Freeganism is an anti-consumerist lifestyle whereby people employ alternative living strategies based on "limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption of resources. The website freegan.info states that freegans embrace community, generosity, social concern, freedom, cooperation, and sharing in opposition to a society based on materialism, moral apathy, competition, conformity, and greed."cite web |url=http://www.freegan.info |title=What is a freegan? |publisher=Freegan.info |accessdate=2007-06-19] The lifestyle involves salvaging discarded, unspoiled food from supermarket dumpsters that have passed their display date but haven't passed their edible date. They salvage the food not because they are poor or homeless, but as a political statement.cite news |first=Tucker |last=Carlson |authorlink=Tucker Carlson |coauthors= |title='Freegans' choose to eat garbage |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11154276/ |quote=These people don‘t eat out of dumpsters because they‘re poor and desperate. They do it to prove a political point. You wouldn‘t expect someone to choose a lifestyle that involved eating out of dumpsters. Kind of seems like something you do as a desperate last resort. But there‘s an entire society of people who willingly get their meals out of the garbage. They‘re called freegans, and they say they have a reason for doing it. |publisher=
MSNBC|date= February 3 2006|accessdate=2007-06-21 ] [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Free Lunch. Freegans prove there is such a thing as they dumpster-dive for food for themselves and the homeless.|url=http://houstonpress.com/Issues/2004-11-25/news/feature.html |quote=Patrick Lyons stands in the middle of a dumpster, staring at a can of meat. "I don't know who eats this stuff," he says. He chucks the can aside and keeps on digging. His ball cap is slung low over his face; it connects to his long, thick, brown sideburns. |publisher= Houston Press|date= |accessdate=2007-06-21 ]
The word "freegan" is a
portmanteauof "free" and "vegan".cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Not Buying It |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/21/garden/21freegan.html |quote=A few of those present had stumbled onto the scene by chance (including a janitor from a nearby homeless center, who made off with a working iPod and a tube of body cream), but most were there by design, in response to a posting on the Web site freegan.info. The site, which provides information and listings for the small but growing subculture of anticonsumerists who call themselves freegans — the term derives from vegans, the vegetarians who forsake all animal products, as many freegans also do — is the closest thing their movement has to an official voice. |publisher= New York Times|date= June 21, 2007|accessdate=2007-06-21 ] Freeganism started in the mid 1990s, out of the antiglobalizationand environmentalistmovements. Groups such as Food Not Bombsserved free vegetarian and vegan food that was salvaged from food market trash by dumpster diving. The movement also has elements of Diggers, an anarchist street theatergroup based in Haight-Ashburyin San Franciscoin the 1960s, that gave away rescued food.
"Why Freegan" pamphlet
Even the manifesto pamphlet "Why Freegan" (written by
Against Me!drummer Warren Oakes in 1999) is unclear in its definition of what constitutes freeganism. At one point, it defines freeganism as "an anti-consumeristic ethic about eating" but goes on to describe practices including dumpster diving, plate scraping, wild foraging, gardening, shoplifting, employee scams, and barteras alternatives to paying for food. Motivations are varied and numerous; some adhere to freeganism for environmental reasons, some for religious reasons and others embrace the philosophy as a form of political consciousness. A short documentary film, Bin Appetit, gives reasons why people become freegans.
The pamphlet does include a lengthy section on non-food related practices, including
solar energy, conserving water, carelessness, precyclingand reusing goods. Some freegans consider these non-food practices to be components of freeganism itself; others simply consider them to be complementary practices.
Many freegans get free food by pulling it out of the trash, a practice commonly nicknamed
dumpster divingin North America and skipping or bin diving in the UK, as well as bin raiding. Freegans find food in the garbage of restaurants, grocery stores, and other food related industries, which they claim allows them to avoid spending money on products that exploit the world's resources, contribute to urban sprawl, treat workers unfairly, or disregard animal rights. By foraging, they believe they are keeping perfectly edible food from adding to landfillclutter and that can feed people and animals who might otherwise go hungry.
Wild foraging and urban gardens
Instead of buying industrially grown foods, wild foragers [Institute for the Study of Edible Wild Plants and Other Foragables. [http://www.wildfoodadventures.com/ Wild Foraging Definition] ] find and harvest food and medicinal plants growing in their own communities. Some freegans participate in "Guerrilla" or "Community" Gardens, with the stated aim of rebuilding community and reclaiming the capacity to grow one's own food. In order to fertilise those guerilla gardens, food obtained from
dumpster diving[ [http://www.instructables.com/id/SUMHHJ6F4OCZUPD/ Instructables dumpster diving combined with guerilla gardening] ] is sometimes also reused. In many urban guerilla gardens, vermicultureis used instead of ordinary compostingtechniques in order to keep the required infrastructure/room small. [ [http://journeytoforever.org/cityfarm_link.html Journeytoforever small-scale (city) composting information (trough vermiculture)] ] [ [http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-12008-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html Vermiculture combination with city farms in the developing world for the poor] ] . Guerilla gardeners claim to seek an alternative to dependence and participation in what they perceive as an exploitative and ecologically destructive system of global, industrialized corporate food production.
Sharing is also a common freegan practice.
Food Not Bombsrecovers food that would otherwise go to waste to serve warm meals on the street to anyone who wants them. The group promotes an ethic of sharing and community, while working to show what they consider to be the injustice of a society in which they claim fighting wars is considered a higher priority than feeding the hungry.
Really, Really Free Markets" are free social events in which freegans can share goods instead of discarding them, share skills, give presents and eat food. A free storeis a temporary market where people exchange goods and services outside of a money-based economy.
Freegans also advocate sharing travel resources. Internet-based ridesharing reduces but does not eliminate use of cars and all the related resources needed to maintain and operate them.
"Community Bike Programs and Bike Collectives" facilitate community sharing of
bicycles, restore found and broken bikes, and teach people how to do their own bike repairs. In the process they build a culture of skill and resource sharing, reuse wasted bikes and bike parts, and create greater access to environmentally friendly transportation.
Relationship to veganism
Freegans believe that even if a product is vegan, it does not guarantee that:Fact|date=February 2008
* Workers were not exploited in the product's production;
Pesticides were not used in its growing;
* Non-renewable and radioactive resources (such as
petroleum, coal, and nuclear power) were not used in production, energy use and shipping;
Rainforestwas not cleared to generate plantation land;
Wildlifewas not harmed in production;
packagingwas not used.
Freegans claim that people sincerely committed to living the "cruelty-free" lifestyle espoused by vegans must strive to abstain not only from eating, wearing, and using animal skins, secretions (e.g. milk and its by-products), flesh, and animal-tested products, but must attempt to remove themselves from participation in the capitalist economy altogether as workers and consumers.
Some freegans, sometimes called "meagans"cite web |url=http://freegan.info/?page=WhyFreegan |title=Why Freegan? |accessdate=2007-08-04 |publisher=Freegan.info ] , consume
meatand other animal products only as long as they would otherwise be wasted.
*cite book |author=Anthony J. Nocella II; Best, Steven |title=Igniting a Revolution: Voices in Defense of the Earth |publisher=
AK Press|year=2006 |isbn=1-904859-56-9
List of subsistence techniques
* [http://www.freegan.info Freegan.info]
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