Telugu literature

Telugu literature is the literature of the Telugu people, an ethnic group based in southern India.

History

Early history

Telugu literature prior to Nannayya Bhattarakudu’s "Andhra Mahabharatamu" was not preserved, except royal grants and decrees. It was almost the end of the eleventh century by the time the original Telugu literature came to exist. So, Nannayya is known as "Aadi Kavi" (the first poet). The advanced and well-developed language used by Nannayya suggests that this may not be the beginning of Telugu literature, but Sudheer Vemuru says it is. It is also believed that the pre-Nannaya Literature probably Jain were deliberately destroyed by the Bramhical movement called Vaidiki Movement. [cite book| first = Chenchiah | last = P | coauthors =Raja Bhujanga Rao | title = A History of Telugu Literature | location = India | publisher = Oxford University press | year = | isbn = ] Nanne Choadudu's famous work Kumara Sambavam is believed to be composed in 10th century before Nannaya's Mahabaratha. But others place Nanne Choadudu between the period of Nannaya and Tikkana. [cite book| first = Raju | last = P.T | coauthors = | title = A Telugu Literature | location = India | publisher = Onal Book House | year = | isbn = ]

"Andhra Mahabharatamu" was later furthered by Tikanna Somayaji (1205–1288), to be finally completed by Yerrapragada (fourteenth century). Nannaya, Tikanna and Yerrapragada are known as the "Kavitraya" or the three great poets of Telugu for this mammoth effort. Other such translations like Marana’s "Markandeya Puranam", Ketana’s "Dasakumara Charita", Yerrapragada’s "Harivamsam" followed. Many scientific works like "Ganitasarasangrahamu" by Pavuluri Mallana and "Prakirnaganitamu" by Eluganti Peddana are written in 12th century in Telugu. [cite book| first = Raju | last = P.T | coauthors = | title = A Telugu Literature | location = India | publisher = Onal Book House | year = | isbn = ] Some of the early landmarks are Srinathudu’s "Sringara Naishadham", Potana’s "Dasamaskandham", Jakkana’s "Vikramarka Charitra" and Talapaka Timmakka’s "Subhadra Kalyanam". Literary activities flourished, during the rule of Vijayanagara dynasty. Krishnadevaraya’ s time (sixteenth century) is considered the golden age in the history of Telugu literature. The king, a poet himself, introduced the "Prabandha" (a kind of love poetry) in Telugu literature with his "Amukta Malyada". His court had the "Ashtadiggajas" (literally "eight elephants") who were the known to be the greatest of poets of that time.

Some critics dismiss the following period, dominated by prabandhas, as a decadent age. Of the dozens of works of the eighteenth to mid nineteenth century, Kankanti Paparaju’s "Uttara Ramayana" in "campu" style and the play "Vishnumayavilasa" stand out. Other genres bloomed at the same time. Innumerable Yakshaganas or indigenous dramas of song and prose works were also produced. Tyagaraja (1767–1847) of Tanjore composed devotional songs in Telugu, which form a big part of the repertoire of Carnatic music.

Modern history

Charles Philip Brown (1798-1884), was an employee of East India Company whose quest to understand the basic structure of Telugu language made him embark upon an exploration of Telugu literature. His pursuit is said to be the only present day source of the many classics in Telugu literature.

Although the first printed Telugu book was out in 1796, it was a while before the modern period in Telugu literature set in. Young men acquainted with English literature were influenced by Shelley, Keats and Wordsworth, and a new type of romantic poetry called the "Bhavakavithwam" was born.

Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848-1919) wrote the first novel in Telugu, "Rajashekharacharitramu". Next came the "vyavaharika bhasha vadam" or using colloquial language in script. Gurajada Apparao with his close associates such as Gidugu Rammurty were primarily responsible for the beginnings of this. His 1910 work "Mutyala saralu" along with Cattamanchi Ramalinga Reddy's "musalamma maranam" (1898), and Rayaprolu Subbarao’s "Trunakankatam" (1913) form the earliest works heralding a break with traditional poetry.

Various forms

*"Prabandham"
*"Kavyam"
**"Padya kāvyam"
**"Gadya kāvyam"
**"Kanda Kavyam" ("short poems")
*"Kavitha"
*"Śatakam" (Anthology)
*"Avadhanam"
*"Navala"
*"Katha"
*"Nātakam"

Popular authors and works

*Arudra (ఆరుద్ర) - "Samagraandhra Saahithyamu" (సమగ్రాంధ్ర సాహిత్యము) (The Complete Telugu Literature)
*Abburi Varada Rajeswara Rao (1923-1993) - "Varadakaalam"
*Adavi Baapiraju - "Gona Gannareddy, Naarayanarao, Thuphaanu (The storm), Amshumathi"
*Alakki Bhaskarudu - " Bhaskara Satakamu"
*Ajanta - Penumarti Viswanatha Sastry (born 1922)
*Allasani Peddana - "Manu charithra" (The History of Swarochisha Manu)
*Aathreya - NGO, Kappalu adrusta deepak - agni ,adavi
*Atukuri Molla - "Molla Ramayanam"
*Bammera Pothana - "Bhagavatham"
*Buchchibabu - "Chivaraku migiledi" (What is Left at the End)
*Balivada Kantha Rao(1927-2000) - Balivada Kantha Rao Kathalu(Winner of the Kendriya Sahitya Academy Award)
*Boyi Bhimanna - "Gudiselu Kaalipothunnaayi"
*C. Narayanareddy - "Vishwambhara"
*Bhamidipati RamaGopalam - " Aarama Gopalam "
*BHAVASHRI(W.RAMA RAO)
*Cha So (1915-1993)
*Chemakura Venkata Kavi "Vijaya Vilaasamu" duvvuri venkata ramana sastri - ramaniyam
* Duggirala Balarama Krishnayya - Buddha Puranam,Manava Jivitam,and many others.
*Chalam - "Chithraangi, Maidhaanam, Saavithri, janaki, ameena, brahmaneekam, musings"
*Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham - "Gayopaakhyaanam"
*Daasaradhi Krishnamacharyulu - "Timiramutho samaramu" (Fighting against the darkness)
*Daasaradhi Rangacharyulu - "Chillara Devullu", "Tirumalakonda Pada Chitralu"
*Devarakonda Balagangadhara Tilak - "Tilak Kathalu", "Amrutam Kurisina Raatri"
*Dhurjati - "Srikaalahasteesvara Satakam"
*Duvvoori Ramireddy - "Paanasaala", "Krusheevaludu"
*Devulapalli Krishnasastri - "Krishna pakshamu" (The Brightening Fortnight)
*Gadiyaaram Venkataseshasastri - "Sivabhaaratham"
*Gona Buddhareddy - "Ranganaatha Raamaayanamu"
*Gurajada Apparao - "Kanyaasulkamu"
*Gurram Jashuva - "Gabbilamu" (The bat), "Phiradousi"
*Kaethana - "Dasakumaara charithra"
*Kaloji-"Naa Godava", "Idee Naa Godava"-autobiography
*Kandukuri Veeresalingam - "Andhrakavula Charithra" (The history of Andhra Poets), "Raajasekhara Charithra" (The history of Rajasekhara)
*Kasula Purushottama Kavi - "Andhranayaka Satakamu"
*Kavitrayam (Nannayya, Tikkana, Yerrapragada) - "Andhra Mahaabhaarathamu" (The great Mahabharatha in Telugu)
*Kethu Viswanathareddy - "Kethu Viswanathareddy Kathalu"
*Ko Ku - "Chaduvu"
*Kotha Satyanarayana Chowdary - "Dharma Saastram", "Vaidika Vaagmaya Charitra".maaswami,kalpavruksha khandanam,kulapati ,kaviraju ,chinnaya ,kalipuranam ,maayaabhikshuvu,manjari,saahiti ,kaamasaastram,vasantasena
*Kondaviti Venkata Kavi - "Nehru Charitra"
*Kotikalapudi Seetamma - "Ahalyabai, Sadhuraksha Satakamu, Bhaktimargamu, Satidharmamu"
*Koochimanchi Timmana - "Rukmini parinayamu" (Rukmini's wedding)
*Korlapati Sriraamamurthy - "Sreenaadhudu" (The poet Srinadha)
*Leelavati - "Leelavati Ganithamu"
*Maarana - "Maarkandaeya puraanamu"
*Madhurantakam Rajaram - "Halikulu Kushalama"
*Mohammad Khadeer Babu - "Dargamitta Kathalu", "Zameen"
*Mokkapati Narasimha Sastry - "Barrister Parvateesam"
*Muddupalani - "Radhika Santvanamu"
*Mullapudi Venkata Ramana - "Budugu, Girisam malli puttadu"
*Muppala Ranganayakamma - "Raamayana vishavŕksham", "Krishnaveni, sweet home, janaki vimukthi, ammaki adivaram leda"
*Nandoori Subbarao - "Yenki paatalu"
*Nanne Choadudu - "Kumaara Sambhavamu"
*Nidumolu Prasuna - "Saaketa Saarvabhouma" (Telugu translation of Tulasidasa Ramayana)
*Nayani Krishnakumari - "Telugu geya vanjmayam", "Agniputri", "Kashmira deepakalika"
*Palagummi Padmaraju - "Bathikina collegee"
*Palkuriki Somanaathudu - "Basava puraanamu"
*Panuganti Lakshmi Narasimham - "Saakshi" (The witness)
*Paravasthu Chinnayasuri - "Baalavyaakaranamu, neethi chandrika"
*Pingali Soorana - "Kalaa poornodhayamu"
*Rachakonda Viswanathasastri - "Alpajeevi" (The miserable)
*Ramaraaja Bhooshanudu - "Vasu charithra"
*Sudheer Vemuru - "The Greatest Man on the Planet"
*Rangajamma - "Mannaru Dasavilasamau"
*Ravuri Bharadwaja - "Paakudu raallu"
*Raayaprolu Subbarao - "Jada kuchchulu, Ramyaaloakam"
*Sankaramanchi Satyam - "Amaravati Kathalu" (The stories from Amaravati)
*Sri Krishna Deva Raya - "Aamukta Maalyadha"
*Sri Siddappa Varakavi
*Sripaada Subrahmanyasastri - "Anubhavaalu J~naapakaalu"
*Sri Sri - "Mahaaprasthaanamu"
*Sri K Sabha - "Vishwarupa Sandarsanam, Vedabhoomi, Mogili, Pathalaganga"
*Srinatha - "Haravilaasamu, Kaasikhandamu, Palnaati veeracharithra, Sŕngaara naishadhamu" srimattirumala gudimalla varadaacharyulu - sumati satakam ,dasaradhisatakam in sanskrit
*Suravaram Pratapareddy - "Aandhrula Saanghika Charithra"
*Tallapaka Annamacharya (1424?-1503) - "Annamacharya keertanalu"
*Tallapaka Timmakka - "Subhadrakalyanam"
*Tarigonda Venkamamba - "Venkatachala Mahatmyamu, Vasista Ramamyanamu, Rajayogasaramu, Bhagavatamu, Krishnamanjari"
*Tenali Ramakrishna - "Paanduranga maahaatmyamu"
*Tenneti Hemalata = "Raktapankam", 'Mohanavamsi", "Omar Khayyam"
*Thummala Seetaraamamoorthy - "Baapu aathmakadha, Rashtra gaanamu"
*Tikkana - "Nirvachanoththara Raamayanamu" -
*Timmana - "Paarijaathaapaharanamu"
*Tirumala Ramachandra - "Hampi nunchi Harrapa dhaka"
*Tirupati Venkata Kavulu - "Paandavodyoga vijayamulu, Devi bhaagavatham"
*Tirumalamba - "Varadambica parinayamu"
*Tripuranaeni Gopichand - "Merupula Marakalu"
*Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Choudhury - "Suthapuranamu","Karempudi kadanam","Kurukshetra sangramam","Kuppuswamy satakam", "Sambhukavadha", "Suthashrama geethalu', "Dhoorta manava", "Khooni", "Bhagavadgita", "Rana Pratap", "Kondaveeti pathanam"
*Turaga Krishna Mohan Rao - "Pendli Pareeksha, Maata Kacheri
*Turaga Janaki Rani - "Erragulabeelu, Janki Rani Kathalu, Maa Taatayya Chalam, Navvani Puvvu, Ee Desam Oka Himalayam, Veyabovani Talupu, Snagharshana, Cheta Kaani Nati, Nee Jeevitam Naaku Kaavali"
*Ushasri - "Sundarakanda"
*Unnava Lakshminaarayana - "Maala pilla"
*Vattikota Alwaru Swami - "Prajala Manishi", "Gangu"
*Viswanatha Satyanarayana - "Cheliyalikatta, Kalpavrukshamu, Kinnerasaani Paatalu, Srimadraamaayana kalpavŕkshamu, Swargaaniki Nichchenalu, Vaeyipadagalu, Aekaveera, naa ramudu, nepala rajavamsa kadhalu"
*Vemana - "Vemana Satakam"
*Yandamuri Veerendranath - "Vennello aadapilla, Marana Mrudangam, Aanando Brahma, Tulasi dalam, Ashta Vakra, Prarthana ,swara bethalam, prema,rendu gundela chappudu, graphlogy, popular rachanalu cheyadam ela?,mimmalni mee pillalu preminchalante? "
*Yerrapragada - "Harivansamu, Nrusimhapuranam, half of the aranya parva of MahaBharat"
*Yetukuri Venkata Narasayya - "Maguva Maanchaala"

References

*

External links

* [http://www.VedaBooks.com VedaBooks.com: Telugu literature books and Novels]
* [http://www.akshamala.org Akshamala: A Vedantic Thesaurus in Telugu]
* [http://www.maganti.org/page4.html Telugu Literature For Kids]
* [http://telugutanam.blogspot.com TELUGU...a language sweeter than honey]
* [http://www.telugutanam.com/italianofeast TELUGU - Italian of the East]
* [http://www.telugubhakti.com Complete TELUGU - Bhakti Literature]
* [http://www.bharatadesam.com/literature/telugu_novels/telugu_novels.php Online Telugu Novels by Various Telugu Writers]
* [http://www.thulika.net Telugu stories in English and critical essays on modern fiction]


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