Assam


Assam

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type=state
state_name=Assam
native_name=Assam
capital=Dispur
latd = 26.15|longd=91.77
largest_city=Guwahati
abbreviation=IN-AS
official_languages=Assamese, Bodo, Bengali (Barak Valley)
legislature_type=Unicameral
legislature_strength=126
leader_title_1=Governor
leader_name_1=Shiv Charan Mathur
leader_title_2=Chief Minister
leader_name_2=Tarun Gogoi
established_date=1947-08-15
area_total=78438
area_rank=16th
area_magnitude=10
population_year=2001
population_total=26655528
population_rank=14th
population_density=340
districts=27
website=assam.gov.in
inset_map_marker=yes


footnotes = † Assam had a legislature since 1937
Assam audio|Assam.ogg|pronunciation) (Assamese: অসম "Ôxôm" [ɔxɔm] ) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Assam comprises the Brahmaputra and the Barak river valleys and the Karbi Anglong and the North Cachar Hills. With an area of 30,285 sq mi (78,438 km²). Assam currently is almost equivalent to the size of Ireland or Austria. Assam is surrounded by the rest of the "Seven Sister States": Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. These states are connected to the rest of India via a narrow strip in West Bengal called the Siliguri Corridor or "Chicken's Neck". [Dixit 2002] Assam also shares international borders with Bhutan and Bangladesh; and cultures, peoples and climate with South-East Asia—important elements in India’s “Look East” Policy. Assam became a part of India after the British occupied the region following the Treaty of Yandaboo of 1826.

Assam is known for Assam tea, petroleum resources, Assam silk and for its rich biodiversity. It has successfully conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, tiger, numerous species of birds and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. It is increasingly becoming a popular destination for wild-life tourism and notably Kaziranga and Manas are both World Heritage Sites. [World Heritage Centre 2007] Assam was also known for its Sal tree forests and forest products, much depleted now. A land of high rainfall, Assam is endowed with lush greenery and the mighty river Brahmaputra, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a unique hydro-geomorphic and aesthetic environment. environment, with plains, dissected hills of the South Indian Plateau system and with the Himalayas all around its north, north-east and east.]

Etymology

Assam was known as Pragjyotisha in the Mahabharata; and Kamarupa in the 1st millennium. Assam gets it name from the Ahom kingdom (1228-1826), then known as "Kingdom of Assam". [Sarma, Satyendra Nath (1976) "Assamese Literature", Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, p2.“While the Shan invaders called themselves Tai, they came to be referred to as "Āsām", "Āsam" and sometimes as "Acam" by the indigenous people of the country. The modern Assamese word "Āhom" by which the Tai people are known is derived from "Āsām" or "Āsam". The epithet applied to the Shan conquerors was subsequently transferred to the country over which they ruled and thus the name Kāmarūpa was replaced by Āsām, which ultimately took the Sanskritized form "Asama", meaning ‘unequalled, peerless or uneven’”] The British province after 1838 and the Indian state after 1947 came to be known as "Assam".

On February 27, 2006 the Government of Assam started a process to change the name of the state to "Asom", [Times News Network, February 28, 2006] a controversial move that has been opposed by the people and political organizations. [Editorial, The Assam Tribune, January 6, 2007.]

Physical geography

Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam is a paleo-river; older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 80-100km wide, 1000 km long).Singh (ed.) 1993.] The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system.Singh (ed.) 1993] In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border), flows through the Cachar district with a 40-50km wide valley and confluences with the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh.

Assam is endowed with petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar.NEDFi & NIC-Assam 2002] A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.NEDFi & NIC-Assam 2002] Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows convert|399|Moilbbl|m3 of oil, convert|1178|Gcuft|m3 of gas and convert|67|Moilbbl|m3 of natural gas liquids in Assam Geologic Province. [Wandrey 2004 p17]

With the “Tropical Monsoon Rainforest Climate”, Assam is temperate (Summer max. at 35-38 and winter min. at 6-8 degrees Celsius) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity.Singh (ed.) 1993] [ Purdue University 2004] The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperature and foggy nights and mornings in winter . Thunderstorms known as "Bordoicila" are frequent during the afternoons. Spring (Mar-Apr) and Autumn (Sept-Oct) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature.

Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests, [ Borthakur 2002] , deciduous forests, riverine grasslands [Birdlife International, UK [http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/species/asia_strategy/pdf_downloads/grasslandsGO2.pdf Indo-Gangetic Grasslands] ] , bamboo [ National Mission on Bamboo Applications 2004] orchards and numerous wetland [ Sharma 2003] ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. The Kaziranga, home of the rare Indian Rhinoceros, and Manas are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Assam. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered species such as Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei), White-winged Wood Duck or "Deohanh" (Cairina scutulata), Bengal Florican, Black-breasted Parrotbill, Pygmy Hog, Greater Adjutant and so on. Some other endangered species with significant population in Assam are Tiger, Elephant, Hoolock Gibbon, Jerdon's Babbler and so on. Assam is also known for orchids. [ ENVIS Assam 2003]

The region is prone to natural disasters with annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes are rare; three of these were recorded in 1869, 1897 (8.1 on the Richter scale); and in 1950 (8.6).

History

Pre-history

Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 460 to 615 m were popular habitates probably due to availability of exposed doleritic basalt useful for tool-making.Barpujari 1990]

According to Kalika Purana (c.8th-9th A.D), written in Assam, the earliest ruler was Mahiranga followed by Hatak, Sambar, Ratna and Ghatak; Naraka removed this line of rulers and established his own dynasty. It mentions that the last of the Naraka-bhauma rulers, Narak, was slain by Krishna. Naraka's son Bhagadatta, mentioned in the Mahabharata, fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurushetra with an army of "kiratas", "chinas" and "dwellers of the eastern coast". Later rulers of Kamarupa frequently drew their lineage from the Naraka rulers.

Ancient and medieval

Ancient Assam known as Kamarupa was ruled by powerful dynasties: the Varmanas (c.350-650A.D.), the Salstambhas ("Xalostombho", c.655-900 A.D.) and the Kamarupa-Palas (c.900-1100A.D.). In the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskaravarman (c.600–650A.D.), the Chinese traveler Xuan Zang visited the region and recorded his travels. Later, after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa-Palas), the Kamarupa tradition was somewhat extended till c.1255A.D. by the Lunar I (c.1120-1185A.D.) and Lunar II (c.1155-1255A.D.) dynasties.Barpujari 1990]

Two later dynasties, the Ahoms and the Koch left larger impacts. The Ahoms, originally a Tai group, ruled Assam for nearly 600 years (1228–1826) and the Koch, a Tibeto-Burmese, established sovereignty in c.1510A.D.. The Koch kingdom in western Assam and present North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Naranarayana (c.1540-1587A.D.). It split into two in c.1581A.D, the western part as a Moghul vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Since c 13th A.D., the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended till Karatoya river in the c.17th-18th A.D.. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungpha or Sworgodeu Rudra Simha (c.1696-1714A.D.). Among other dynasties, the Chutiyas ruled the north-eastern Assam and parts of present Arunachal Pradesh and the Kacharis ruled from Dikhow river to central and southern Assam. With expansion of Ahom kingdom, by c.1520A.D. the Chutiya areas were annexed and since c.1536A.D. Kacharis remained only in Cachar and North Cachar more as an Ahom ally then a competing force. Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam until the arrival of the British. The most successful invader Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, briefly occupied Garhgaon (c.1662–63A.D.) the then capital, but found it difficult to control people making guerrilla attacks on his forces, forcing them to leave. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by the great general Lachit Borphukan on the Mughals then under command of Raja Ram Singha at Saraighat (1671) has almost ended Mughal ambitions. Mughals were finally expelled in c.1682A.D. from lower Assam.

British Assam

Ahom palace intrigue, and political turmoil due to the Moamoria rebellion, aided the expansionist Burmese ruler of Ava to invade Assam and install a puppet king in 1821. With the Burmese having reached the East India Company’s borders, the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued. The war ended under the Treaty of Yandaboo [Aitchison 1931, p230–233 (web-version from [http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/ Project South Asia, South Dakota State University, USA] )] in 1826, with the Company taking control of the Lower Assam and installing Purander Singh as king of Upper Assam in 1833. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereaftre British annexed the entire region. Initially Assam was made a part of the Bengal Presidency, then in 1906 it was a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam province and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a Chief Commissioners' province. In 1913, a Legislative Council and in 1937 the Assam Legislative Assembly was formed in Shillong, the erstwhile Capital. The British tea planters imported labour from central India adding to the demographic canvas. After few initial unsuccessful attempts to free Assam during 1850s, the Assamese since early 20th century joined and actively supported Indian National Congress against the British. In 1947, Assam inclusive of present Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya became a state of Republic of India (princely states, Manipur and Tripura became Group C provinces) and a district of Assam, Sylhet chose to join Pakistan.

Post British

Since 1947, with increasing economic problems in the region, separatist groups began forming along ethnic lines, and demands for autonomy and sovereignty grew, resulting into fragmentation of Assam.

Since mid-20th century, people from present Bangladesh have been migrating to Assam. In 1961, the Government of Assam passed a legislation making use of Assamese language compulsory; It had to be withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam Agitation Hazarika 2003] triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls. It tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners illegally migrating from neighbouring Bangladesh and changing the demographics. The agitation ended after an accord between its leaders and the Union Government, which remained unimplemented, causing simmering discontent. On the other hand, political parties neglecting the burning problem have used the Bangladeshi card as a vote bank.The Governor of Assam 1998]

The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups like United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) Hazarika 2003] and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). In November 1990, the Government of India deployed the Indian army, after which low-intensity military conflicts and political homicides have been continuing for more than a decade. In recent times, ethnicity based militant groups (UPDS, DHD, KLO, HPCD etc.) have also mushroomed. Regional autonomy has been ensured for Bodos in Bodoland Territorial Council Areas (BTCA) and for the Karbis in Karbi Anglong after agitation of the communities due to sluggish rate of development and aspirations for self-government.

Current Situation

As the situation in Assam has turned very serious as communal clashes continue in two central districts of the state, namely Udalguri and Darrang, TIMES NOW has uncovered startling evidence of a suspected Pak ISI-HuJI link to the communal violence raging on in the state of Assam.

TIMES NOW journalists have filmed the hoisting of a Pakistani flag in the Sonaripara and Mohanpur villages of Central Assam. Unconfirmed reports also suggest that the flag was unfurled at another village named Kalaigaon in neighbouring Darrang district.

Highly placed sources within the Government are of the view that the hoisting of the flag might have been done to heighten tensions in the adjoining communally disturbed districts, where rioting has left around 25 people dead and several injured. As of now officials and security forces are not willing to offer any explanations.

In a shocking incident, the Pakistani flag was hoisted in trouble torn Udalguri in the midst of communal violence in a village named Sonari. A local villager said, "We think this is the work of Huji. They came with weapons. We could not imagine that they have such a number of weapons. They chased us away in this Sonaripara-Kuptimari-Jhargaon area and hoisted the flag." The government has not reacted to the incident in spite of the controversy it has generated.

Tea history

After discovery of Camellia sinensis (1834) in Assam followed by its tests in 1836-37 in London, the British allowed companies to rent land since 1839. Thereafter tea plantations mushroomed in Upper Assam, where the soil and the climate were most suitable. Problems with the imported labourers from China and hostilities of native Assamese resulted into migration of forced labourers from central-eastern parts of India. After initial trial and error with planting the Chinese and the Assamese-Chinese hybrid varieties, the planters later accepted the local Camellia assamica as the most suitable one for Assam. By 1850s, the industry started seeing some profits. Industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam and it saw substantial progress with invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during 1870s. The cost of Assam tea was lowered down manifold and became more competitive than its Chinese variant.

Despite having commercial success, tea labourers remained exploited and worked and lived under poor conditions. In the fear of greater government interference the tea growers formed The Indian Tea Association in 1888 to lobby for the continued status quo. The organization was very successful in this, and even after India’s independence conditions of the labourers have improved very little. [MacFarlane, Alan and Iris MacFarlane 2003]

ubdivisions

Assam is divided into 27 administrative districts.Revenue Department, Government of Assam] More than half of these districts were carved out during 80s and 90s from original 1. Lakhimpur, 2. Jorhat, 3. Karbi Anglong, 4. Darrang, 5. Nagaon, 6. Kamrup, 7. Goalpara, 8. North Cachar and 9. Cachar districts, delineated by the British. Earlier, during 70s, Dibrugarh was separated out from original Lakhimpur district.

These districts are further sub-divided into 49 “Sub-divisions” or "Mohkuma".Revenue Department, Government of Assam] Every district is administered from a district head quarter with the office of the District Collector, District Magistrate, Office of the District Panchayat and usually with a district court.

The districts are delineated on the basis of the features such as the rivers, hills, forests, etc and majority of the newly constituted districts are sub-divisions of the earlier districts. For the present districts of Assam and their location, refer the attached map.

The local governance system is organised under the "jila-parishad" (District Panchayat) for a district, "panchayat" for group of or individual rural areas and under the urban local bodies for the towns and cities. Presently there are 2489 village panchayats covering 26247 villages in Assam.Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Government of Assam] The 'town-committee' or "nagar-xomiti" for small towns, 'municipal board' or "pouro-xobha" for medium towns and municipal corporation or "pouro-nigom" for the cities consist of the urban local bodies.

For the revenue purposes, the districts are divided into revenue circles and "mouza"s; for the development projects, the districts are divided into 219 'development-blocks' and for law and order these are divided into 206 police stations or "thana".Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Government of Assam]

Demographics

Total population of Assam was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001.The Government of Assam 2002-03] Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darang and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million by 2011, 34.18 million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026. [The National Commission on Population 2006]

In 2001, the census recorded literacy in Assam at 63.30 percent with male literacy at 71.30 and female at 54.60 percents. Urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.90 percent. [Director of Census Operations, Census of India 2001]

Growth of population in Assam has experienced a very high trajectory since the mid-decades of the 20th century. Population grew steadily from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941, while it has increased unprecedentedly to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991 to reach the present level.The Government of Assam 2002-03] The growth in the western and southern districts was of extreme high in nature mostly attributable to rapid influx of population from the then East Pakistan or Bangladesh. [Hussain 2004] The Governor of Assam 1998]

Assam has many ethnic groups and the People of India project has studied 115 of these. Out of which 79 (69%) identify themselves regionally, 22 (19%) locally, and 3 trans-nationally. The earliest settlers were Austroasiatic, followed by Tibeto-Burman, Indo-Aryan speakers and Tai-Kadai speakers. [Taher 1993] Forty-five languages are spoken by different communities, including three major language families: Austroasiatic (5), Sino-Tibetan (24) and Indo-European (12). Three of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism.

Major religions are Hinduism (64.9%) [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in Indian Census] ] and Islam (30.9% - grown to the second largest proportional population among Indian states after J&K). [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in Indian Census] ] Others include Christianity (3.7%), Sikhism, Animism, Buddhism (Khamti, Phake, Aito etc. communities).

Cultural evolution

Assamese culture is traditionally a hybrid one developed due to assimilation of ethno-cultural groups in the past. Therefore, both local elements or the local elements in Sanskritised forms are distinctly found.Kakati 1962] The major milestones in evolution of Assamese culture are:

*Assimilation in the Kamarupa Kingdom for almost 700 years (under the Varmans for 300 years, Salastambhas and Palas for each 200 years).Barpujari 1990]
*Establishment of the Ahom dynasty in the 13th century AD and assimilation for next 600 years.Barpujari 1990]
*Assimilation in the Koch Kingdom (15th-16th century AD) of western Assam and Kachari Kingdom (12th-18th century AD) of central and southern Assam.Barpujari 1990]
*Vaishnava Movement led by Srimanta Sankardeva ("Xonkordeu") and its contribution and cultural changes.


thumb|180px|left|Ôxôm Xahityô Xôbha (est. 1917), the foremost organisation for development of literature; its annual conventions are the major celebrations and workshops portraying literary and cultural development. However, feeling inadequate attention, many groups have created their own Xôbhas.
With rich traditions, the modern culture is greatly influenced by events in the British and the Post-British Era. The language was standardised by the American Baptist Missionaries such as Nathan Brown, Dr. Miles Bronson and local pundits such as Hemchandra Barua with the form available in the Sibsagar ("Xiwoxagor") District (the ex-nerve centre of the Ahom Kingdom). A renewed Sanskritisation was increasingly adopted for developing Assamese language and grammar. A new wave of Western and northern Indian influence was apparent in the performing arts and literature.

Increasing efforts of standardisation in the 20th century alienated the localised forms present in different areas and with the less-assimilated ethno-cultural groups (many source-cultures). However, Assamese culture in its hybrid form and nature is one of the richest, still developing and in true sense is a 'cultural system' with sub-systems. It is interesting that many source-cultures of Assamese cultural-system are still surviving either as sub-systems or as sister entities, for e.g. Bodo or Khasi or Micing. Today it is important to keep the broader system closer to its roots and at the same time to focus on development of the sub-systems.

Some of the common and unique cultural traits in the region are peoples' respect towards areca-nut and betel leaves, symbolic clothes (Gamosa, Arnai, etc), traditional silk garments and towards forefathers and elderly. Moreover, great hospitality and Bamboo culture are common.

ymbolism

Symbolism is an ancient cultural practice in Assam and is still a very important part of Assamese way of life. Various elements are being used to represent beliefs, feelings, pride, identity, etc. "Tamulpan", "Xorai" and "Gamosa" are three important symbolic elements in Assamese culture. "Tamulpan" (the areca nut and betel leaves) or "guapan" (gua from "kwa") are considered along with the Gamosa (a typical woven cotton or silk cloth with embroidery) as the offers of devotion, respect and friendship. The Tamulpan-tradition is an ancient one and is being followed since time-immemorial with roots in the aboriginal Austro-Asiatic culture. Xorai is a traditionally manufactured bell-metal article of great respect and is used as a container-medium while performing respectful offers. Moreover, symbolically many ethno-cultural groups use specific clothes to portray respect and pride.

There were many other symbolic elements and designs, but are now only found in literature, art, sculpture, architecture, etc or in use today for only religious purposes. The typical designs of "assamese-lion", "dragon", "flying-lion", etc were used for symbolising various purposes and occasions. The archaeological sites such as the Madan Kamdev (c. 9th-10th A.D.) exhibits mass-scale use of lions, dragon-lions and many other figures of demons to show case power and prosperity. The Vaishnava monasteries and many other architectural sites of late medieval period also showcase use of lions and dragons for symbolic effects.

Languages

Assamese and Bodo are the major indigenous and official languages while Bengali holds official status in the three districts in the Barak Valley.

Traditionally Assamese was the language of the commons (of mixed origin - Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Magadhan Prakrit) in the ancient Kamarupa and in the medieval kingdoms of Kamatapur, Kachari, Cuteeya, Borahi, Ahom and Koch. Traces of the language is found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, etc in Charyapada (c.7th-8th AD). Modern dialects Kamrupi, Goalpariya, etc are the remnant of this language. Moreover, Assamese in its traditional form was used by the ethno-cultural groups in the region as lingua-franca, which spread during the stronger kingdoms and was required for needed economic integration. Localised forms of the language still exist in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, North Bengal, Cachar, etc and in the south, languages such as Chatgaia, Siloti, etc exhibit similarities. The form used in the upper Assam was enriched by the advent of Tai-Shans in the 13th century.

Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form in practice near Sibsagar (Xiwoxagor) district. Assamese ("Oxomeeya") is a rich language due to its hybrid nature with its unique characteristics of pronunciation and softness. Assamese literature is one of the richest.

Bodo is an ancient language of Assam. Spatial distribution patterns of the ethno-cultural groups, cultural traits and the phenomenon of naming all the major rivers in the North East Region with Bodo-Kachari words (e.g. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista, Dikrai, etc) reveal that it was the most important language in the ancient times. Bodo is presently spoken largely in the Lower Assam (Bodo Territorial Council area). After years of neglect, now Bodo language is getting attention and its literature is developing. Other native languages of Tibeto-Burman origin and related to Bodo-Kachari are Mishing, Karbi, Dimaca, Rabha, Tiwa, etc. Rajbongshi also known as kamatapuri/Goalpariya is also widely spoken by the people of western assam.

There are smaller groups of people speaking Tai-Phake, Tai-Aiton, Tai-Khamti, etc related to Tai-group of languages. The Tai-Ahom language (brought by Sukaphaa and his followers), which is no more a spoken language today is getting attentions for research after centuries long care and preservation by the Bailungs (traditional priests). There are also small groups of people speaking Manipuri, Nepali,Khasi, Garo, Hmar, Kuki, etc in different parts.

In the past century migration of Bengalis in the Barak Valley has led to their majority, prompting the government of Assam to include Bengali as the official language in the area.

Festivals

[


right|thumb|180px|An_Assamese_woman_in_Pat_Silk_performing_Sattriya dance.]

There are several important traditional festivals in Assam. Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam.

Bihu is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator's life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, "rongali" or "bohag", celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; "kongali" or "kati", the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the "bhogali" or "magh", the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to "rongali" bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as 'uruka'. The first day of 'rongali bihu' is called 'Goru bihu' (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres. Moreover, there are other important traditional festivals being celebrated every year for different occasions at different places. Many of these are celebrated by different ethno-cultural groups (sub and sister cultures). Few of these are:columns |width=180px |g

col1 =
*Me-dam-me-phi
*Ali-aye-ligang
*Kherai
*Garja
*Hapsa Hatarnai
*Awnkham Gwrlwi Janai
col2 =
*Chojun/Swarak
*Rongker
*Sokk-erroi
*Hacha-kekan
*Porag

Performing arts

Assam has rich tradition of performing arts. "Ankiya Nat" ("Onkeeya Naat") is a traditional Vaishnav dance-drama ("bhaona") form popular since 15th century A.D. It makes use of large masks of gods, goddesses, demons and animals and in between the plays a "Sutradhar" ("Xutrodhar") keeps on telling the story. The Bihu dance and "Hucory" performed during the "Bohag Bihu", "Kushan nritra" of Rajbongshi's, "Bagurumba" and "Bordoicikhla" dance of Bodos, Mishing Bihu, "Banjar Kekan" performed during "Chomangkan" by Karbis are some of the major folk dances. Sattriya ("Xotriya") dance related to Vaishnav tradition is a classical form of dance. Moreover, there are several other age-old dance-forms such as Barpeta’s "Bhortal Nritya", "Deodhoni Nritya", "Oja Paali", "Beula Dance", "Ka Shad Inglong Kardom", "Nimso Kerung", etc. The tradition of modern moving theatres is typical of Assam with immense popularity of many large theatre groups such as Kohinoor, Apsara, Hengul, etc.

At the same time musical tradition is also rich. Folk songs and music related to Bihu and other festivals dates back to time-immemorial. "Borgeet", the popular Vaishnav songs are written and composed in 15th century. Assam has large numbers of traditional musical instruments including several types of drums, string instruments, flutes, cymbals, pipes, etc.

The indigenous folk music has substantially influenced the growth of a modern idiom, that finds expression in the music of such artists like Bhupen Hazarika, [http://www.rupaliparda.com/english/who's-who/anima.htm Anima Choudhury] Nirmalendu Choudhury & Utpalendu Choudhury, Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah, Parvati Prasad Baruva, Jayanta Hazarika, [http://www.rupaliparda.com/english/who's-who/khagenmahanta.htm Khagen Mahanta] among many others. Among the new generation, Zubeen Garg and Jitul Sonowal have a great fan following.

Traditional crafts

Assam has a rich tradition of crafts; presently, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, musical instruments making, etc remained as major traditions. [ Assam Tourism 2002] Historically, Assam also excelled in making boats, traditional guns and gunpowder, ivory crafts, colours and paints, articles of lac, agarwood products, traditional building materials, utilities from iron, etc.

Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Utilities and symbolic articles such as "Xorai" and "Bota" made from bell metal and brass are found in every Assamese household. [Ranjan] [Nath] Hajo and Sarthebari ("Xorthebaary") are the most important centres of traditional bell-metal and brass crafts. Assam is the home of several types of silks, the most prestigious are: Muga - the natural golden silk, Pat - a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri - a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi ("Xualkuchi"), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations.

Moreover, Assam possesses unique crafts of toy and mask making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in lower Assam districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery, etc in many places across the region.

Fine arts

The archaic Mauryan Stupas discovered in and around Goalpara district are the earliest examples (c. 300B.C. to c. 100A.D.) of ancient art and architectural works. The remains discovered in Daparvatiya ("Doporboteeya") archaeological site with a beautiful doorframe in Tezpur are identified as the best examples of art works in ancient Assam with influence of Sarnath School of Art of the late Gupta period. Many other sites also exhibit development of local art forms with local motifs and sometimes with similarities with those in the Southeast Asia. There are currently more than forty discovered ancient archaeological sites across Assam with numerous sculptural and architectural remains. Moreover, there are examples of several Late-Middle Age art and architectural works including hundreds of sculptures and motifs along with many remaining temples, palaces and other buildings. The motifs available on the walls of the buildings such as Rang Ghar, Joydoul, etc are remarkable examples of art works.

Painting is an ancient tradition of Assam. Xuanzang (7th century CE) mentions that among the Kamarupa king Bhaskaravarma's gifts to Harshavardhana there were paintings and painted objects, some of which were on Assamese silk. Many of the manuscripts such as Hastividyarnava (A Treatise on Elephants), the Chitra Bhagawata and in the Gita Govinda from the Middle Ages bear excellent examples of traditional paintings. The medieval Assamese literature also refers to chitrakars and patuas. There are several renowned contemporary artists in Assam. The Guwahati Art College in Guwahati is a government institution for tertiary education. Moreover, there are several art-societies and non-government initiatives across the state and the Guwahati Artists Guild is a front-runner organisation based in Guwahati.

Economy

Macro-economy

Economy of Assam today represents a unique juxtaposition of backwardness amidst plenty. [National Commission for Women 2004] Growth rate of Assam’s income has not kept pace with that of India’s; differences increased rapidly since 1970s.UNDP 2004 p22-23] Indian economy grew at 6 percent per annum over the period of 1981 to 2000, the same of Assam was only 3.3 percent. [UNDP 2004 p22] In the Sixth Plan period Assam experienced a negative growth rate of 3.78 percent when India's was positive at 6 percent.UNDP 2004 p22-23] In the post-liberalised era (after 1991), the differences widened further.

According to recent analysis, Assam’s economy is showing signs of improvement. In 2001-02, the economy grew (at 1993-94 constant prices) at 4.5 percent, to fall to 3.4 percent in the next financial year.Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2004-2005] During 2003-04 and 2004-05, the economy grew (at 1993-94 constant prices) more satisfactorily at 5.5 and 5.3 percent respectively.Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2004-2005] The advanced estimates placed the growth rate for 2005-06 at above 6 percent. [Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2005-2006] Assam's GDP in 2004 is estimated at $13 billion in current prices. Sectoral analysis again exhibits a dismal picture. The average annual growth rate of agriculture, which was only 2.6 percent per annum over 1980s has unfortunately fallen to 1.6 percent in the 1990s.UNDP 2004 p24-25] Manufacturing sector has shown some improvement in the 1990s with a growth rate of 3.4 percent per annum than 2.4 percent in the 1980s.UNDP 2004 p24-25] Since past five decades, the tertiary sector has registered the highest growth rates than the other sectors, which even has slowed down in the 1990s than in 1980s.UNDP 2004 p24-25]

Agriculture

Accounts for more than a third of Assam’s income and employs 69 percent of workforce. [Government of Assam, Economic Survey of Assam 2001-2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003 p32] Assam's biggest contribution to the world is tea. It produces some of the finest and expensive teas and has its own variety "Camellia assamica". Assam also accounts for fair share of India’s production of rice, rapeseed, mustard, jute, potato, sweet potato, banana, papaya, areca nut and turmeric. It is also a home of large varieties of citrus fruits, leaf vegetables, vegetables, useful grasses, herbs, spices, etc.

Assam’s agriculture yet to experience modernisation in real sense. With implications to food security, per capita food grain production has declined in past five decades.UNDP 2004 p33] Productivity has increased marginally; but still lower comparing to highly productive regions. For instance, yield of rice (staple food of Assam) was just 1531 kg per hectare against India’s 1927 kg per hectare in 2000-01UNDP 2004 p33] (which itself is much lower than Egypt’s 9283, USA’s 7279, South Korea’s 6838, Japan’s 6635 and China’s 6131 kg per hectare in 2001 [ FAO Statistics Division 2007 ] ). On the other hand, after having strong domestic demand, 1.5 million hectares of inland water bodies, numerous rivers and 165 varieties of fishes, [Assam Small Farmers’ Agri-business Consortium] fishing is still in its traditional form and production is not self-sufficient.UNDP 2004 p37]

Industry

Apart from tea and petroleum refineries, Assam has few industries of significance. Industrial development is inhibited by its physical and political isolation from neighbouring countries such as Myanmar, China and Bangladesh and from other growing Southeast Asian economies. The region is landlocked, situated in the eastern periphery of India and is linked to the mainland by a flood and cyclone prone narrow corridor, known as the Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck, with weak transport infrastructure. The international airport in Guwahati is yet to find airlines providing direct international flights. The Brahmaputra suitable for navigation does not possess sufficient infrastructure for international trade and success of such a navigable trade route will be dependent on proper channel maintenance and diplomatic and trade relationships with Bangladesh.Assam is a major producer of crude oil, exploited by the Assam Oil Company Ltd., and natural gas in India and is the second place in the world (after Titusville in the United States) where petroleum was discovered. Asia’s first successful mechanically drilled oil well was drilled in Makum (Assam) way back in 1867. Most of the oilfields are located in the Upper Assam region. Assam has four oil refineries located in Guwahati, Digboi, Numaligarh and Bongaigaon with a total capacity of 7 Million Metric Tonnes per annum. Although having a poor overall industrial performance, several other industries have nevertheless been started, including a chemical fertiliser plan at Namrup, petrochemical industries at Namrup and Bongaigaon, paper mills at Jagiroad, Panchgram and Jogighopa, sugar mills at Barua Bamun Gaon, Chargola, Kampur, cement plant at Bokajan & Badarpur, cosmetics plant (HLL) at Doom Dooma, etc. Moreover, there are other industries such as jute mill, textile and yarn mills, silk mill, etc. Unfortunately many of these industries are facing loss and closer due to lack of infrastructure and improper management practices. [citations needed]

Education

Assam has several institutions for tertiary education and research. The major institutions are:

* Gauhati University, Guwahati
* Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh
* Assam University, Silchar
* Tezpur University, Tezpur
* Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat
* Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
* National Institute of Technology, Silchar
* North Eastern Regional Institute of Water and Land Management, Tezpur
* Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur
* Defence Research Labroratory,Tezpur
* North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory), Jorhat
* Tocklai Experimental Station, Tea Research Association, Jorhat
* Centre for Plasma Physics, Guwahati
* Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati.
* Jorhat Engineering College, Jorhat.
* Assam Institute of Management, Guwahati.

Places

Cities and towns

History of urban development goes back to almost two thousand years in the region. Existence of ancient urban areas such as Pragjyotishapura (Guwahati), Hatapesvara (Tezpur), Durjaya, etc and medieval towns such as Charaideu, Garhgaon, Rongpur, Jorhat, Khaspur, Guwahati, etc are well recorded.Barpujari, H. K. (ed.),1990 The Comprehensive History of Assam, 1st edition, Assam Publication Board, Guwahati]

Guwahati is the largest urban centre and a million plus city in Assam. The city has experienced multifold growth during past three decades to grow as the primate city in the region; the city's population was approximately 0.9 million (considering GMDA area) during the census of 2001. The other important urban areas are Dibrugarh, Jorhat,Golaghat, Tinsukia (Tinicukiya), Sibsagar (Xiwoxagor), Silchar (Silcor), Tezpur, Nagaon, Lakhimpur, Bongaigaon, etc. Population growth in the Barak Valley town of Silchar is also astonishing during past two decades. Nalbari, Mangaldoi, Barpeta, Kokrajhar, Goalpara, Dhubri (Dhubury), etc are other towns and district head quarters. On the other hand Duliajan, Digboi, Namrup, Moran, Bongaigaon, Numaligarh, Jogighopa, etc are major industrial towns. Currently, there are around 125 total urban centres in the state.

Destinations

Assam has several attractive destinations; majority of these are National Parks, Wildlife and Bird Sanctuaries, [Directorate of Information and Public Relations 2002] areas with archaeological interests and areas with unique cultural heritage. Moreover, as a whole, the region is covered by beautiful natural landscapes. columns |width=250px |g

col1 =
*Kaziranga National Park
*Manas National Park
*Nameri National Park
*Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
*Orang National Park
*Joydihing Rainforest
*Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary
*Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary
*Chakrasila Wildlife Sanctuary
*Burasapori Wildlife Sanctuary
*Bornodi Wildlife Sanctuary
*Sonai-rupai Wildlife Sanctuary
*Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
*Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary
*Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary
*Gibon Wildlife Sanctuary
*East Karbi-Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary (Proposed)
*Karbi-Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary (Proposed)
*Podumani Bherjan Borajan Wildlife Sanctuary
*Bordoibum Beelmukh Bird Sanctuary (Proposed)
*Panidihing Bird Sanctuary
*Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
col2 =
*Majuli
*Sualkuchi
*Sarthebari
*Digboi oil town
*Ledo and Stilwell Road
*Haflong and Jatinga
*Umrangshu hotwater spring
col3 =
*Guwahati archaeological region
*Hajo archaeological region
*Madan Kamdev
*Sibsagar archaeological region
*Charaideo
*Surya Pahar Goalpara archaeological region
*Tezpur archaeological region
*Kapili Valley archaeological region
*Dhansiri/Dhonxiri Valley archaeological region
*Maibong

ee also

columns |width=200px |g

col1 =
* 1897 Assam earthquake
* 1950 Assam earthquake
* Ahom
* Ahom kingdom
* Assam Rifles
* Assamese cinema
* Assamese language
* Axom Xahitya Xabha
* Biodiversity of Assam
* Bodo language
* Bodo people
col2 =
* Charyapada
* Cuisine of Assam
* Culture of Assam
* Districts of Assam
* Etymology of Assam
* Fine Arts of Assam
* History of Assam
* Kamarupa (History)
* Karbi
col3 =
* Mishing
* Mishing language
* Music of Assam
* People of Assam
* Physical Geography of Assam
*
col4 =
* Tourism in Assam
* Traditional crafts of Assam
* Textiles and dresses of Assam
*

Notes and references

*Citation
first = C. U. ed | last = Aitchison
author-link =
title = [http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/history/primarydocs/Treaties/Burma/002.htm The Treaty of Yandaboo] , A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads: Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries. Vol. XII.
place = Calcutta
publisher = Government of India Central Publication Branch
year = 1931
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
last = Assam Small Farmers’ Agri-business Consortium
first =
title = PDFlink| [http://www.assamagribusiness.nic.in/2ndoct/fishspeciesofAssam.pdf Fish Species of Assam] |400 KiB
url=
access-date = 2006-06-05

*Citation
last = Assam Tourism 2002
first = Government of Assam
title = Arts and Crafts of Assam in About Assam
url= http://www.assamtourism.org/arts.htm
access-date = 2007-06-3

*Citation
first = H. K. (ed.)| last = Barpujari
author-link =
title = The Comprehensive History of Assam, 1st edition
place = Guwahati, India
publisher = Assam Publication Board
year = 1990
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
last1 = Birdlife International, UK
title = PDFlink| [http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/species/asia_strategy/pdf_downloads/grasslandsGO2.pdf Indo-Gangetic Grasslands] |431 KiB
publisher =
pages =
year =

*Citation
last = Borthakur
first = Ahir Bhairab
author-link =
title = [http://www.downtoearth.org.in/full6.asp?foldername=20020115&filename=gra&sec_id=11&sid=1 Call of the wild]
journal = Down To Earth
volume =
pages =
date = January 15, 2002
year = 2002

*Citation
last = Directorate of Information and Public Relations
first = Government of Assam
title = Area of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Assam, 2002
url= http://janasanyogassam.nic.in/assamataglance.htm
access-date = 2006-05-29

*Citation
last = Directorate of Information and Public Relations
first = Government of Assam
title = Assam at a Glance
url= http://janasanyogassam.nic.in/assamataglance.htm
access-date = 2007-05-25

*Citation
last=Dixit
first=K. M.
author-link=
title=Chicken's Neck (Editorial)
newspaper=Himal South Asian
volume=
issue=
pages=
year=2002
date=August 2002
url=http://www.himalmag.com/2002/august/lastpage.htm

*Citation
last=Editorial
first=
author-link=
title=Assam or Asom?
newspaper=The Assam Tribune
volume=
issue=
pages=
year=2007
date=6 January 2007
url=http://www.assamtribune.com/scripts/details.asp?id=jan0607edit

*Citation
last = ENVIS Assam
first =
author-link =
title = PDFlink| [http://www.envisassam.org/VOL2_2.pdf Endemic Orchids of Assam] |6.46 MiB
journal = ENVIS Assam, Assam Science Technology and Environment Council
volume = 2
pages = 8
date = April-June 2003
year = 2003

*Citation
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first = Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
title = FAOSTAT
url=http://faostat.fao.org/site/340/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=340
access-date = 2006-06-05

*cite paper
author = Government of Assam
title = Economic Survey of Assam 2001-2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003
date =
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format = PDF
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*cite paper
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year = 2006
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accessdate = 2007-06-06

*cite paper
author = Government of Assam
title = Economic Survey of Assam 2005-2006 in NEDFi, Assam Profile, NER Databank
date =
url = http://databank.nedfi.com/mod.php?mod=userpage&menu=11&page_id=4
format = html
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*Citation
last = Government of Assam 2002-03
first =
title = Statistics of Assam
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access-date = 2007-06-3

*cite paper
author = Governor of Assam
title = Report on Illegal Migration into Assam
date = 1998-11-08
url = http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/assam/documents/papers/illegal_migration_in_assam.htm
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title = Strangers of the Mist
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*Citation
last = Hussain
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author-link =
title = [http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/sair/Archives/3_10.htm Assam: Demographic Jitters] , Weekly Assessments & Briefings
journal = South Asia Intelligence Review
volume = 3-10
pages =
date = September 20, 2004
year = 2004

*Citation
first = Banikanta | last = Kakati
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title = Assamese, Its Formation and Development, 2nd edition
place = Guwahati, India
publisher = Lawyer's Book Stall
year = 1962
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
last1 = MacFarlane | first1 = Alan
last2 = MacFarlane | first2 = Iris
title = Green Gold, The Empire of Tea, Ch.6-11
publisher = Random House, London
date = 2003
year = 2003
isbn =

*Citation
first = T.K.| last = Nath
author-link =
title = Bamboo Cane and Assam
place = Guwahati, India
publisher = Industrial Development Bank of India, Small Industries Development Bank of India
year =
doi =
isbn =

*cite paper
author = National Commission for Women
title = Situational Analysis of Women in Assam
year = 2004
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accessdate = 2006-07-05

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*Citation
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*Citation
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first =
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publisher = National Institute of Design
date =
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isbn =

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title = Revenue Administration - Districts and Subdivisions
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access-date = 2007-05-25

*Citation
last = Sharma
first = Pradip
author-link =
title = PDFlink| [http://www.envisassam.org/VOL2_2.pdf An Overview on Wetlands in Assam] |6.46 MiB
journal = ENVIS Assam, Assam Science Technology and Environment Council
volume = 2
pages = 7
date = April-June 2003
year = 2003

* Singh, K. S (ed) (2003) "People of India: Assam Vol XV Parts I and II", Anthropological Survey of India, Seagull Books, Calcutta
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first = R. L. | last = Singh
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title = India, A Regional Geography
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publisher = National Geographical Society of India
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* Taher, Mohammad (1993) "The Peopling of Assam and contemporary social structure" in Ahmad, Aijazuddin (ed) Social Structure and Regional Development, Rawat Publications, New Delhi
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last=Times News Network
first=
author-link=
title=Assam to fall off the map, turn Asom
newspaper=The Times of India
volume=
issue=
pages=
year=2006
date=28 February 2006
url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1431357.cms

*Citation
first = | last = UNDP
author-link = UNDP
title = PDFlink|1= [http://planassam.org/reports/hdr_2003/HRD.htm Chapter 2, Income, Employment and Poverty in Assam Human Development Report, 2003]
place =
publisher = Government of Assam
year = 2004
doi =
isbn =

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first = C. J.
author-link =
title = PDFlink| [http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2208/D/b2208-d.pdf Sylhet-Kopili/Barail-Tipam Composite Total Petroleum System, Assam Geologic Province, India] |1.73 MiB
journal = U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin
volume = 2208-D
pages =
date = 2004
year = 2004

*cite web
last = World Heritage Centre
first = UNESCO
title = World Heritage List
url= http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31
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Further reading

Language and literature
*Citation
first = Mahendra | last = Bara
author-link =
title = The Evolution of the Assamese Script
place = Jorhat, Assam
publisher = Asam Sahitya Sabha
year = 1981
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = H. K. | last = Barpujari
author-link =
title = Amerikan Michanerisakal aru Unabimsa Satikar Asam
place = Jorhat, Assam
publisher = Asam Sahitya Sabha
year = 1983
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Birinchi Kumar | last = Barua
author-link =
title = History of Assamese Literature
place = Guwahati
publisher = East-West Centre Press
year = 1965, c1964
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Hem | last = Barua
author-link =
title = Assamese Literature
place = New Delhi
publisher = National Book Trust
year = 1965
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = William Barclay | last = Brown
author-link =
title = An Outline Grammar of the Deori Chutiya Language Spoken in Upper Assam with an Introduction, Illustrative Sentences, and Short Vocabulary
place = Shillong
publisher = The Assam Secretariat Printing Office
year = 1895
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Anandaram 1829-1859 | last = Dhekial Phukan
author-link =
title = Anandaram Dhekiyal Phukanar Racana Samgrah
place = Guwahati
publisher = Lawyer's Book Stall
year = 1977
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Sidney | last = Endle
author-link =
title = Outline of the Kachari (Baro) Language as Spoken in District Darrang, Assam
place = Shillong
publisher = Assam Secretariat Press
year = 1884
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Lila | last = Gogoi
author-link =
title = Sahitya-Samskriti-Buranji
place = Dibrugarh
publisher = New Book Stall
year = 1972
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Lila | last = Gogoi
author-link =
title = The Buranjis, Historical Literature of Assam
place = New Delhi
publisher = Omsons Publications
year = 1986
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Praphulladatta | last = Goswami
author-link =
title = Folk-Literature of Assam
place = Guwahati
publisher = Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam
year = 1954
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Philip Richard Thornhagh | last = Gurdon
author-link =
title = Some Assamese Proverbs
place = Shillong
publisher = The Assam Secretariat Printing Office
year = 1896
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Banikanta | last = Kakati
author-link =
title = Aspects of Early Assamese Literature
place = Guwahati
publisher = Gauhati University
year = 1959
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = S. P. | last = Kay
author-link =
title = An English-Mikir Vocabulary
place = Shillong
publisher = The Assam Secretariat Printing Office
year = 1904
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Kaliram | last = Medhi
author-link =
title = Assamese Grammar and Origin of the Assamese Language
place = Guwahati
publisher = Assam Publication Board
year = 1988
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Bronson | last = Miles
author-link =
title = A Dictionary in Assamese and English
place = Sibsagar, Assam
publisher = American Baptist Mission Press
year = 1867
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Stephen | last = Morey
author-link =
title = The Tai languages of Assam : a grammar and texts
place = Canberra
publisher = Pacific Linguistics
year = 2005
doi =
isbn =0858835495

History
*Citation
first = H. | last = Antrobus
author-link =
title = A History of the Assam Company
place = Edinburgh
publisher = Private Printing by T. and A. Constable
year = 1957
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Hiteswara 1876-1939 | last = Barabaruwa
author-link =
title = Ahomar Din
place = Guwahati
publisher = Assam Publication Board
year = 1981
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Nirode K. | last = Barooah
author-link =
title = David Scott In North-East India, 1802-1831
place = New Delhi
publisher = Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
year = 1970
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Harakanta 1813-1900 | last = Barua
author-link =
title = Asama Buranji
place = Guwahati
publisher = Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Assam
year = 1962
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = H. K. | last = Barpujari
author-link =
title = Assam in the Days of the Company, 1826-1858
place = Guwahati
publisher = Lawyer's Book Stall
year = 1963
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = H. K. | last = Barpujari
author-link =
title = Political History of Assam. Department for the Preparation of Political History of Assam
place = Guwahati
publisher = Government of Assam
year = 1977
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Kanak Lal | last = Barua
author-link =
title = An Early History of Kamarupa, From the Earliest Time to the Sixteenth Century
place = Guwahati
publisher = Lawyers Book Stall
year =
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Kanak Lal | last = Barua
author-link =
title = Studies in the Early History of Assam
place = Jorhat, Assam
publisher = Asam Sahitya Sabha
year =
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Swarna Lata | last = Baruah
author-link =
title = Last days of Ahom monarchy : a history of Assam from 1769-1826
place = New Delhi
publisher = Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
year = 1993
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Anglo-Assamese Relations, 1771-1826
place = Guwahati
publisher = Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam
year = 1949
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Annals of the Delhi Badshahate
place = Guwahati
publisher = Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam
year = 1947
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Atan Buragohain and His Times
place = Guwahati
publisher = Lawyer's Book Stall
year = 1957
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Deodhai Asam Buranji
place = Guwahati
publisher = Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies
year = 1962
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Early British Relations with Assam
place = Shillong
publisher = Assam Secretariat Press
year = 1928
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Lachit Barphukan and His Times
place = Guwahati
publisher = Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam
year = 1947
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Satasari Asama Buranji
place = Guwahati
publisher = Gauhati University
year = 1964
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Suryya Kumar | last = Bhuyan
author-link =
title = Swargadew Rajeswarasimha
place = Guwahati
publisher = Assam Publication Board
year = 1975
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Francis Hamilton 1762-1829| last = Buchanan
author-link =
title = An Account of Assam
place = Guwahati
publisher = Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies
year = 1963
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Srinath | last = Duara Barbarua
author-link =
title = Tungkhungia Buranji
place = Bombay
publisher = H. Milford, Oxford University Press
year = 1933
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Edward Albert 1863-1950| last = Gait
author-link =
title = A History of Assam
place = Calcutta
publisher = Thacker, Spink & Co.
year = 1926
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Padmeswar | last = Gogoi
author-link =
title = The Tai and the Tai Kingdoms
place = Guwahati
publisher = Gauhati University
year = 1968
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Amalendu | last = Guha
author-link =
title = The Ahom Political System
place = Calcutta
publisher = Centre for Studies in Social Sciences
year = 1983
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = William Wilson 1840-1900| last = Hunter
author-link =
title = A Statistical Account of Assam
place = London
publisher = Trubner & Co.
year = 1879
doi =
isbn =

Tradition and Culture
*Citation
first = Sukumar | last = Barkath
author-link =
title = Hastibidyarnnara Sarasamgraha (English & Assamese), 18th Century
place = Guwahati
publisher = Assam Publication Board
year = 1976
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Birinchi Kumar | last = Barua
author-link =
title = A Cultural History of Assam
place = Guwahati
publisher = Lawyer's Book Stall
year = 1969
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Birinchi Kumar | last = Barua
author-link =
title = Sankardeva
place = Guwahati
publisher = Assam Academy for Cultural Relations
year = 1960
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Jayakanta | last = Gandhiya
author-link =
title = Huncari, Mukali Bihu, aru Bihunac
place = Dibrugarh
publisher =
year = 1988
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Praphulladatta | last = Goswami
author-link =
title = Ballads and Tales of Assam
place = Guwahati
publisher = Gauhati University
year = 1960
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Praphulladatta | last = Goswami
author-link =
title = Bohag Bihu of Assam and Bihu Songs
place = Guwahati
publisher = Assam Publication Board
year = 1988
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Pona | last = Mahanta
author-link =
title = Western Influence on Modern Assamese Drama
place = Delhi
publisher = Mittal Publications
year = 1985
doi =
isbn =

*Citation
first = Kaliram | last = Medhi
author-link =
title = Studies in the Vaisnava Literature and Culture of Assam
place = Jorhat, Assam
publisher = Asam Sahitya Sabha
year = 1978
doi =
isbn =

External links

* [http://www.atributetosankaradeva.org/ atributetosankaradeva.org ] - The Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Art, Culture (and more) of Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankaradeva.
* [http://assam.gov.in/ Government of Assam]
*dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Assam


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