people use this term as a synonym for "memory effect") This results from repeated overcharging; the symptom is that the battery appears to be fully charged but discharges quickly after only a brief period of operation. Sometimes, much of the lost capacity can be recovered by a few deep discharge cycles, a function often provided by automatic NiCd battery chargers. However, this process may reduce the shelf life of the battery. [ [http://www.dansdata.com/gz011.htm Dan's Quick Guide to Memory Effect] ] If treated well, a NiCd battery can last for 1000 cycles or more before its capacity drops below half its original capacity.
NiCd batteries, when not used regularly, tend to develop dendrites which are thin, conductive crystals which may penetrate the separator membrane between electrodes. This leads to internal short circuits and premature failure, long before the 800–1000 charge/discharge cycle life claimed by most vendors. Sometimes, applying a brief, high-current charging pulse to individual cells can clear these dendrites, but they will typically reform within a few days or even hours. Cells in this state have reached the end of their useful life and should be replaced. Many battery guides, circulating on the Internet and online auctions, promise to restore dead cells using the above principle, but achieve very short-term results at best.
Environmental consequences of Cadmium
NiCd batteries contain
cadmium, which is a toxicheavy metal and therefore requires special care during battery disposal. In the United States, part of the price of a NiCd battery is a fee for its proper disposal at the end of its service lifetime. In the European Union, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive(RoHS) bans the use of cadmium in electrical and electronic equipment products since July 2006, though NiCd batteries are not restricted.
Cadmium, being a heavy metal, can cause substantial
pollutionwhen landfilled or incinerated. Because of this, many countries now operate recycling programs to capture and reprocess old NiCd batteries.
*Rayovac Safety Data Sheet [ [http://app.rayovac.com/cm/groups/public/documents/msds/007128.pdf Rayovac Safety Data Sheet] ]
short-circuitthe battery because this may cause the battery to explode. (A short-circuitis a direct electrical connection between the + and – battery terminals, such as with a wire. You should not short-circuitany type of battery.)
* Never incinerate NiCd batteries; along with the possibility of an explosion, incinerating a NiCd battery will result in the release of a toxic gas containing cadmium. Recycle the battery instead.
* Avoid dropping, hitting, or denting the battery because this may cause internal damage including short-circuiting of the cell.
* Avoid rapid overcharging of the battery; this may cause leakage of the electrolyte, outgassing, or possibly an explosion.
*Vented cell type NiCd batteries
NiCad rock band
Nickel metal hydride battery
*Bergstrom, Sven. "Nickel-Cadmium Batteries — Pocket Type". Journal of the Electrochemical Society, September 1952. 1952 The Electrochemical Society.
*Ellis, G. B., Mandel, H., and Linden, D. "Sintered Plate Nickel-Cadmium Batteries". Journal of the Electrochemical Society, September 1952. 1952 The Electrochemical Society.
* [http://www.batteryuniversity.com/ BatteryUniversity.com]
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